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Reprinted with the permission of the Massachusetts Historical Society 

1 1 1 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. 10003 Berkeley Square House, London, W. 1 

Reprinted from a copy in the collections of 

The New York Public Library 

Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations 

First reprinting, 1968, Johnson Reprint Corporation 
Printed in the United States of America 




I. Continuation of Johnson's Wonder-Working Providence 

II. Notice of first Settlements in Tennessee 

III. Letter of Dr. Franklin on Inoculation in Boston 

IV. Rhode Island State Papers of early Affairs 

V. Number of Inhabitants in do. 

VI. Pratt's Apology, 1635 

VII. Anniyersary of landing of Forefathers 

VIII. Boston Bill of Mortality - 

IX. Boston Votes, 1635 - 

X. Letter of William Penn to Gov. Hinckley 

XI. Letter of William Penn on Name of his Colony 

XII. Letter of Anthony Wood to Increase Mather 

XIII. Prince's Annals of New-England 


XIV. Note on Ezekiel Cheever - 

XV. Biographical Notice of Rev. Peter Whitney 

Topography and Local History. 

XVI. Note on the County of Hillsborough, N. H. 

XVII. History and Description of Abington 

XVIII. Sketch of Walpole, N. H. - 

XIX. Description of Bridgewater 

















Relating to the Society. 

XX. Account of the New England Library 

XXI. Donations to the Society 



Chronological Table of Articles. 

163C— 1633 













vi. ix. 






























Being a Relation of the first planting in New England, in the Yeare^ 


^Continued from p. 51 of the fourth volume, second series.] 

chap. vii. Oftlie first Synod hoi den in New England, whereby the 
Lord in his mercy did more plainly discover his ancient truths, and 
confute those cursed errors that ordinarily dogg the reforming 
Churches of Christ. 

The Lord Christ deeming it most expedient for his 
people to adde some farther help to assist them in cutting 
dovvne those cursed errors (that were the next danger- 
ous difficulty they were to meet with) sends in the Rever- 
end and bright shining light Mr. Davenport, and the 
cheerfull, grave, and gracious Soldier of his, Mr. Allen, 
as also Mr. Thompson, Mr. Browne, Mr. Fish, with di- 
vers other of the faithful! servants of Christ, the much 
honoured Mr. Eaton and Mr. Hopkins : and now the 
time being come, the Synod sate at Cambridge, where 
was present about 25. Reverend and godly Ministers of 
Christ, besides many other graciously -eminent servants 
of his. A Catalogue of the severall Errors scattered 
about the Co un trey was there produced, to the number 
of 80. and liberty given to any man to dispute pro or con, 
and none to be charged to be of that opinion he disputed 
for, unlesse he should declare himseif so to be. The 
Weapons these Souldiers of Christ warred with, was the 

2 VOL. VII. 


Sword of the Spirit, even the Word of God, together 
with earnest prayer to the God of all Truth, that he 
would open his truths unto them. The clearing of the 
true sense and meaning of any place of Scripture, it was 
done by Scripture, for they so discerned by the grace 
of God that was given them, that the whole Scripture 
must be attended unto. Foure sorts of persons I could 
with a good will have paid their passage out, and home 
againe to England, that they might have been present at 
this Synod, so that they would have reported the truth of 
all the passages thereof to their own Coiledges at their re- 
turn. The first is the Prelates, who both in Theorie and 
Practice might have made their owne Eyes Judges in the 
case, Whether would prevaile most, (to the suppressing 
of Error, and advancing of Unity in the true worship of 
God) either their commanding power backt with the 
subordinate sword of Princes, or the Word of God cleer- 
ed up by the faithfull labour and indefatigable pains of the 
sincere servants of the Lord Christ, and mightily declared 
through the demonstration of his blessed Spirit. This 
well waighed, may (through the Lords blessing) stop the 
yet running fancie in the brains of many, that their Lord- 
ly power is the onely means of suppressing Error. 

Secondly, the Godly and Reverend Presbyterian Party, 
who, had they made their eye-witnessess of this worke, 
they had assuredly saved themselves much labour, which 
I dare presume they would have spent worthily other- 
wayes, then in writing so many books to prove the Con- 
gregationall or Indepen.dcint Churches to be the sluce, 
through which so many flouds of Error flow in : nay, my 
deare and reverend brethren, might not so much work of 
yours in writing, and ours in answering, have been a 
meanes to have stopt the height of this overflowing flond ? 
and through the Lords assisting have setled Peace and 
Truth in a great measure throughout the three Nations. 

Thirdly, those who with their new stratagems have 
brought in so much old error ; tcr although they had a 
party here, yet verily they durst" not bring their New 
Light to the Old Word, for fear it would prove but Old 
Darknesse, (as indeed they doe.) But here might they 


have scene the Ministers of Christ (who were so experi- 
enced in the Scripture, that some of" them could tell you 
the place, both Chapter and Verse, of most sentences of 
Scripture could be named unto them) with Scriptures 
light, cleermg up the truths of Christ clouded by any of 
these Errors and Heresies, as had not been done for many 
Ages before : and verily this great work of Christ must 
not be lightly over-past, the Author of this History *pas- 
seth not for the shrewd censures of men : nor, can it be 
any matter of disparagement to the reverend and highly 
honoured in Christ, remaining in England, that their fel- 
low brethren have done so worthily here ? it is well 
knowne to all our English Nation, that the most able- 
preaching Ministers of Christ were most pursued by the 
lording Clergy, and those that have spent all their dayes, 
even from a child, in searching the Scriptures, the Lord 
Christ preparing them by his blessed spirit for this very 
work. Besides, their continued practice in studying and 
preaching the wayes of truth ; and lastly, their meeting 
with the opposition of so many crafty, close couched er- 
rors, whose first foundation was laid cheke by joule with 
the most glorious, heavenly and blessed truths, to dazle 
the eyes of the beholders, and strike terrour into the 
hearts of those should lift up their hands against them, for 
feare they should misse them, aid hit their stroke upon 
the blessed truth ; and also to bring up a slanderous and 
evil report on all the able Orthodox Ministers of Christ 
that withstand them, perswading men they withstand the 
holy, heavenly, and blessed truth, which they have lodged 
there, which this Synod did with strong and undenyable 
arguments fetch from Scripture, to overthrow and pluck 
up by the roots, all those Errors, which you have heard 
mentioned in the former Book, the which they divided for 
the more full answering of them. Among all those val- 
iant Champions of the Truth whom you have heard 
named, to some six, some five, some foure, &c. it had 
assuredly been worth the work to have related the partic- 
ular manner of putting to the sword every one of them : 
but besides the length of the discourse, there must have 
been a more able Penman : but however they were so 

pausclh ? 


put to death, that they never have stood up in a living 
manner among us since, but sometimes like Wizards to 
peepe and mutter out of ground, fit for such people to 
resort unto, as will goe from the living to the dead. But 
blessed be the Lord Christ, who girded his people with 
strength against this day of battaile, and caused the Heav- 
ens to cleere up againe in New-England, after these fog- 
gy dayes. 

The fourth and last sort of persons, whose presence I 
could most of all the other three former have desired, was, 
those whose disease lay as chiefly in despising all Physi- 
tians, and that upon this ground for one, because some for 
filthy lucre sake have nourisht Diseases rather then cur- 
ed them. Many pamphlets have come from our Countrey- 
men of late, to this purpose, namely, scurriliously to de- 
ride ali kind of Scholarship, Presbvtery, and Svnods. 
Experience hath taught Gods people here, that such are 
troubled with some sinfuii opinion of their owne, that they 
would not have touched ; but had they been at this Syn- 
od, they must, per force, have learned better language, or 
their speech and their knowledge would fall foule one of 
the other; here might they have beheld the humility of 
the most learned of these servants of Christ, condemning 
the high conceitednesse of their ignorance, and then also 
the framing of arguments in a Schollar-li^e way, did (the 
Lord assisting) cleare up the truths of Christ more to 
the meanest capacity in one hour, then coulel be clouded 
again in seaven yeare by the new notion of any such as 
boast so much of their unlettered knowledge, diversity of 
languages, although a correcting hand of God upon the 
whole world, when they joyned together in that proud 
Edifice : yet now is it blest of God, to retaine the purity 
of the Scriptures ; if any man should goe about to cor- 
rupt them in one language, they should remain pure 
in another ; and assuredly, the Lord intending to have 
the wayes of the Gospel of Christ to be made more man- 
ifest at this time, then formerly, not by tradition of our 
forefathers, or by mans reason, but bv the revealed will 
of God in the holy Scripture, did accordingly prepare In- 
struments for this work, earthen vessels, men subject to 


like infirmities with ourselves ; sorry men, and carrying 
about with them a body of sinne and death, men subject 
to erre ; yet these did the Lord Christ cause to be train'd 
up in Learning, and tutor'd at the Universities, and that 
very young, some of diem, as the reverend Mr. John *Cot- 
ten at 13. yeares of age. The mighty power of God 
sancniyed and ordained them for this work, and made them 
a dc fenced ci y, an iron pillar, a wall of brass against all 
the opposers of his truth ; and now coupled them togeth- 
er in this Synod, to draw in Christs yoke, and warre with 
the weapons he had furnished them withall, and cause the 
blessed truths of Christ to shine forth in their splendour 
and giory, farre more after the dispersing of this smoak, 
which of a long time hath filled the Temple and hindered 
the entring in of those great number of Converts, which 
shall flow in at the fall of all antichristian Errors ; and verily 
as the Lord Christ had called forth this little handful! to be a 
model of his glorious work, intended throughout the whole 
world, so chiefly in this suppressing of Errours, Sects 
and Heresies, by the blessed word of his truth, causing 
his servants in this Synod, mutually to agree ; and by his 
gracious providence, break in pieces a contrived plot of 
some, who, by mis reports, insinuating jealousies, and 
crafty carriage of matters to the wrong mark, with a writ- 
ing of thrice twenty strong, would have drawne away one 
of the valiant Souldiers of Christ from this worthy worke, 
who both then, and since, hath been very helpfull to cast 
downe many a strong fort erected by the Sectaries ; but 
the Lord Christ would not suffer this blow to be given, 
intending all people (by way of restitution) for their slan- 
derous reports, cast upon his New England Churches (as 
being the inlet to Errours) shall honour them with this 
victorious conquest, given them by Christ herein ; yet 
willing they would, their brethren in England might win 
the prize by out-stripping them, more abundantly in 
length, bredth and height, which the same God is abie to 
performe, that hath been thus abundantly good to us. 

About this time the Churches of Christ began to be 
diligent in their duty, and the civil government in look- 
ing after such as were like to disturb the peace of this 

* Cotton 


new erected government ; some persons being so hot 
headed for maintaining of these sinfull opinions, that they 
feared breach of peace, even among the Members of the 
supcriour Court, but the Lord blessing them with agree- 
ment to prevent the wofuil effects of civill broyles ; those 
in place of government caused certain persons to be dis- 
armed in the severall Townes, as in the Towne of Bos- 
ton, to the number of 58. in the Towne of Salem 6. in 
the Town of Newbery 3. in the Town of Roxbury 5. in 
the Towne of Ipsvvitch 2. and Charles Towne 2 others 
there were, that through the help of the faithfuil servants 
of Christ, came to see how they had been misled, and 
by the power of Christ in his Word, returned again with 
an acknowledgement of their sinne ; but others there were, 
who remained obstinate, to the disturbing of the civill 
power, and were banished, of whom you shall heare far- 
ther hereafter. Some of the Churches of Christ being 
more indulgent, waited long ere they iell upon the work : 
and here you must tak notice, that the Synod, Civil 
Government, and the Churches of Christ, kept their prop- 
er place, each moving in their own sphear, and acting by 
their own light, or rather by the revelation of Jesus Christ, 
witnessed by his Word and Spirit, yet not refusing the help 
of each other (as some would willingly have it) some of 
the Churches prosecuting the Rule of Christ against their 
hereticall Members, were forced to proceed to excom- 
munication of thern, who when they saw whereto it would 
come, they would have prevented it with lying, but the 
Lord discovered it ; and so they were justly separated 
from the Churches of Christ for lying : which being done, 
they fell to their old trade again. 

chap. vni. — Of the planting the fourth Colonie of New-Englands 
godJy Government called New- Haven. 

The Lord Christ having now in his great mercy taken 
out of the way these mountains that seemed in the eye of 
Man to block up his Churches further proceedings, they 
had now leisure to welcome the living stones that the 
Lord was pleased to adde unto this building, and with 
thankfull acknowledgment to give him of his owne for 


his roercyes multitude, whose was the work in planting, 
not oneiy more Churches, but another Colony also; for 
the honoured Mr. Eaton bung accompanied with many 
worthy persons of note, whom the Lord had furnished 
with store of substance for this wildernesse-work, al- 
though they would willingly have made their abode un- 
der the government of the Mattachusets ; yet could they 
find no place upon the Sea-coasts for their settling : the 
Lord intending to enlarge his peoples border, caused 
them, after much search, to take up a place somewhat 
more southwardly, neare the shalles of Cape cod, where 
they had very flatt water ; yet being entred in, they 
found a commodious harbour for shipping, and a fit 
place to erect a Towne, which they built in very little 
time, with very faire houses, and compleat streets ; but in 
a little time they overstockt it with *Chatttll, although ma- 
ny of them did follow merchandizing, and Maritime affairs, 
but their remotenesse from the Mattachusets Bay, where 
the chiefe traffique lay, hindred them much. Here did 
these godly and sincere servants of Christ, according to 
the rule of the Word, gather into Church Estate, and 
called to the office of a Pastor the reverend, judicious, and 
godly Mr, John Davenport, of whom the author is bold 
to say as followeth : 

When Men and Devils' gainst Christs flock conspire, 

For them prf par'd a deadly trapping net ; 
Then Christ to make all men his work admire, 

Davenport, he doth thee from thy Country fet 
To sit in S) nod and his folk assist : 

The filthy vomit of Hels Dragon deepe 
In earths womb drawn, blest the} this poyson mist, 

And blest the meanes doth us from error keep. 
Thy grave advice and arguments of strength 

Did much prevaile, the Erronist confound 
Well hast thou warr'd, Christ drav es thy dayes in length. 

That thou in learn'd experience maist abound : 
What though thou leave a city stor d with pleasure,, 

Spend thy prime dayes in heathen desart land, 
Thy joy's in Christ and not in earthly treasure, 

Davenport rejoice, Christs Kiugdome is at hand ; 
Didst ever deem to see such glorious dayes ? 

Though thou decrease with age and earths content, 

* cattle ? 



Thou live'st in Christ, needs then must thy joy raise ; 
His Kingdome's thine, and that can ne'r be spent. 

This Church and Town soon procur'd some Sisters to 
take part with her, and among them they erected a godly 
and peaceable Government, and called their frontier towne 
New- haven, of which the Government is denominated, 
being inhabited by many men eminent in gifts fur the 
populating thereof, and managing of affaires both by Sea 
and Land ; they have had some shipping built there, but 
by the sad losse of Mr. Lambertons ship and goods also, 
they were much disheartned, but the much honoured 
Mr. Eaton remaines with them to this verv day. 

Thou noble thus, Theophilus, before great Kings to stand, 

More noble far, for Christ his war thou leavst thy native laud ; 
With thy rich store thou canrst on shore ( hrists churches to assist; 

What if it wast ? thou purchast hast that Pearl that most have mist, 
Nay rather he hath purchast thee, and whatsoever thou hast, 

With graces store to govern o're his people, he thee plac't. 
Our State affaires thy will repaires, assistant thou hast bin 

Firm league to make, for Gospels sake, four Colonyes within; 
With Sweads, French, Dutch, and Indians much, Gods peoples peace 
this bred, 

Then Eaton aye, remember may the Child that's yet unfed. 

This government of New-haven, although the younger 
Sister of the foure yet was she as beautifull as any of this 
broode of travellers, & most minding the end of her com- 
ing hither, to keep close to the rule of Christ both in Doc- 
trine and Discipline ; and it were to be wished her eider 
Sister would follow her example, to nurture up all her 
children accordingly : here is not to be forgotten the hon- 
oured Mr. Hopkins, who came over about this time a man 
of zeale and courage for the truths of Christ, assisting this 
blessed work, both in person and estate ; for the which 
the Author cannot forget him, being oft in commission for 
the good of all the united Colonyes. 

Hopkins thou must, although weak dust, for this great work prepare, 
Through Ocean large Christ gives thee charge to govern his with 

What earthern man, in thy short span throughout the world to run 
From East to West at Christs behest, thy worthy work is done: 

Unworthy thou acknowledge now, not unto ihee at all, 
But to his name be lasting fame, thou to his work doth call. 


chap. ix. — Of the planting the fourteenth Church of Christ under the 
government of the Mattachusets Bay, called Dedham. 

The latter end of this yeare 'twas the Towne of Ded- 
ham began, an inland Towne, scituate, about ten miles 
from Boston, in the County of Suffolk, well watred with 
many pleasant streames, abounding with Garden fruits fitly 
to supply the Markets of the most populous Towne, whose 
coyne and commodities allures the Inhabitants of this 
Towne to make many a long walk ; they consist of about 
a hundred Families, being generally given to husbandry, 
and, through the blessing of God, are much encreased, 
ready to swarme and settle on the building of another 
Towne more to the Inland ; they gather into a Church at 
their first settling, for indeed, as this was their chiefe er- 
rand, so was it the first thing they ordinarily minded ; to 
pitch their Tabernacles neare the Lords Tent : To this 
end they called to the office of a Pastor, the reverend, hum- 
ble, and heavenly-minded, Mr. John Allen, a man of a very 
courteous behaviour, full of sweet Christian love towards 
all, and with much meeknesse of spirit, contending ear- 
nestly for the faith and peace of Christs Churches. 

All you so slite Christs sanctifying grace, 

As legall workes, what Gospel worke can be 
But sinne cast out, and spirits work in place, 

They justifyed that Christ thus reigning see : 
Allen, thou art by Christs free spirit led Mr. Allen a 

To warre for him in wildernesse awhile ; fSast the 

What, doe for Christ, *I man thou art in's stead, Errors of 

Sent to beseech, ins Vineyard thou must toyle. the time. 

John Allen joy, thou sinful! dust art taken 

To spend thy days in exile, so remote, 
Christs Church to build, of him that's ne'er forsaken, 

Nor thou, for now his truths thou must promote. 
He guides thy tongue, thy paper, pen and hands, 

Thy heart's swift motion, and affections choice ; 
JNeeds thou thus flead, must doe what he commands. 

And cry aloud when he lifts up thy voice : 
Seven yeares compleat twice told, thy work hath bin, 

To feed Christs flock, in desart land them keep, 
Both thou and they each day are kept by him ; 

Safe maist thou watch, being watcht by him ne'er bleeps. 

* aye ? f led ? 

3 VOL. VII. 


This Church of Christ hath in its bosome neere about 
70. souls joyned in Covenant together, and being well 
seasoned with this savoury salt, have continued in much 
love and unity from their first foundation, hitherto trans- 
lating the close, clouded woods into goodly corn-fields, 
and adding much comfort to the lonesome travellers, in 
their solitary journey to *Canectico, by eying the habita- 
tion of Gods people in their way, ready to administer re- 
freshing to the weary. 

chap. x, — Of the planting of the fifteenth Church^of Christ at the 
Towne of fWaymoth. 

The Towne and Church of Christ at -fWaymoth had 
come in among the other Townes before this, as being 
an elder Sister, but onely for her somewhat more than or- 
dinary instability ; it is battered with the brinish billows 
on the East ; Rocks and Swamps to the Southwest, makes 
it delightfull to the nimble tripping Deere, as the plowa- 
ble places of Medow land is to the Inhabitants. This 
Towne was first founded by some persons that were not 
so forward to promote the Ordinances of Christ, as many 
others have been : they desired the reverend Minister of 
Christ Mr. JGennors, to be helpfull in preaching the Word 
unto them ; who after some little space of time, not liking 
the place, repaired to the Eastern English : but the peo- 
ple of this place, after his departure, being gathered into 
a Church, they called to office the reverend and godly Mr. 
Newman ; but many of them unwilling to continue in this 
Towne, as supposing they had found a fitter place for 
habitation, removed into the next Government, carrying 
with them their Pastor ; by which means, the people that 
were left behinde, were now destitute, and having some 
godly Christians among them, who much desired the sin- 
cere milk of the Word, that they might grow thereby : 
upon diligent use of meanes they found out a young man 
able gifted for the work, brought up with the reverend and 
judicious Mr. §Chancie, called Mr. Thomas Thatcher. 

* Connecticut. t Weymouth. 

\ Probably the same person, whose letter from Saco, 26 April, 1641, to Govern- 
our Winthrop, signed Th. Jenner, is given in Hutchinson's Collection of Papers, 
p. 111. Ed, 

§ Chauncey. 


Yet againe, after some few yeares, for want of sufficient 
maintenance, with mutuall consent they parted with him, 
and are forced to borrow help of their Neighbours, where- 
in all of them *to the Author is bold to say as folio wcth : 

Oh people, reason swayes mans actions here, 

You sanctiiyed o're these long seas doth look, 
With heavenly things your earihly toyle to cheere ; 

Will lose the end for which this toyle you tooke. 
Christ conies in's Word, let their bright feet abide 

Your Towne, among whose grace and gifts excel! 
In preaching Christ, it's he your hearts hath try'd, 

They want no store that all for him doe sell. 
Gennors, dost love thy Christ ? I hope he's deare 

Belov'd of thee, he honour'd would thee have 
To feed his flock, while thou remainest here ; 

With's Word of truth thy soule and others save* 
With little flock doth Newman pack away ; 

The righteous lips sure might a many feed ; 
Remov'st for gaine ? its most where most men stay, 

Men part for land, why laud least helps at need. 
Thatcher, what mean'st to leave thy little flock ? 

Sure their increase might thee much profit bring : 
What, leave Christs Church ? It's founded on a rock ; 

If rock not left, their ebb may suddain sprang ; 
Pastor and People, have you both forgot 

What parting Paul and Christs deare people had ? 
Their loves melt teares, it's ve'mently so hot, 

His heart-strings break to see his folk so sad. 

This yeare came over, besides the former, for the fur- 
thering of this blessed work of Christ, Mr. William 
Tompson, Mr. Edm: Browne, and Mr. David Frisk, 
who were called to office in severall Churches, as you 
shall after hear. And now to end this yeare, that abound- 
ed in the wonder-working Providence of Christ, for his 
Churches, in the exaltation of his truths, that all may take 
notice the Lord cast in by the by, as it were, a very fruit- 
full crop, insomuch that from this day forward, their in- 
crease was every year more and more, till the Country 
came to feed its owne Inhabitants ; and the people who 
formerly were somewhat pincht with hunger, eat bread to 
the full, having not onely for their necessity but also for 
their conveniency and delight. 

* Perhaps this preposition should stand before atl, Ed. 



chap. xi. — Of the increase of the people of Christ. Printing brought 
over, and the sixteenth Church of Christ planted at # Kouly 

For the ycare 1638. John Winthrope Esq, was chosen 
Governour, and Tho : Dudly Esq. Depmy Governour ; 
the number of Freemen added were about 130. The 
peace of this little Common-wealth being now in great 
measure settled, by the Lords mercy, in overthrowing 
the Indians, and banishing of certaine turbulent spirits, 
The Churches of Christ were much edified in their holy 
faith by their indefatigable pains of their Ministers, in 
their weekly Lectures extraordinary, as well as by their 
Sabboth Assemblies, and continualf visiting of their peo- 
ple from house to house, endeavouring to heale the hurts 
these false deceivers had made, with double diligence show- 
ring downe the sweet dews of the blessed Gospel of Jesus 
Christ, to the converting of many a poor soul, and in- 
deed, now were the glorious days of New England ; the 
Churches of Christ increase dayly, and his eminent Em- 
bassadours resort unto them from our native Country, 
which as then lay under the tyranny of the Moi-archall 
Archprelates, which caused the servants of Christ to wan- 
der from their home. This yeare the :everend and judi- 
cious Mr. Jos. Glover undertook this long voyage, being- 
able both in person and estate for the work he provided, 
for further compleating the Colonies in Church and Com- 
mon-wealth-work, a Printer, which hath been very use- 
full in many respects ; the Lord seeing it meet that this 
reverend and holy servant of his should fall short of the 
shores of New England : but vet at this time he brought 
over the zealous affected and judicious servant of his, 
Master Ezekiel Rogers, who with a holy and humble 
people, made his progress to the North- Eastward, and 
erected a Towne about 6. miles from Ipswich, called 
*Rowly, where wanting room, they purchased some addi- 
tion of the Town of Newbery ; yet had they a large length 
of land, onely for the neere conveniency to the Towne of 
Ipswich, by the which meanes they partake of the contin- 
ued Lectures of either Towne : these people being very 
industrious every way, soone built many houses, to the 

' Ro-wlcv. 


number of about threescore families, and were the first 
people that set upon making of Cloth in this Western 
World; for which end they built a fulling mill, and 
caused their little ones to be very diligent in spinning 
cotten wooll, many of them having been clothiers in Eng- 
land, till their zeale to promote the Gospel of Christ 
caused them to wander ; and therefore they were no lesse 
industrious, in gathering into Church-society, there being 
scarce a man among them, but such as were meet to be 
living stones in this building, according to the judgement 
of man ; they called to the office of a Pastor this holy man 
of God, Mr. Ezekiel Rogers, of whom this may be said : 

Christ for this work Rogers doth riches give, 

Rich graces fit his people for to feed, 
Wealth to supply his wants whilst here he live, 

Free thou receiv'st to serve his peoples need. 
England may mourne they thee no longer keep, 

English rejoice, Christ doth such worthy es raise, 
His Gospel preach, unfold his mysteries deep ; 

Weak dust made strong sets forth his makers praise : 
With fervent zeale and courage thou hast fought 

'Gainst that transformed Dragon and his bands, 
Snatcht forth the burning thoupoore soules hast caught, 

And freed thy flock from wolves devouring hands. 
Ezekiel mourn not, thou art severed farre, 

From thy deare Country to a desart land ; 
Christ call'd hath thee unto this worthy warre ; 

By him o'recome, he holds thy Crowne in's hand. 

For the further assisting of this tender flock of Christ, 
the reverend Mr. John Miller did abide among them for 
some space of time, preaching the Word of God unto 
them also, till it pleased the Lord to call him to be Pastor 
of the Church of Christ at Yarmouth, in Plimoth *patten, 
where he remaineth at this very day. 

With courage bold Miller through Seas doth venter, 

To toyl it out in this great Western wast, 
Thy stature low one object high doth center ; 

Higher then Heaven thy faith on Christ is plac't : 
Allarum thou with silver trumpet sound, 

And tell the world Christs Armyes are at hand, 
With Scripture-truths thou Errors dost confound, 

And overthrow all Antichristian bands : 
* patent ? 


It matters not for th' worlds high reputation ; 

The World must fall and Christ alone must stand ; 
Thy Crown's prepar'd in him, then keep thy station^ 

Joy that Christs Kiugdome is so neare at hand. 

chap. xii. — Of the great Earthquake in New England, and of the wo~ 
full end of some erronious persons, with the first foundation of Har- 
verd Colledge. 

This yeare, the first day of the Fourth Month, about 
two of the clock in the after-noone, the Lord caus'd a 
great and terrible Earth- quake, which was generall through- 
out all the English Plantations ; the motion of the Earth 
was such, that it caused divers men (that had never knowne 
an Earth- quake before) being at worke in the Fields, to 
cast downe their working-tooles, and run with gastly ter- 
rified lookes, to the next company they could meet with- 
all ; it came from the Westerne and uninhabited parts of 
this Wildernesse, and went the direct course this brood of 
Travellers came, the Ministers of Christ many of them 
could say at that very time (not from any other Revela- 
tion, but what the word holds forth) that if the Churches 
of New England were Gods house, then suddenly there 
would follow great alterations in the Kingdomes of Eu- 

This yeare the civill government proceeded to censure 
the residue of those sinfull erroneous persons, who raised 
much commotion in this little Common-wealth ; who 
being banished, resorted to a place more Southward, 
some of them sitting down at a place called Providence* 
others betooke them to an Island about 16. miles distant 
from the former, called Rode Island, where having Ei- 
bow-roome enough, none of the Ministers of Christ, nor 
any other to interrupt their false and deceivable Doc- 
trines, they hampered themselves fouly with their owne 
line, and soone shewed the depthlesse ditches that blinde 
guides lead into ; many among them being much to be 
pittyed, who were drawne from the truth by the bewitch- 
ing tongues of some of them, being very ignorant and 
easily perverted : and although the people were not many 
in all, yet were they very diverse in their opinions, and 


glad where they could gaine most Disciples to heare 
them ; some were for every day to be a Sabbath, and 
therefore kept not any Sabbath-day at all; others were 
some for one thing, some for another ; and therefore had 
their severall meetings, making many a goodly piece of 
Preachment ; among whom there were some of the fe- 
male sexe (who deeming the Apostle Paul to be too 
strict in not permitting a roome to preach in the publique 
Congregation) taught, notwithstanding they having their 
call to this office, from an ardent desire of being famous, 
especially the grand Mistresse of them all, who ordinarily 
prated every Sabbath day, till others, who thirsted after 
honour in the same way with her selfe, drew away her 
Auditors, and then she withdrew her self, her husband, 
and her family also, to a more remote place ; and assur- 
edly, although the Lord be secret in all the dispensation 
of his providences, whether in judgement or mercy, yet 
much may be learn'd from all, as sometimes pointing 
with the finger to the lesson ; as here these persons with- 
drawing from the Churches of Christ (wherein he walk- 
eth, and is to be found in his blessed Ordinances) to a 
first and second place, where they came to a very sad 
end ; for thus it came to passe in the latter place, The 
Indians in those parts forwarned them of making their 
abode there ; yet this could be no warning to them, but 
still they continued, being amongst a multitude of Indians, 
boasted they were become all one Indian : and indeed, 
this woman, who had the chiefe rule of all the roast, be- 
ing very bold in her strange Revelations and mis-applica- 
tions, tells them, though all nations and people were cut 
off round about them, yet should not they ; till on a day cer- 
taine Indians coming to her house, discoursing with them, 
they wished to tye up her doggs, for they much bit the 
man, not mistrusting the Indians guile, did so ; the which 
no sooner done, but they cruelly murthered her, taking 
one of their daughters away with them, and another of 
them seeking to escape is caught, as she was getting over 
a hedge, and they drew her back againe by the haire of 
the head to the stump of a tree, and there cut off her head 
with a hatchet ; the other that dwelt bv them betook 


them to boat, and fled, to tell this sad newes ; the rest of 
their companions, who were rather hardened in their sin- 
full way, and blasphemous opinions, than brought to any 
sight of their damnable Errours, as you shall after hear ; 
yet was not this the first loud-speaking hand of God against 
them ; but before this the Lord had poynted directly to their 
sinne by a very fearfull Monster, that another of these wo- 
men brought forth, they striving to bury it in oblivion, but 
the Lord brought it to light, setting forth the view of their 
monstrous Errors in this prodigious birth. This yeare, 
although the estates of these pilgrim people were much 
wasted, yet seeing the benefit that would accrew to the 
Churches of Christ and Civil Government, by the Lords 
blessing, upon learning, they began to erect aColledge, the 
Lord by his provident hand giving his approbation to the 
work, in sending over a faithfull and godly servant of his, 
the reverend Mr. John *Harverd, who joyning with the peo- 
ple of Christ at Charles Towne, suddainly after departed 
this life, and gave near a thousand pound toward this work % 
wherefore the Government thought it meet to call it Har- 
verd Colledge in remembrance of him. 

If Harverd had with riches here been taken, 

He need not then through troublous Seas have past, 
But Christs bright glor) hatli thine eyes so waken, 

Nought can content, thy soule of him must tast : 
Oh tast and tell how sweet his Saint3 among, 

Christ ravisht hath thy heart with heavenly joyes. 
To preach and pray with teares, affection strong, 

From hearts delight in him who thee imployes. 
Scarce hast thou had Christs Churches here in eye, 

But thou art call'd to eye him face to face ; 
Earths scant contents death drawes thee from, for why ? 

Full jo} thou wouldst that's onely in heavens place. 

chap, xni- — Of the coming over of the honoured Mr. Pelham, and 
the planting of the seaventeenth Church of Christ at the Towne of 

This yeare 1639. John Winthrope Esq. was chosen 
Governour, and Thomas Dudly Esq. Deputy Govern- 
our, the number of freemen added were about 83. This 
yeare came over the much honoured Mr. Herbert Pel- 

* Harvard. 


ham, a man of a courteous behaviour, humble, and heav- 
enly minded. 

Harbertus, hve ou valiant, whylingerst thou so long? 

Cfnists work hath need of hasty speed his enemies are strong: 
In vvildernesse Christ doth thceblcsse with vertues, wife, and seed, 

To govern thou, at length didst bow to serve Christs peoples need; 
To thine own soyle t'ton back dost toyle, then cease not laboring there, 

But still advance Christ Ordinance, and shrink no where lor fear. 

Much about this time began the Town of Hampton, 
in the County of Northfolk, to have her foundation stone 
laid, scituate neare the Sea-coast, not farre from the fa- 
mous River of Merimeck, the great store of salt marsh 
did intiee this people to set downe their habitations there, 
for as yet Cowes and Cattell of that kinde were not come 
to the great downfall in their price, of which they have 
about 450. head ; and for the form of this Towne, it is 
like a Flower-de-luce, two streets of houses wheeling off 
from the maine body thereof, the land is fertile, but filled 
with swamps, and some store of rocks, the people are 
about 60. Families ; being gathered together into Church 
covenant, they called to office the reverend, grave, and 
gracious Mr. *Doulton, having also for some little space 
of time the more ancient Mr. Batchelor (of whom you 
have heard in the former Book) to preach unto them also; 
here take a short remembrance of the other. 

# Doulton doth teach perspicuously and sound, 

With wholsome truths of Christ thy flock dost feed, 
Thy honour with thy labour doth abound. 

Age crownes thy head in righteousness, proceed 
To batter downe, root up, and quite destroy 

AM Heresies, and Errors, that draw back 
Unto perdition, aud Christs folk annoy : 

To warre for him thou weapons dost not lack : 
Long dayes to see, that long'd-for day to come, 

Of Babels fall, and Israels quiet peace : 
Thou yet maist live of dayes so great a sum 

To see this work let not thy warfare cease. 

€HAP. xiv. — Of the planting the eighteenth Church of Christ at the 
Towne offSalsbury. 

For further perfecting this Wildernesse-work ; not far 
from the Towne of Hampton was erected another Towne, 

* Dulton. f Salisbury. 

4 VOL, vii. 


called Salsbury, being brought forth as Twins, sometime 
contending for eldership : This being seated upon the 
broade swift torrent of Merrimeck, a very goodly River 
to behold, were it not blockt up with some suddaine falls 
through the rocks ; over against this Towne lyeth the 
Tovvne of Newberry, on the Southern side of the River 
a constant Ferry being kept between ; for although the 
River be about half a mile broad, yet, by reason of an Is- 
land that lies in the midst thereof, it is the better passed 
in troublesom weather : the people of this Towne have 
of late, placed their dwellings so much distanced the one 
from the other, that they are like to divide into two 
Churches; the scituation of this Towne is very pleasant, 
were the Rivers Navigable farre up, the branches thereof 
abound in faire and goodly medowes with good store of 
stately Timber upon the uplands in many places, this 
Towne is full as fruitfull in her Land, *Chattell and Inhab- 
itants, as her Sister Hampton ; the people joyned in 
Church-relation or brotherhood, nere about the time the 
other did, and have desired and obtained the reverend and 
graciously godly, M. Thomas Woster to be their Pastor. 

With mickle labour and distressed wants, 

Woster, thou hast in desart's depth remam'd 
Thy chiefest dayes, Christs Gospel there to plant, 

And water well, such toyle shall yield great gaine. 
Oh happy day ! may Woster say, that I 

Was singled out for this great work in hand ; 
Christ by distresse doth Gold for's Temple try : 

Thrice blest are they may in his Presence stand, 
But more, thou art by him reserved yet, 

To see on earth Christ's Kingdom's exaltation : 
More yet, thou art by him prepared fit 

To help it on, among our English N ation. 

chap. xv. — Of further supply for the Church of Christ at Waterton. 
And a sad accident fell out in Boston Towne. 

The Lord intending to strengthen his poore Churches 
here, and after the overthrow of these damnable Errors, 
to trample Satan under their feet ; he manifesteth his 
mindefulness of them, in sending over fresh supplyes a- 

* cattle ? 


gaine and againe : although weak and sory men in them- 
selves, yet strong in the Lord, and the power of his 
might, the last that this yeare is to be named, is the rever- 
end, judicious, and godly-affected Mr. John Knowles, 
who was desired of the Church of Christ at Waterton, to 
be a two-fold cord unto them, in the office of a teaching 
Elder, with the reverend Mr. Phillips, of whom you have 
heard in the former Book. 

With courage bold and arguments of strength, 

Knowles doth apply Gods word his tlock unto, 
Christ furnish i hath (to shew his bountyes length) 

Thee with rich gifts, that thou his work mayst do : 
New England is too scant, for thy desire 

Inkindled is, Christs truths abroad to spread, 
Virginia may his grace to them admire, 

That thee through Seas for their instruction led ; 
Thy labours Knowles are great, far greater hee, 

Not onely thee, but all his valiant made, 
Forth sinful dust, his Saints and Warners be ; 

He thee upheld, thy strength shall never iade. 
John come thou forth, behold what Christ hath wrought 

In these thy dayes, great Avorks are yet behinde, 
Then toyle it out till all to passe be brought, 

Christ crow lie will thee, thou then his glory minde. 

To end this yeare 1639. the Lord was pleased to send 
a very sharp winter, and more especially in strung storms 
of weekly snows, with very bitter blasts : And here the 
Reader may take notice of the sad hand of the Lord a- 
gainst two persons, who were taken in a storme of snow, 
as they were passing from Boston to Roxbury, it being 
much about a mile distant, and a very plaine way, One of 
Roxburv sending to Boston his servant maid for a Barber- 
Chirurgion, to draw his tooth, they lost their way in their 
passage between, and were not found till many dayes af- 
ter, and then the maid was found in one place, and the 
man in another, both of them frozen to death ; in which 
sad accident, this was taken into consideration by divers 
people, that this Barber was more then ordinary laborious 
to draw men to those sinfull Errors, that were formerly 
so frequent, and now newly overthrow ne by the blessing 


of the Lord, upon the endeavour of his faithfull servants 
with the word of truth) he having a fit opportunity, by- 
reason of his trade, so soone as any were set downe in his 
chaire, he would commonly be cutting of their haire and 
the truth together; notwithstanding some report better of 
the man, the example is for the living, the dead is judged 
of the Lord alone. 

chap/ xvi. — The great supply of godly Ministers for the good of his 
People in New England. 

For to govern and rule this little Common- wealth, 
was this year chosen the valiant Champion, for the ad- 
vance of Christs truth, Thomas Dudly Esq. and Richard 
Bellingham Esq. Deputy-Governour ; the freemen added 
to the former were about 19£. this yeare the reverend 
Mr. Burr (a holy, heavenly-minded man, and able gifted 
to preach the Word of God) was exercised therein for 
some space of time, in the Church of Christ at Dorches- 
ter, where they were about calling him to the office of a 
teaching Elder ; but in a very little time after his coming 
over he departed this life, yet minde him you may in the 
Following Meetre 

Well didst thou minde thy work, which causVl thee venier 

(Through Ocean :arge) thy Christ in 1 s Word to preach, 
Exhorting all their faith on him to center, 

Soules ravisht are by him in thy sweet speech, 
Thy speech bewrayes thy heart, for heaven doth loolc, 

Christ to enjoy, Burr from the earth is taken, 
Thy words remaine, though thou haft us forsook, 

In dust sleep sound till Christ thy body waken. 

There are divers others of the faithfull M inisters of Christ 
that came over for to further this his work ; somewhat 
before this time, as the godty and reverend Mr. Rayner, 
who was called to office in the Church of Christ at Pli- 
moth, and there remaines preaching the Word instantly, 
with great paines and care over that flock, as also the rev- 
erend and faithfull servant of Christ Jesus, Mr. William 
Hook, who was for some space of time at the Church in 
Taunton, but now remaines called to office in the Church 


of Christ at Newhaven, a man, who hath received of 
Christ many gracious gifts, fit for so high a calling, with 
very amiable and gracious speech labouring in the Lord ; 
and here also the Reader may minde how the Lord was 
pleased to reach out his large hand of bounty toward his 
N. England people, in supplying them abundantly with 
Teachers, able and powerfull to break the bread of life unto 
them, so long as their desires continued hot and zealous ; 
but after here grew a fulnesse in some, even to slight, if 
not loath the honey comb ; many returned for Eng- 
land, and the Lord was pleased to take away others by 
death, although very few, considering the number; but 
let N. England beware of an after- clap, & provoke the 
Lord no longer. But seeing this yeare proved the last of 
the yeares of transportation of Gods people, only for en- 
joyment of exercising the Ordinances of Christ, and en- 
largement of his Kingdome (there being hopes of great 
good opportunity that way at home) it will be expedient 
onely to name some others in the Southwest parts, among 
the lesser Colonyes, and so passe on to the story : And 
first, not to forget the reverend Mr. Eaton, a man of love 
and peace, and yet godly zealous, he came over with 
those who planted the Colony ot Newhaven, spending 
his labours in the Lord with them in Plimoth Plantation : 
also here is to be minded the reverend Mr. Chancie, a 
very able preacher, both learned and judicious ; as also 
the reverend, able, and pious M. Huet, who came over 
this year, or rather, as 1 suppose, the yeare before, who 
did spend his time and labour with a people that came 
over with him ; at length the greatest part of them they 
settled downe in the Government of Canecticoe, where 
they planted the Towne of Windsor, and Church 
of Christ there, where this gracious servant of Christ 
continued in his labours, till the Lord laid him in his bed 
of rest : somewhat before this time came over the rever- 
end Mr. Smith, being another of that name, beside the 
former, he laboured in the Word and Doctrine with a 
people at *Withersfield in those parts also ; Mr. Henry 
Whitefield, another Minister of the Gospel of Christ, of 

* Weathersfieldc 


reverend respect, who being returned for England, the 
latter of his labours, the Lord assisting, will sufficiently 
testifie his sincerity, for the truth and labours of love in 
the Lord ; here may also be named the reverend Mr. Peck ? 
Mr. Saxton, and Mr. Lenten, the residue will be spoken 
of in the ensuing story to those that yet remaine. Of 
these persons named the Author doth tender this follow- 
ing Meetre. 

When reasons Scepter first 'gan sway your hearts, 

Through troublous Seas, this Western world to enter 
Among Christs Souldiers, here to act your parts; 

Did not Christs love on you cause him to center ? 
All those strait lines of your inflam'd desire 

Unto his truths, 'cause him in them you finde ; 
From wiklernesse, not from his truths retire ; 

But unto death this wonderous work you'l minde, 
No place can claime peculiar interest ia 

Christs worship, for all nations are his own ; 
The day's at hand down falls that man of sin, 

And Christs pure Gospel through the world is blown ; 
Harvest is come, bid ease and sleep adieu, 

What, trifle time when Christ takes in his Crop ? 
A Harvest large of Gentil and of Jew 

(You) fil'd of Christ, let his sweet Doctrine drop. 

chap. iyu. — Of the planting of Long-Island. And of the planting 
the nineteenth Church in the Mattachusets government, called 

This yeare came over divers godly and sincere servants 
of Christ, as I suppose, among whom came over the rev- 
erend godly M. Peirson : This people finding no place in 
any of the former erected Colonies to settle in, to their 
present content, repaired to an Island, severed from the 
continent of Newhaven, with about 16. miles off the salt 
Sea, and called Long- Island, being about 120. miles in 
length, and yet but narrow : here this people erected a 
Town, and called it South Hampton, there are many In- 
dians on the greatest part of this Island, who at first set- 
tling of the English there, did much annoy their Cattel 
with the multitude of Doggs they kept, which ordinari- 
ly are young wolves brought up tame, continuing of a 


very ravening nature. This people gathered into a 
Church, and tailed to office Mr. Peirson, who continued 
with them about 7. or 8. yeares, and then he, with the 
greatest number of the people, removed farther into the 
Island ; the other part that remained invited Mr. Foor- 
dum, and a people that were with him, to come and joy ne 
with them, who accordingly did, being wandered as far as 
the Dutch plantation, and there unsettled, although he 
came into the Country before them. 

This yeare the Town and Church of Christ at Sudbury 
began to have the first foundation-stones laid, taking up 
her station in the Inland Country, as her elder Sister Con- 
cord had formerly done, lying farther up the same River, 
being furnished with great plenty of fresh marsh, but it 
lying very low is much indammaged with land-flouds, in- 
somuch that when the summer proves wet, they lose 
part of their hay ; yet are they so sufficiently provided, 
that they take in Cattel of other Townes to winter : these 
people not neglecting the chief work, for the which they 
entred this wildernesse, namely, to worship the Lord in 
the purity of his Ordinances, and according to the rule of 
his Word, entred into covenant with him, and one with 
another professedly to walk together in Church-fellow- 
ship ; and according to the same rule they called to the 
office of a Pastor the reverend, godly, and able Minister 
of the Word, Mr. Edmond Brown, whose labours in the 
Doctrine of Christ Jesus hath hitherto abounded, wading 
through this wildernesse- work with much cheerfulness of 
spirit, of whom as followeth : 

Both night and day Brown ceaseth not to watch 

Christs little flock, in pastures fresh them feed, 
The worrying wolves shall not thy weak lambs catch : 

Well dost thou minde in wildernesse their breed ; 
Edmond, thy age is not so great but thou 

Maist yet behold the Beast brought to her fall, 
Earth's tottering Kingdome shew her legs gin bow, 

Thou 'mongst Christs Saints with prayers maist her mawle : 
What sigues wouldst have faith's courage for to rouse ? 

See Christ triumphant hath his armies led, 
Jn wildernesse prepar'd his lovely Spouse, 

Caus'd Kings and Kingdomes'liis high hand to dread. 


Thou seest his Chinches daily are encreasing, 
And thou thy selfe amongst his worth} es warring, 

Hold up thy hands, the battel's now increasing, 

Christ's Kingdom's ay, it's past aU mortalfs marring. 

This Towne is very well watered, and hath store of 
plow- land, but by reason of the oaken roots, they have 
little broke up, considering the many Acres the place af- 
fords ; but this kinde of land requires great strength to 
break up, yet brings very good crops, and lasts long with- 
out mending ; the people are industrious, and have en- 
creased in their estates, some of them, yet the great dis- 
tance it lyes from the Mart Towns maketh it burdensome 
to the Inhabitants, to bring their corne so far by land ; 
some Gentlemen have here laid out part of their estates 
in procuring farmes, by reason of the store of medow : 
this Church hath hitherto been blessed with blessings of 
the right hand, even godly peace and unity : they are not 
above 50. or 60« families, and about 80. souls in Church 
fellowship, their Neat-heard about 300. 

chap, xviii. — Of the planting of the twentieth Church of Christ at a 
Towne called Braintree. 

About this time there was a Town and Church plant- 
ing at Mount Wollestone, and named Braintree, it was 
occasioned by some old planters and certain Farmers be- 
longing to the great Town of Boston ; they had formerly 
one Mr. Whelewright to preach unto them, (till this 
Government could no longer contain them) they many of 
them in the mean time belonging to the Church of Christ 
at Boston, but after his departure they gathered into a 
Church themselves ; having some inlargement of Land, 
they began to be well peopled, calling to office among 
them, the reverend and godly Mr. William Tompson, 
and Mr. Henry Flint, the one to the office of a Pastor, the 
other of a Teacher ; the people are purged by their indus- 
try from the sowre leven of those sinful opinions that be- 
gan to spread, and if any remain among them it is very 
covert, yet the manner of these Erronists that remain in 
any place, is to countenance all sorts of sinful opinions, 


as occasions serves, both in Church and Commonwealth, 
under pretence of Liberty of Conscience, (as well their 
own opinion as others) by this Symbol they may be 
known in Court and Country. This Town hath great 
store of Land in tillage, and is at present in a very thriv- 
ing condition for outward things, although some of Bos- 
ton retain their Farms from being of their Town, yet do they 
lye within their bounds, and how it comes to pass I know 
not ; their Officers have somewhat short allowance, they 
are well stored with cattel and corn, and as a people re- 
ceives, so should they give : And Reader, I cannot but 
mind thee of the admirable providence of Christ for his 
people in this, where they have been in a low condition, 
by their liberality they have been raised to much in a very 
little time : And again, in withdrawing their hands have 
had their plenty blasted : The reverend Mr. Tompson is 
a man abounding in zeal for the propagation of the Gos- 
pel, and of an ardent affection, insomuch that he is apt to 
forget himself in things that concern his own good, both 
him, and the like gracious M. Flint is here remembred. 

With twofold cord doth Flint and Tompson draw 

In Christ's yoke, his fallow ground to break, 
Wounding mens hearts with his most righteous Law, 

Cordials apply to weary souls and weak. 
Tompson thou hast Christ's folk incouraged 

To war their warfare putting them in mind, 
That Christ their King will make his sons the dread, 

The day's at hand when they shall mastery find. 
Flint be a second to this Champion stout, 

In Christ's your strength, while you for him do war, 
When first doth faint, a second helps him out, 

Till Christ renew with greater strength by far. 
From East to West your labours lasted have, 

The more you toil, the more your strength encreaseth, 
Your works will bide, when you are laid in grave, 

His truth advance, whose Kingdom never ceaseth. 

chap. xix. — Of the fust promotion of learning in New-England, and 
the extraordinary providences that the Lord was pleased to send for 
furthering of the same. 

Toward the latter end of this Summer came over the 
learned, reverend, and judicious Mr. Henry Dunster, be- 

5 VOL. VII. 


fore whose coming the Lord was pleased to provide a 
Patron for erecting a Colledg, as you have formerly heard, 
his provident hand being now no less powerful in point- 
ing out with his unerring finger, a president abundantly 
fitted this his servant, and sent him over for to mannage 
the work ; and as in all the other passages of this history, 
the Wonder-working Providence of Sions Saviour hath 
appeared, so more especially in this work, the Foun- 
tains of learning being in a great measure stopped in our 
Native Country at this time, so that the sweet waters of 
Shilo's streams must ordinarily pass into the Churches 
through the stinking channel of prelatical pride, beside all 
the filth that the fountains themselves were daily incum- 
bred withall, insomuch that the Lord turned aside often 
from them, and refused the breathings of his blessed 
Spirit among them, which caused Satan (in these latter 
daies of his transformation into an Angel of light) to make 
it a means to perswade people from the use of learning al- 
together, that so in the next generation they might be 
destitute of such helps, as the Lord hath been pleased 
hitherto to make use of, as chief means for the conver- 
sion of his people, and building them up in the holy 
faith, as also for breaking downe the Kingdom of Anti- 
christ ; and verily had not the Lord been pleased to fur- 
nish N. E. with means for the attainment of learning, the 
work would have been carried on very heavily, and the 
hearts of godly parents would have vanished away with 
heaviness for their poor children, whom they must have 
left in a desolate wilderness, destitute of the meanes of 

It being a work (in the apprehension of all, whose ca- 
pacity could reach to the great sums of money, the edi- 
fice of a mean Colledg would cost) past the reach of a 
poor Pilgrim people, who had expended the greatest part 
of their estates on a long voyage, travelling into Forraign 
Countryes, being unprofitable to any that have underta- 
ken it, although it were but with their necessary atten- 
dance, whereas this people were forced to travel with 
wifes, children, and servants ; besides they considered 


the treble charge of building in this new populated des- 
art, in regard of al kind of workmanship, knowing like- 
wise, that young Students could make but a poor prog- 
ress in learning, by looking on the bare walls of their 
chambers, and that Diogenes would have the better of 
them by far, in making use of a Tun to lodg in, not be- 
ing ignorant also, that many people in this age are out of 
conceit with learning, and that although they were not 
among a people who counted ignorance the mother of de- 
votion, yet were the greater part of the people wholly 
devoted to the Plow, (but to speak uprightly, hunger is 
sharp, and the head will retain little learning, if the heart 
be not refreshed in some competent measure with food, 
although the gross vapors of a glutted stomack are the 
bane of a bright understanding, and brings barrenness to 
the brain) but how to have both go on together, as yet 
they know not ; amidst all these difficulties, it was thought 
meet learning should plead for itself, and (as many other 
men of good rank and quality in this barren desart) plod 
out a way to live : Hereupon all those who had tasted the 
sweet wine of Wisdoms drawing, and fed on the dainties 
of knowledg, began to set their wits a work, and verily as 
the whole progress of this work had a farther dependency 
then on the present eyed means, so at this time chiefly the 
end being firmly fixed on a sure foundation, namely the 
glory of God, and good of all his elect people, the world 
throughout, in vindicating the truths of Christ, and pro- 
moting his glorious Kingdom, who is now taking the 
heathen for his inheritance, and the utmost ends of the 
earth for his possession, means they know tnere are, many 
thousands uneyed of mortal. man, which every daies Prov- 
idence brings forth ; upon these resolutions, to work they 
go, and with thankful acknowledgment, readily take up 
all lawful means as they come to hand, for place they fix 
their eye upon New-Town, which to tell their Posterity 
whence they came, is now named Cambridg, and withal 
to make the whole world understand, that spiritual learn- 
ing was the thing they chiefly desired, to sanctifie the 
other, and make the whole lump holy, and that learning 


being set upon its right object, might not contend for error 
instead of truth ; they chose this place, being then under the 
Orthodox, and soul-flourishing Minister}' of Mr. Thomas 
Shepheard, of whom it may be said, without any wrong 
to others, the Lord by his Ministery hath saved many a 
hundred soul : The scituation of this Coliedg is very 
pleasant, at the end of a spacious plain, more like a bow- 
ling green, then a Wilderness, neer a fair navigable river, 
environed with many Neighbouring Towns of note, be- 
ing so neer, that their houses joyn with her Suburbs, the 
building thought by some to be too gorgeous for a Wil- 
derness, and yet too mean in others apprehensions for a 
Coliedg, it is at present inlarging by purchase of the 
neighbour houses, it hath the conveniences of a fair Hall, 
comfortable Studies, and a good Library, given by the 
liberal hand of some Magistrates and Ministers with oth- 
ers : The chief gift towards the founding of this Coliedg, 
was by Mr. John *Harnes, a reverend Minister ; the 
Country being very weak in their publike Treasury, ex- 
pended about 500. 1. towards it, and for the maintenance 
thereof, gave the yearly revenue of a Ferry passage be- 
tween Boston, and Charlestovvn, the which amounts to 
about 40. or 50. 1. per annum. The Commissioners of 
the four united Colonies also taking into consideration, 
(of what common concernment this work would be, not 
only to the whole plantations in general, but also to all 
our English Nation) they endeavoured to stir up all the 
people in the several Colonies to make a yearly contribu- 
tion toward it, which by some is observed, but by the 
most very much neglected ; the Government hath endeav- 
oured to grant them all the privileges fit for a Coliedg, and 
accordingly the Governour and Magistrates, together 
with the President of the Coliedg, for the time being, 
have a continual care of ordering all matters for the good 
of the whole : This Coliedg hath brought forth, and nurst 
up very hopeful plants, to the supplying some Churches 
here, as the gracious and godly Mr. Wilson, son to the 
grave and zealous servant of Christ Mr. John Wilson, 
this young man is Pastor to the Church of Christ at Dor- 

* Harvard. 


Chester; as* also Mr. Buckly, son to the reverend Mr. 
Buekly of Concord ; as also a second son of his, whom 
our Native Country hath now at present help in the Min- 
istery, and the other is over a people of Christ in one of 
these Colonies, and if I mistake not, England hath I hope 
not only this young man of N. E. nurturing up in learn- 
ing, but many more, as M. Sam. and Nathaniel Mathers, 
Mr. Wells, Mr. Downing, Mr. Barnard, Mr. Allin, Mr. 
Bruster, Mr. William Ames, Mr. Iones: Another of the 
first fruits of this Colledg is imployed in these Western 
parts in Mevis, one of the Summer Islands ; beside these 
named, some help hath been had from hence in the study 
of Physick, as also the godly Mr. Sam. Danforth, who 
hath not only studied Divinity, but also Astronomy, he 
put forth many Almanacks, and is now called to the of- 
fice of a teaching Elder in the Church of Christ at Rox- 
bury, who was one of the fellows of tins Colledg ; the 
number of Students is much encreased of late, so that the 
present year 1651. on the twelfth of the sixth moneth, 
ten of them took the degree of Batchelors of Art, among 
whom the Sea-born son of Mr. Iohn Cotton was one, 
some Gentlemen have sent their sons hither from Eng- 
land, who are to be commended for their care of them, as 
the judicious and godly Doctor Ames, and divers others: 
This hath been a place certainly more free from tempta- 
tions to lewdness, then ordinarily England hath been, yet 
if men shall presume upon this to send their most exor- 
bitant children, intending them more especially for Gods 
service, the Justice of God doth sometimes meet with 
them, and the means doth more harden them in their way, 
for of late the godly Governors of this Colledg have been 
forced to expell some, for fear of corrupting the Foun- 
tain, wherefore the the Author would ye should mind this 
following verse. 

You that have seen these wondrous works by Sions Savior don, 
Expect not miracle, lest means thereby you over-run ; 

The noble Acts Jehovah wrought, his Israel to redeem, 

Surely this second work of his shall far more glorious seem j 

Not only Egypt, but all Lands, where Antichrist doth raign, 
Shall from Jehovahs heavy hand ten times ten plagues sustain : 


Bright shining shall this Gospel come, Oh glorious King of Saints, 

Thy blessed breath confounds thj foes, al! mortal power faints, 
The ratling bones together run with self-same breath that blows, 

Of Israels sons long dead and dry, each joynt there sinew grows, 
Fair flesh doth cover them, & veins (lifes fountaiu) takes there place. 

Smooth seamless coats doth cloath their flesh, and all their structure 
The breath of Life is added, they no Antiuomians are, 

But loving him who gives them life., more zealous are by fai 
To keep his Law, then formerly when righteousnesse they sought, 

In keeping that they could not keep, which then their downfal 
Their ceremonies vanisht are, on Christ's all their desires, 

Their zeal all Nations doth provoke, inkindled are loves fires : 
With hast on horseback, bringing home their sons and daughters, they 

Rejoyce to see this glorious sight, like Resurrections day ; 
Up and be doing, you young plants, Christ calls his work unto 

Polluted lips, touch'd with heav'ns fire, about this work shall go. 
Prostrate in prayer parents, and you young ones on Christ call, 

Suppose of you he will make use, whereby that beast shall fall : 
So be it Lord thy servants say, who are at thy disposing, 

With outward word work inward grace, by heavenly truths disclosing. 
Awake stand up from death to life, in Christ your studies enter, 

The Scriptures search, bright light bring forth, upon this hardship 
Sound doctrine shall your lips preach out, all errors to confound 

And rid Christ's Temple from this smoke, his glory shall abound ; 
Precipitant doth Dagon fall, his triple head off cut, 

The Beast that all the world admires, by you to death is put : 
Put hand to mouth, with vehement blast your silver Trumpets sound, 

Christ calls to mind his peoples wrongs, their foeshee'l now confound: 
Be strong in God, and his great might, his wondrous works do tell, 

You raised are unwonted ways, observe his workings Avell. 
As Jordans streams congeaFd in heaps, and Jerico's high walls 

With Rams horns blast, and Midians Host, with pitcher breaking falls; 
Like works your faith, for to confirm in these great works to come, 

That nothing now too hard may seem, Jehovah would have don. 
The rage of Seas, and hunger sharp, wants of a desart Land, 

Your noble hearts have overcom, what shall this work withstand ? 
Not persecutors pride and rage, strong multitudes do fall, 

By little handfulls of least dust, your Christ confounds them all ; 
JSTot Satan and his subtil train with seeming shew reforming, 

Another Gospel to bring forth, brings damned errors swarming '. 
Yourselves have seen his paint washt off, his hidden poysons found, 

Christ you provides with Antidotes, to keep his people sound : 
There's nought remains but conquest noAV, through Christs continued 

His hardest works have honors most attend them every hour. 


What greater honor then on earth, Christ's Legat for to be, 
Attended with his glorious Saints in Church fraternity. 

Christ to behold adorning now his Bride in bright array, 
And you his friends him to attend upon his Nuptial day, 

With crowned heads, as Conquerors triumphant by his side ; 
In's presence is your lasting joy, and pleasures ever bide. 

Mr. Henry Dunstar is now President of this Colledg, 
fitted from the Lord for the work, and by those that have 
skill that way, reported to be an able Proficient, in both 
Hebrew, Greek, and Latine Languages, an Orthodox 
Preacher of the truths of Christ, very powerful through 
his blessing to move the affection ; and besides he having 
a good inspection into the well-ordering of things for the 
Students maintenance (whose commons hath been very- 
short hitherto) by his frugal providence hath continued 
them longer at their Studies then otherwise they could 
have done ; and verily it's great pity such ripe heads as 
many of them be, should want means to further them in 
learning : But seeing the Lord hath been pleased to raise 
up so worthy an instrument for their good, he shall not 
want for incouragement to go on with the work, so far as 
a rustical rime will reach. 

Could man presage prodigious works at hand, 

Provide he would for's good and ill prevent, 
But God both time and means hath at's command, 

Dunster in time to his N. E. hath sent. 
When England 'gan to keep at home their guides, 

N. E. began to pay their borrowed back: 
Industrious Dunster, providence provides, 

Our friends supply, and yet ourselves no lack : 
With restless labour thou dost delve and dung, 

Surculus set in garden duly tended, 
That in Christs Orchard they with fruit full hung, 

May bless the Lord, thy toil gone, them expended, 
Thy constant course proves retrograde in this, 

From West to East thy toil returns again, 
Thy husbandry by Christ so honored is, 

That all the world partaketh of thy pains. 


chap. xx. — Of the planting of the one and twentieth Church of Christ 
at a Town called Glocester, and of the Church and Town of Dover, 
and of the hardships that befel a certain people, who thirsted after 
large liberty in a warm Country. 

For the Government of this little Commonweath, this 
year was chosen for Governour Richard *Belingham, Es- 
quire, and John fEndicut Esquire for jGovernours ; the 
number of Freemen added this year, were about 503. 

There was another Town and Church of Christ erect- 
ed in the Mattachuset Government, upon the Northern- 
Cape of the Bay,*called Cape Ann, a place of fishing, be- 
ing peopled with Fishermen, till the reverend Mr. Rich- 
ard Blindman came from a place in Plimouth Patten, 
called Green-Harbour, with some few people of his ac- 
quaintance, and setled down with them, named the Town 
Glocester, and gathered into a Church, being but a small 
number, about fifty persons, they called to office this god- 
ly reverend man, whose gifts and abilities to handle the 
word, is not inferiour to many others, labouring much 
against the errors of the times, of a sweet, humble, heav- 
enly carriage : This Town lying out toward the point of 
the Cape, the access there unto by Land becomes uneasie, 
which was the chief cause it was no more populated : 
Their fishing trade would be very beneficial, had they 
men of estates to mannage it; yet are they not without 
other means of maintenance, having good timber for 
shipping, and a very sufficient builder, but that these 
times of combustion the Seas throughout hath hindered 
much that work, yet have there been Vessels built here 
at this Town of late : Their reverend Elder is here re- 

Thou hast thy prime and middle age here spent. 

The best is not too good for him that gave it, 
When thou didst first this AVilderuess frequent, 

For Sions sake it was, that Christ might save it. 
Blindman be blith in him, who thee hath taken 

To feed his Flock, a few poor scattered sheep, 
Why should they be of thee at all forsaken, 

Thy honour's high, that any thou may'st keep. 
* Bellingham. f Endicot i Deputy Governoui"? 


Wait patiently thy Masters coming, thou 

Hast hitherto his peoples portions dealt, 
It matters not for high preferment ; now 

Thy crown's to come, with joyes immortal felt. 

About this time the people inhabiting the Town of 
Dover, although they lay out of any of these Colonies 
mentioned, (yet hearing and seeing with what sweet har- 
mony, both in Churches and civil Government, the Mat- 
tachusets peopled patten was carried on prosperously) de- 
sired greatly to submit unto the same, by putting them- 
selves under their protection ; and for that end they peti- 
tioned their General Cort to admit of them, and adminis- 
ter Justice as occasion served, by the hands of their godly 
Magistrates, which accordingly was granted, and they 
have been partakers of the benefit hitherto, having also the 
benefit of some one Minister to preach unto them, till it 
pleased God to fit stones by the continual hewing of his 
word for his Temple- work, and they gather a Church ac- 
cording to the rule of the word, and called to office of a 
Pastor one M. Maude, both godly and diligent in the 
work : This Town is scituate upon Pascataque river, ly- 
ing to the Northeast of Boston, which river, although it 
be not nigh so broad as Merrinaeck river, yet is it naviga- 
ble, being very deep, and her banks in many places fil'd 
with stately timber, which hath caused one or two Saw- 
Mills to be continued ; there they have a good quantity of 
Meddow Land, and good ground for India corn. To 
end this year 1641. the Lord was pleased to send a very 
sharp Winter, insomuch that the Harbor where ships or- 
dinarily Anchor, was frozen over of such a thickness, that 
it became passeable, both for horse, carts, and oxen, for 
the space of five weeks. And here the Reader must be 
minded of the wonder-working providence of Christ for 
his poor Churches, in altering the very season for their 
comfort, to the wonder of English and Indians, the Win- 
ter and Summer proving more moderate, both for heat and 
cold, unmasking many by this means, it being a frequent 
thing with some, that after the novelties of a new land be- 
gan to be stale with them 5 and the sweet nourishment of 
6 vol. vtt. 


the soul by the presence of Christ in the preaching of his 
Word, began to dry up through the hot heady conceit of 
some new conceived opinion : Then they wanted a warm- 
er country, and every Northwest wind that blew, they 
crept into some odd chimney* corner or other, to discourse 
of the diversity of Climates in the Southerne parts, but 
chiefly of a thing very sweet to the pallate of the flesh, cal- 
led liberty, which they supposed might be very easily 
attain'd, could they but once come into a place where all 
men were chosen to the office of a Magistrate, and all 
were preachers of the Word, and no hearers, then it 
would be all Summer and no Winter: This consultation 
was to be put in practise speedily, as all headstrong mo- 
tions are, but the issue proved very sad, both to these 
and others also ; for thus it befell, when the time of the 
year was come that a sea voyage might be undertaken, 
they having made sale of a better accommodation then 
any they could afterward attain unto, prepare for the voy- 
age with their wifes and children, intending to land them 
in one of the Summer Islands, called the Isle of Provi- 
dence, and having wind and seas favouring them, as they 
supposed, or to speak more proper, the provident hand of 
the most high God directing it, they were brought so 
neer the shore for convenient landing, that they might 
have heaved a Bisket cake on land ; their Pilate wondring 
he could not see the English colours on the Fort, he be- 
gan to mistrust the Island was taken, and more especially, 
because they saw not the people appear upon the shores 
as they usually did when any Vessel was a coming in, 
but now and then they saw some people a far off wafting 
to them to come in, till they were even come to an An- 
chor, and then by the noising up and down the heads of 
those, on shore, they were fully confirmed in it, that the 
Island was taken, as indeed it was by the Spaniards, who 
as soone as they tackt about to be gone, made shot at 
them, and being in great fear they made all the sail they 
could, but before they could get out of shot, the Master 
of the Vessel was slain, the main sail shot through, and 
the Barque also ; the people some of them returned back 


again for New-England, being sore abashed at this provi- 
dence that befel them, that they would never seek to be 
governed by liberty again to this very day ; yet others 
there are were so strongly bent for the heat of liberty, that 
they indured much pinching penury upon an uninhabited 
Island, til at length meeting some others like-minded with 
themselves, they made a voyage to another Island, the 
chiefest part of their Charter of Freedom was this, That 
no man upon pain of death should speak against anothers 
Religion where they continued, till some of them were 
famished, and others even forced to feed on Rats, and any 
other thing they could find to sustain nature, till the provi- 
dent hand of God brought a Ship to the place, which took 
them off the Island, and saved their lives : But upon this 
the Winters discourse ceased, and projects for a warmer 
Country were hushtand done. ^ erf* 1 QAO 

chap. xxi. — Of the suddain and unexpected fall of Cattel, and the 
great blessing of God in giving plenty of provision. 

For this year 1642. John Winthrope Esquire was 
chosen Governour, and John Endicut Esquire Deputy 
Governor : The number of Freemen added were about 
1232. This Spring Cowes and Cattle of that kind (hav- 
ing continued at an excessive price so long as any came 
over with estates to purchase them) fell of a suddain in one 
week from 22 1. the Cow, to 6. 7. or 8. 1. the Cow at 
most, insomuch that it made all men admire how it came 
to pass, it being the common practise of those that had 
any store of Cattel, to sell every year a Cow or two, which 
cloath'd their backs, fii'd their bellies with more varieties 
than the Country of it self afforded, and put gold and sil- 
ver in their purses beside. Here the Reader is desired to 
take notice of the wonderful providence of the most high 
God toward these his new-planted Churches, such as was 
never heard of, since that Jacobs sons ceased to be a peo- 
ple, that in ten or twelve years planting, there should be 
such wonderful alteration, a Nation to be born in a day, a 
Commonwealth orderly brought forth from a few Fugi- 
tives, all the Fgrraign plantations that are of forty, fifty, or 


a hundred years standing, cannot really report the like, al- 
though they have had the greatest incouragements earth 
could afford, Kings to countenance them, staple commodi- 
ies to provoke all manner of Merchants to resort unto them, 
silver, gold, precious stones, or whatever might inticethe 
eye or ear to incline the motion of man toward them, his 
remote, rocky, barren, bushy, wild- woody wilderness, a re- 
cepKide for Lions, Wolves, Bears, Foxes, Rockoones, 
Bags, Bevers, Otters, and all kind of wild creatures, a 
place that never afforded the Natives better then the flesh 
of a few wild creatures and parch't Indian corn incht out 
with Chesnuts and bitter Acorns, now through the mercy 
of Christ becom a second England for fertilness in so short 
a space, that it is indeed the wonder of the world ; but be- 
ing already forgotten of the very persons that tast of it at 
present, although some there be that keep in memory his 
mercies multitude, and declare it to their childrens chil- 

First to begin with the encrease of food, you have heard 
in what extream penury these people were in at first plant- 
ing, for want of food, gold, silver, rayment, or whatsoev- 
er was precious in their eyes they parted with (when ships 
came in) for this their beast that died, some would stick 
before they were cold, and sell their poor pined flesh for 
food, at 6.d. per pound, Indian Beans at 16. s. per bushel, 
when Ships came in, it grieved some Master to see the 
urging of them by people of good rank and quality to sell 
bread unto them. But now take notice how the right 
hand of the most high hath altered all, and men of the 
meaner rank are urging them to buy bread of them, and 
now good white and wheaten bread is no dainty, but even 
ordinary man haih his choice, if gay eloathing, and a liquer- 
ish tooth after sack, sugar, and plums lick not away his 
bread too fast, all which are but ordinary among those that 
were not able to bring their owne persons over at their 
first coming ; there are not many Towns in the Country, 
but the poorest person in them hath a house and land of 
his own, and bread of his own growing, if not some cat- 
tel : beside, flesh is now no rare food, beef, pork, and 

1642.] or sions saviour, in new England. 37 

mutton being frequent in many houses, so that this poor 
Wilderness hath not onely equalized England in food, but 
goes beyond it in some places for the great plenty of wine 
and sugar, which is ordinarily spent, apples, pears, and 
quince tarts instead of their former Pumpkin Pies, Poul- 
try they have plenty, and great rarity, and in their feasts 
have not forgotten the English fashion of stirring up their 
appetites with variety of cooking their food ; and notwith- 
standing all this great and almost miraculous work of the 
Lord, in providing for his people in this barren desart, yet 
are there here (as in other places) some that use these good 
creatures of God to excess, and others to hoard up in a 
wretched and miserable manner, pinch themselves and 
their children with food, and will not tast of the good crea- 
tures God hath given for that end, but cut Church and 
Commonwealth as short also : Let not such think to es- 
cape the Lords hand with as little a stroke, as the like do 
in other places. 

Secondly, For rayment, our cloth hath not been cut 
short, as but of late years the traders that way have en- 
creased to such a number, that their shops have continued 
full all the year long, all one England ; besides the Lord 
hath been pleased to encrease sheep extraordinarily of late, 
hemp and flax here is great plenty, hides here are more 
for the number of persons then in England ; and for 
cloth, here is and would be materials enough to make it ; 
but the Farmers deem it better for their profit to put 
away their cattel and corn for cloathing, then to set up- 
on making of cloth ; if the Merchants trade be not kept 
on foot, they fear greatly their corne and cattel will lye in 
their hands : assuredly the plenty of cloathing hath caused 
much excess of late in those persons, who have clamber- 
ed with excess in wages for their work, but seeing it will 
be the theam of our next discourse, after the birds are 
setled, it may be here omitted. 

Further, the Lord hath been pleased to turn all the wig- 
wams, huts, and hovels the English dwelt in at their first 
coming, into orderly, fair, and well-built houses, well fur- 
nished many of them, together with Orchards filled with 


goodly fruit trees, and gardens with variety of flowers: 
There are supposed to be in the Mattachusets Govern- 
ment at this day, neer a thousand acres of land planted 
for Orchards and Gardens, besides their fields are filled 
with garden fruit, there being, as is supposed in this 
Colony, about fifteen thousand acres in tillage, and of cat- 
tel about twelve thousand neat, and about three thousand 
sheep : Thus hath the Lord incouraged his people with 
the encrease of the general, although many particulars are 
outed, hundreds of pounds, and some thousands, yet are 
there many hundreds of labouring men, who had not e- 
nough to bring them over, yet now worth scores, and some 
hundreds of pounds ; to be sure the Lord takes notice of 
all his talents, and will call to accompt in time : This brief 
survey of things will be of good use when time serves, in 
mean time you shall understand, 

chap. xxii. — Of the manner of planting Towns and Churches in N. 
E. and in particular of the Church and Town at Wooburn, being 
the three and twentieth Church of Christ in the Mattachusets Gov- 

There was a Town and Church erected called Woo- 
burn, this present year, but because all the action of this 
wandering people meet with great variety of censures, the 
Author will in this Town and Church set down the man- 
ner how this people have populated their Towns, and 
gathered their Churches, that the reverend Mr. Rathbone 
may be better informed, then when he wrote his book 
concerning the Churches of N. E, and all others that are 
experienced in the holy Scriptures, may lay the actions of 
N. E. to the Rule, and try them by the ballance of the 
Sanctuary, for assuredly they greatly desire they may be 
brought to the light, for great is the truth, and will prevail, 
yet have they their errings as well as others, but yet their 
imperfections may not blemish the truths of Christ, let 
them be glorified, and these his people will willingly take 
shame to themselves, wherein they have miscarried : But 
to begin, this Town, as all others had its bounds fixed by 
the General Court, to the contents of four miles square^ 


(beginning at the end of Charles Town bounds) the grant 
is to seven men of good and honest report, upon condi- 
tion, that within two year they erect houses for habitation 
thereon, and so go on to> make a Town thereof, upon the 
Act of Court ; these seven men have power to give and 
grant, out lands unto any persons who are willing to take 
up their dwellings within the said precinct, & to be ad- 
mitted to al common priviledges of the said Town, giving 
them such an ample portion, both of Medow and Upland, 
as their present and future stock of cattel and hands were 
like to improve, with eye had to others that might after 
come to populate the said Town ; this they did without 
any respect of persons, yet such as were exorbitant, and 
of a turbulent spirit, unfit for a civil society they would 
reject, till they come to mend, their manners, such came 
not to enjoy any freehold : These seven men ordered and 
disposed of the streets of the Town, as might be best fof 
improvement of the Land, and yet civil and religious so- 
ciety maintained ; to which end those that had land neer- 
est the place for Sabbath assembly, had a lesser quantity 
at home, and more farther off to improve for corn, of all 
kinds ; they refused not men for their poverty, but ac- 
cording to their ability were helpful to the poorest sort, 
in building their houses, and distributed to them land ac- 
cordingly ; the poorest had six or seven acres of Medow, 
and twenty five of Upland, or thereabouts : Thus was this 
Town populated, to the number of sixty families, or there- 
about, and after this manner are the Towns of New Eng- 
land peopled, the scituation of this Town is in the high- 
est part of the yet peopled land, neere upon the head- 
springs of many considerable rivers, or their branches, as 
the first rise of Ipswitch river, and the rise of Shashin 
river, one of the most considerable branches of Merri- 
meck, as also the first rise of Mistick river and ponds, it 
is very full of pleasant springs, and great variety of very 
good water, which the Summers heat causeth to be more 
cooler, and the Winters cold maketh more warmer ; their 
Medows are not large, but lye in divers places to particu- 
lar dwellings, the like doth their Springs ; their Land is 


very fruitful in many places, although they have no great 
quantity of plain land in any one place, yet doth their 
Rocks and Swamps yeeld very good food for cattel ; as 
also they have Mast and Tar for shipping, but the dis- 
tance of place by land causeth them as yet to be unpro- 
fitable, they have great store of iron o're, their mteting 
house stands in a small Plain, where four streets meet, 
the people are very laborious, if not exceeding some of 

Now to declare how this people proceeded in religious 
matters, and so consequently all the Churches of Christ 
planted in New-England, when they came once to hopes 
of being such a competent number of people, as might 
be able to maintain a Minister, they then surely seated 
themselves, and not before, it being as unnatural for a 
right N. E. man to live without an able Ministery, as for 
a Smith to work his iron without a fire ; therefore this 
people that went about placing down a Town, began the 
foundation-stone, with earnest seeking of the Lords as- 
sistance, by humbling of their souls before him in daies 
of prayer, and imploring his aid in so weighty a work, 
then they address themselves to attend counsel of the 
most Orthodox and ablest Christians, and more especial- 
ly of such as the Lord had already placed in the Ministe- 
ry, not rashly running together themselves into a Church, 
before they had hopes of attaining an Officer to preach the 
Word, and administer the Seals unto them, chosing rath- 
er to continue in fellowship with some other Church for 
their Christian watch over them, till the Lord would be 
pleased to provide : They after some search meet with a 
young man named Mr. Thomas Carter, then belonging 
to the Church of Christ at Water Town, a reverend godly 
man, apt to teach the sound and wholesome truths of 
Christ ; having attained their desires, in hopes of his 
coming unto them, were they once joyned in Church-es- 
tate, he exercising his gifts of preaching and prayer among 
them in the mean time, and more especially in a day of 
fasting and prayer. Thus these godly people interest iheir 
affections one with the other, both Minister and people : 


After this they made ready for the work, and the 24. of 
the 6. moneth 1642. they assemble together in the morn- 
ing about eight of the clock ; After the reverend Mr. Syms 
had continued in preaching and prayer about the space of 
four or five houres, the persons that were to joyn in Cove- 
nant, openly and professedly before the Congregation, and 
messengers of divers Neighbour Churches, among whom 
the reverend Elder of Boston, Mr. Cotton, Mr. Wilson, 
Mr. Allen of Charles-Town, Mr. Shepheard of Cambridg, 
Mr. Dunster of Water-Town, Mr. Knowles of Deadham, 
Mr. Allen of Roxbury, Mr. Eliot of Dorchester, Mr. 
Mather : As also it is the duty of the Magistrates (in re- 
gard of the good and peace of the civil Government) to 
be present, at least some one of them (not only to prevent 
the disturbance might follow in the Commonwealth by 
any, who under pretence of Church-Covenant, might 
bring in again those cursed opinions that caused such 
commotion in this and the other Colony, to the great dam- 
mage of the people) but also to countenance the people of 
God in so pious a work, that under them they may live a 
quiet and peaceable life, in all godliness and honesty ; for 
this cause was present the honored Mr. Increase Nowel, 
the persons stood forth, and first confessed what the Lord 
had done for their poor souls, by the work of his Spirit in 
the preaching of his Word, and Providences, one by one s 
(and that all might know their faith in Christ was bottom- 
ed upon him, as he is revealed in his Word, and that from 
their own knowledg) they also declare the same, accord- 
ing to that measure of understanding the Lord had given 
them ; the Elders, or any other messengers there present 
question with them, for the better understanding of them 
in any points they doubt of, which being done, and all sat- 
isfied, they in the name of the Churches to which they do 
belong, hold out the right hand of fellowship unto them, 
they declaring their Covenant, in words expressed in 
writing to this purpose. 

The Church Covenant, 
We that do assemble our selves this day before God 
and his people, in an unfeigned desire, to be accepted of 

7 VOL. VII. 


him as a Church of the Lord Jesus Christ, according to 
the Rule of the New-Testament, do acknowledg our 
selves to be the most unworthy of all others, that we 
should attain such a high grace, and the most unable of 
our selves to the performance of any thing that is good, 
abhorring our selves for all our former defilements in the 
worship of God, and other wayes, and resting only upon 
the Lord Jesus Christ for atonement, and upon the 
power of his grace for the guidance of our whole af- 
ter course, do here in the name of Christ Jesus, as in the 
presence of the Lord, from the bottom of our hearts agree 
together through his grace to give up our selves, first unto 
the Lord Jesus as our only King, Priest and Prophet, 
wholly to be subject unto him in all thing, and therewith 
one unto another, as in a Church ^Body to walk together 
in all the Ordinances of the Gospel, and in all such mu- 
tual love and offices thereof, as toward one another in the 
Lord ; and all this, both according to the present light 
that the Lord hath given us, as also according to all fur- 
ther light, which he shall be pleased at any time to reach 
out unto us out of the Word by the goodness of his grace, 
renouncing also in the same Covenant all errors and 
Schismes, and whatsoever by-wayes that are contrary to 
the blessed rules revealed in the Gospel, and in particular 
the inordinate love and seeking after the things of the 
world ; every Church hath not the same for words, for 
they are not for a form of words. 

The 22. of the 9, moneth following Mr. Thomas Car- 
ter was ordained Pastor, in presence of the like Assembly. 
After he had exercised in preaching and prayer the great- 
er part of the day, two persons in the name of the Church 
laid their hands upon his head, and said, We ordain thee 
Thomas Carter to be Pastor unto this Church of Christ ; 
then one of the Elders Priest, being desired of the 
Church, continued in prayer unto the Lord for his more 
especial assistance of this his servant in his work, being a 
charge of such weighty importance, as is the glory of God 
and salvation of souls, that the very thought would make 
a man to tremble in the sense of his own inability to the 


work : The people having provided a dwelling* house, 
built at the charge of the Town in general, welcomed 
him unto them with joy, that the Lord was pleased to 
give them such a blessing, that their eyes may see 
their teachers: After this there were divers added to 
the Church daily ; after this manner the person desirous to 
joyn with the Church, cometh to the Pastor, and makes 
him acquainted therewith, declaring how the Lord hath 
been pleased to work his conversion, who discerning 
hopes of the persons faith in Christ, although weak, yet 
if any appear, he is propounded to the Church in general 
for their approbation, touching his godly life and conver- 
sation, and then by the Pastor and some brethren heard 
again, who make report to the Church of their charitable 
approving of the person ; but before they come to joyn 
with the Church, all persons within the Towne have 
publike notice of it, then publikely he declares the man- 
ner of his conversion, and how the Lord hath been pleas- 
ed by the hearing of his Word preached, and the work of 
his Spirit in the inward parts of his soul, to bring him out 
of that natural darkness, which all men are by nature in 
and under, as also the measure of knowledg the Lord 
hath been pleased to indue him withal. And because 
some men cannot speak publikely to edification through 
bashfulness, the less is required of such, and women 
speak not publikely at all, for all that is desired, is to pre- 
vent the polluting the blessed Ordinances of Christ by 
such as walk scandalously, and that men and women do 
not eat and drink their own condemnation, in not discern- 
ing the Lords body : After this manner were many ad- 
ded to this Church of Christ, and those 7. that joyned in 
Church-fellowship at first, are now encreased to 74. per- 
sons, or thereabout ; of which, according to their own 
confession, as is supposed, the greater part having been 
converted by the preaching of the Word in N. E. 
by which may appear the powerful efficacy of the word 
of Christ in the mouth of his Ministers, and that this 
way of Christ in joyning together in Church-Covenant, 
is not only for building up of souls in Christ, but also for 


converting of sinners, & bringing them out of the natu- 
ral condition to be ingrafted into Christ, for if this one 
Church have so many, then assuredly there must be a 
great number comparitively throughout all the Churches 
in the Country. After this manner have the Churches 
of Christ had their beginning and progress hitherto, the 
Lord continue & encrease them the world throughout : 
The Pastor of this Church hath much encreased with the 
encreasings of Christ Jesus, of whose labours in the Lord 
as followeth. 

Carter, Christ hath his wayes thee taught, and # thera, 

Hast not with held his Word, but unto all, 
Willi's word of power dost cause stout souls to bow, 

And meek as Lambs before thy Christ to fall : 
The antient truths, plain paths they fit thee best, 

Thy humble heart all haughty acts puts by, 
The lowly heart, Christ learns his lovely best, 

Thy meekness shews thy Christ to thee is nigh ; 
Yet must thou shew Christ makes his bold to be, 

As Lions, that none may his truths tread down, 
Pastoral power he hath invested thee 

With, it maintain, least he on thee do frown ; 
Thy youth thou hast in this New-England spent, 

Full sixteen years to water, plant, and prune, 
Trees taken up, and for that end here sent, 

Thy end's with Christ, with's Saints his praises tune. 

This year the General Court made an order about pre- 
paring houses for Salt-peter, that there might be powder 
made in the Country, but as yet it hath not gone on. 

chap. xxni. — Of the uniting of the four English Colonies in N. E and 
the battel fought between the Narragansets and Mawhiggius. 

The yeare |1653. the honored John Winthrop Es- 
quire was chosen Governour again, and John Endicut 
Esquire Deputy Governour, the freemen added were 
about 87. this year, the four Colonies, the Mattachusets, 
Plimoth, Canectico, and New-haven, taking into consid- 
eration the many Nations of Dutch, fZewes, and French, 
that were on either side of them ; as also how apt they 
were to lay claim to lands they never had any right unto, 

* thou? t IC * 3! * Swed es? 


but only a paper possession of their own framing ; and 
further, that the inhumane and barbarous Indians would 
be continually quarrelling and contending, could they see 
any hopes of prevailing, together with the contestion be- 
gun in our Native country, and withal, that although 
providence had cast them into four several Colonies, yet 
Religion had already united them, coming over all for one 
and the same end. Hereupon by Commissioners sent 
from the several colonies, they concluded a firm confed- 
eration to assist each other in all just and lawful war, 
bearing an equal proportion in the charge, according to 
the number of persons inhabiting each colony ; but here- 
in the Mattachuset had the worst end of the staff, in bear- 
ing as much, or more charge, then all the other three, and 
yet no greater number of Commissioners to negociate and 
judg in transacting of affairs concerning peace and war, 
then the least of the other, and any one of the other as 
likely to involve them in a chargeable war with the naked 
Natives, that have neither plunder, nor cash to bear the 
charge of it, nay hitherto the most hath risen from the 
lesser colonies, yet are the Mattachusets far from desert- 
ing them, esteeming them highly, so long as their Gov- 
ernments maintain the same purity in Religion with them- 
selves, for indeed this is that they have spent their whole 
travel for, and therefore if Plimoth, or any of the other 
shall draw back herein, the chiefest end of their confed- 
eracy would be lost ; for should it come to pass (that in 
venturing their persons and estates so far for purity in the 
Ordinances and Discipline of Christ) they should lose the 
purity in doctrine, all their cost and labour were lost : 
This confederacy being finished, there came in certain In- 
dian Sachims, and submitted to the English Government, 
as Pomham, and Soecananocoh to the Mattachusets ; also 
Miantonemo and Uncas ; but between these two latter 
Princes arose a very hot quarrel, the English seeking by 
all means to quench it, but could not, it being, as is sup- 
posed, fomented by a small company of vacabond English, 
who were then for their crimes banished from their own 
complices at Rhode Island, the Ringleader of them, being 
one Samuel Gorton, by whose mean they were drawn in? 


to damnable errors, : These Gortonists, as is said, lent 
Miantonemo a Corslet for safeguard of his own person in 
the following fight, and he promised each of them a 
Mawchiggin papoose, which was the people Uncas was 
Prince of. For, although Miantonemo were the more po- 
tent Prince by far, and a very austere man, yet did he 
chuse rather to take Uncasses life away by treachery if he 
could ; and to that end hired a young man of the Pegod 
Nation to murther him, as is supposed, for in an evening, 
When it was very neer dark, this Sachim passing without 
any of his Retinue, from one wigwam to another, was 
suddainly shot through the arm with an arrow, seeing not 
whence it came ; but yet recovering the Palace he was 
passing unto, without receiving any more shot, he had the 
arrow drawn forth, and the wound cured in a short time 
after ; the young man, who was suspected to have done 
the fact, having great store of Wampumpeage, about this 
time being questioned how he came by it, could give no 
good accompt, which encreased the suspition the more, 
that he had received it as hire from Miantonemo for this 
fact ; and hereupon the young man fled unto him, which 
caused Uncas to complain to the English, who having the 
hearing of the case at a General Court holden at Boston, at 
the same time Miantonemo coming thither with his atten- 
dance, and sending one of his Councellors to follow the 
matter in hand, the young man was examined in presence 
of Miantonemo, being, as is supposed, tutored by him, 
he told this tale, that while he was in Uncasses Court, on 
a day travelling alone by a thick swamp, Uncas call'd hira 
out of the swamp, charging him to be true to him, in de* 
claring to the English what he required to him, which 
was, that he should say he had been hired of Miantonemo 
to kill him, and to make his matter good, quoth the 
young man, he then cut his arm on the top, and under- 
neath with the flint of his 'Gun, to make men think he had 
beene shot through with an arrow : This tale made the 
English more to suspect Miantonemo then before ; and 
therefore desired to examine the young man alone, which 
he was very unwilling they should do ; but upon further 
examination alone, they did verily believe this young man 


had done the fact, yet for present they let him depart with 
Miantonemo, advising him to send him home to Uncas, 
but by the way, he instead of returning him home, cut off 
his head, and forthwith gathered an army of about a thous- 
and men to fight with Uncas, who feared not to meet him 
in the field with half the number ; the battel being come 
within shot one of another, with a great hubbub they let 
their long shafts fly one at another, and after came to a 
close with other weapons, till the Narrowgansets multi- 
tude being sorely distressed by the Mawhiggins valour, 
they began to cry out Wammeek, which is to say, 
enough : Uncas like a stout commander, with others of 
his bloud-royal that were about him, sought to perfect 
his victory, by possessing himself with the person of their 
Prince, which he effected, by putting his Life-guard to 
flight, and taking hold on the Sachim himself, carried him 
victoriously away to the Town of Hartford, neer the 
which he kept his residence at this time, and then made 
the English acquainted there with his noble design, and 
desired to have the advise of the united colonies what to 
do with his prisoner ; the Narrowgansets sought to ran- 
som him home, being much abashed, that so mean a 
Prince as Uncas was should scape scotfree with such a 
victory ; but the honored Commissioners have had proof 
of Miantonemo's treachery, both toward this Prince that 
had him in possession, and toward the English in falsify- 
ing his promise with them ; they advised Uncas to put 
him to death, but withall, that he should forbear to exer- 
cise any barbarous cruelty toward him, as their manner 
is, and by this means the English prevented another war, 
both with English and Indians, which was very neer joy n- 
ing in battel. Not many *years after, the Indian Sachim 
upon this advise, caused Miantonemo to be led forth, as 
if he would remove him to a more safer place of custody, 
and by the way caused him to be executed ; the Indians, 
his kindred and subjects, were much grieved at his death, 

* This is a striking instance of the errours that infest thi9 book, printed at 
JLondon, while its author was in Massachusetts. For years we should read days* 
The Indian Prince waa murdered, as appears from Gov. Winthrop's MS. Histo- 
.ry, 28 Septr. 1643. Ed. 


yet took it quietly at present, but the lesser Princes, his 
Neighbours, rather rejoyced, he having tyrannized over 
them, and enforced them to subject to his will, right or 

chap. xxiv. — Of the proceeding of certain persons called Gortonists, 
against the united Colonies, and more especially against the Matta- 
chusets, and of the blasphemous doctrines broached by Gorton, de- 
luding a company of poor ignorant people therewith. 

For not long before, those persons that we spake of, 
who incouraged Miantonemo to this war, and with the 
help of him enforced Pomham and Socananocho to set 
their hands to a writing which these Gortonists had fram- 
ed, to ta!:e their land' from them ; but the poor Sachems, 
when they saw they were thus guil'd of their land, would 
take no pay for it, but complained to the Mattachusets 
Government, to whom they had subjected themselves and 
their lands : As also at this time certain English inhabit- 
ing those parts, with the Indians good leave and liking, 
desired to have the benefit of the Mattachusets Govern- 
ment, as Dover formerly rnd done, to whom this Govern- 
ment condescended, in hope they might encrease to such 
a competent number of godly Christians, as that there 
might be a Church of Christ planted, the place being ca- 
pable to entertain them in a comfortable measure for out- 
ward accommodation, but hitherto it hath been hindred 
by these Gortonists, and one of Plimoth, who forbad our 
people to plant there : These persons thus submitting, 
came at this time also to complain of certain wrongs done 
them by these Gortonists, who had thus incroached, and 
began to build on the Indians land ; upon these com- 
plaints, the Governor and the honored Mr. Dudly issue 
forth their Warrant, to summon them to appear, they be- 
ing then about five or six persons, without any means for 
instructing them in the wayes of God, and without any 
civil Goverment to keep them in civility or humanity, 
which made them to cast off most proudly and disdain- 
fully any giving accompt to man of their actions, no not 
to the chiefest in authority, but returned back most inso- 
lent, scornful, scurrilous speeches. After this, the Gov- 


ernment of the Mattachusets sent two messengers on 
purpose to pcrswade them to come and have their cause 
heard, assuring them like justice in their cause with any 
other ; but Samuel Gorton being the ring-leader of the 
rout, was so full gorged with dreadful and damnable er- 
rors, (the which he had newly insnared these poor souls 
with) that soon after the departure of the messenger, he 
layes aside all civil justice, and instead of returning answer 
to the matter in hand, he vomits up a whole paper full of 
beastly stuff, one while scoffing and deriding the ignorance 
of all beside himself, that think Abraham, Isaac, &c. could 
be saved by Christ Jesus, who was after born of the Vir- 
gin Mary, another while mocking at the Sacraments of 
Baptism and the Lords Supper, in an opprobrious man- 
ner, deriding at the Elements Christ was pleased to insti- 
tute them in, and calling them ^Negromancers that admin- 
ister them at all ; and in a word, all the Ordinances of the 
Gospel abominable Idolatry he called, and likened them 
to Moiock, and the Star of the Idol Rempham ; his pa- 
per was thrust full of such filthiness, that no Christian ear 
could hear them without indignation against them, and all 
was done by him in a very scornful and deriding manner, 
upbraiding all that use them ; in the mean time magnify- 
ing his own glorious light, that could see himself to be 
personally Christ, God-Man, and so all others that would 
believe as he did : This paper he got to be subscribed, 
with about twelve or thirteen hands, his numoer of Dis- 
ciples being en creased, for assuredly the man had a very 
glosing tongue, but yet very deceitful, for when he had 
but a few with him, then he cried out against all such as 
would rule over their own species, affirming, that the 
Scripture termeth such to be Gods of the world, or div- 
els ; but after his return from England, having received 
some incouragement from such as could not look into the 
depth of his deceits, being done at so large a distance, he 
getting into favour again with those, who had formerly 
whipt him out of their company, turns divel himself; the 
godly Governors of the Mattachusets seeing this blas- 
phemous Bull of his, resolved to send forty persons well- 

* necromancers I 

8 vol. vn. 


appointed with weapons of war for apprehending of him, 
who accordingly, with some waiting, did apprehend him 
and the rest of his company, except two or three which 
ran away without any hurt to any person, although he 
gave out very big words, threatning them with bloud and 
death so soon as they set foot on the ground, and yet this 
brazenface'd deceiver published in print the great fear 
their women were put unto by the souldiers, whereas 
they came among them day by day, and had it not been 
that they intended peaceably to take them, they would 
never have waited so long upon their worships as they 
did, but being apprehended, and standing to that they had 
written (yet would they willingly have covered it with 
some shifts if they could) the greatest punishment they 
had, was to be confin'd to certain Towns for a few 
moneths, and afterward banished ; but to be sure there 
be them in N. E. that have Christ Jesus and his blessed 
Ordinances in such esteem, that the Lord assisting, they 
had rather lose their lives, then suffer them to be thus 
blasphemed if they can help it ; and whereas some have 
favoured them, and endeavoured to bring under blame 
such as have been zealous against their abominable doc- 
trines, the good God be favourable unto them, and pre- 
vent them from coming under the like blame with Ahab, 
yet they remain in their old way, and there's somewhat to 
be considered in it to be sure, that in these daies, when 
all look for the fall of Antichrist, such detestable doc- 
trines should be upheld, and persons suffered, that exceed 
the Beast himself for blasphemy, and this to be done by 
those that would be counted Reformers, and such as seek 
the utter subversion of Antichrist. 

To end this year, or rather at the beginning of it, the 
Lord caused another Earthquake, much less then the for- 
mer, it was on the fifth of the first moneth called March 
in the morning. 


chap. xxv. — Of the planting the twenty fourth Church of Christ at 
the Town of Readding, and the twenty fifth Church of Christ in the 
Mattachusets Government, called Wenhain. 

This year was chosen to the place of Governor John 
Endicut Esquire, and Iohn Winthrope Esquire Deputy 
Governour ; the number of freemen added about 145. 
this year. 

The Town of Readding had her foundation stone laid 
about this time, this and the Town of Wooburn were 
like the twins in the womb of Tamar, Readding thrust- 
ing forth the hand first, but Wooburn came first to the 
birth, this Town is well watered, and scituate about a 
great pond, besides it hath two mills, the one a Saw-mill, 
the other a Corn mill, which stand on two several streams ; 
it hath not been so fruitful for children as her Sister hath, 
her habitation is fallen in the very center of the country, 
they are well stocked with cattel, for the number of peo- 
ple they have they gathered into a church, and ordained a 
Pastor from among themselves at the same time, a young 
man of good abilities to preach the Word, and of a very 
humble behaviour, named Mr. Green, he having finished 
his course, departed this life not long after, whose labours 
are with the Lord ; after him succeeded in the place one 
Mr. Hoph, a young man, one of the first fruits of N. E. a 
man studious to promote the, truths of Christ, they are 
both remembred in the following verse. 

On earths bed thou at noon hast laid thy head, 

You that for Christ (as Green) here toy I have taken, 
When nature fails, then rest it in earths de,d, 

Till Christ by's word with glory thee awaken. 
Young Hoph thou must be second to this man, 

In field incounter, with Christ's foes shalt thou 
Stand up, and take his bright sword in thy hand, 

Error cut down and make stout stomacks bow : 
Green's gone before, thy warfare's now begun, 

And last it may to see Romes Babel fall ; 
By weakest means Christ mighty works hath done, 

Keep footing fast, till Christ thee hence do call. 

The next Town and church of Christ planted in this 
colony, was between Salem and Ipswitch, Salem the eld- 


est of all the Sisters was very helpful to this her little Sis- 
ter, nourishing her up in her own bosom, till she came of 
age, being beneficial to her besides, in giving her a good 
portion of Land ; this Town is called Wenham, and is 
very well watered, as most in-land Towns are, the people 
live' altogether upon husbandry, New-England having 
train'd up great store to this occupation, they are increas- 
ed in cattel, and most of them live very well, yet are they 
no great company ; they were some good space of time 
there before they gathered into a Church-body, the god- 
ly and reverend Mr. John Fisk went thither with them, 
at first setting down as a planter among them, yet withal 
he became helpful in preaching the Word unto them, 
when they were but a few in number, they afterward 
cali'd him to the office of a Pastor, with whom he now 
remains, labouring in the Word and Doctrine, with great 
industry of whom, it may be thus said : 

To wade through to} 1 of Wilderness, thou hast 

Doubled thy work, thy wages treble are, 
Christ hath thee cali'd, and in his vineyard plac't, 

He 1 bear thee up above all fainting far. 
Sions strong Mount must now again be built, 

Thy faith, oh Fisk, the Lord hath holoen much ,* 
With dreadful sighs the Prelates power hath spilt, 

All pride he'J stain by his almighty touch. 
His truths unstain'd by liberty keep thou, 

To please the most, authority must fall, 
W T hat Christ hath given, it safely keep with you. 

Till he to thee for thine accompt do call. 

chap. xxvi. — Of the military affairs, the forts of Boston, and Charles, 
the Castle erected anew by the six neerest Towns, with the manner 
of putting the Country in a posture of war, to be ready upon all oc- 

These souldiers of Christ Jesus, having made a fair 
retreat from their Native country hither, and now being 
come to a convenient station, resolved to stand it out (the 
Lord assisting) against all such as should come to rob 
them of their priviledges, which the Lord Christ had pur- 
chased for them at a very high rate, and now out of the 
riches of his grace was minded to give them, yet would 

1644.] or sions saviour, in new England. 53 

he have them follow. him into this Wilderness for it : al- 
though the chiefcst work of these seieet bands of Christ, 
was to mind their spiritual warfare, yet they knew right 
well the Temple was surrounded with walls and bul- 
works, and the people of God in re-edifying the same, 
did prepare to resist their enemies with weapons of war, 
even while (hey continued building : This people no less 
diligent urmake use of such means as the Lord afforded 
them, ordered and decreed, That all the souldiers belong- 
ing to the 26. bands in the Mattachusets Government, 
should be exercised and drili'd eight daies in a yeare, and 
whosoever should absent himself, except it were upon 
"unavoidable occasion, should pay 5. s. for every daies 
neglect, there are none exempt, unless it be a few time- 
rous persons that are apt to plead infirmity, if the Church 
chuse them not for Deacons, or they cannot get to serve 
some Magistrate or Minister ; but assuredly the generali- 
ty of this people are very forward for feats of war, and 
many have spent their time and estates to further this 
work ; the Town of Boston hath afforded many active, 
Charles-Town hath not been inferiour, unless it be in 
number : This year the Court appointed certain persons 
to spend their skill in putting the people possessing this 
desolate desart in a ready posture of drawing their forces 
together, upon any suddain accident that might befall 
them, to mannage, guide, order, and direct all things, 
as may be best for the good of the whole, they being a 
poor and mean people, laboured to avoid high titles, yet 
order they knew was necessary, therefore ordained they 
only one General Officer in time of war, under the name 
of Major General, the Governor and Magistrates for the 
time being are the standing Councel for peace or war, 
and either they or the General Court may appoint any to 
the office of a General ; the first Major-General was the 
much honoured Tho. Dudly Esquire, whose faithfulness 
and great zeal and love to the truths of Christ, caused the 
people to choose him to this office, although he were far 
stricken in years ; the Government is divided into four 
Counties, which to shew, they would their posterity 


should mind whence they came, they have named, Suffolk, 
Middlesex, Essex, and Northfolk, each containing a reg- 
iment, over whom, the chief Commander is only a Ser- 
geant Major; the first chosen to this office over the Reg- 
iment of Suffolk, was Major Edw. Gibbons, who hath 
now the office of Major-General also, he is a man of a re- 
solute spirit, bold as a Lion, being wholly tutor'd up in 
N. E. Discipline, very generous, and forward to promote 
all military matters ; his Forts are well contrived, and bat- 
teries strong, and in good repair, his great Artillery well 
mounted, and cleanly kept, half Canon, Culverins and Sa- 
Lers, as also field-pieces of brass very ready for service, 
his own company led by Capt. Lievtenant *Sarag, are very 
compleat in their arms, and many of them disciplin'd in 
the military garden, beside their ordinary trainings ; the 
Captains under him, are Capt. Humphrey Atherton of the 
Band of Dorchester ; a very lively couragious man, with 
his stout and valiant Lievtenant fClapes, strong for the 
truth ; of the band of Roxbury, Capt. Prichard, and En- 
sign Iohnson ; of the Rand of Waymoth, Capt. Perkins, 
and his proper and active Lievtenant Tony ; of the Band 
of Hingham, Capt. Bozoan Allen ; of the Band of Dead- 
ham, Capt. Eliazer Lusher, one of a nimble and active 
spirit, strongly affected to the ways of truth ; of the Band 
of Braintree, Capt. William jTinge, these belong to the 
Regiment of Suffolk ; the first Serjeant- Major chosen to 
order the Regiment of Essex, was Major Robert Sedg- 
wick, stout and active in all feats of war, nurst up in Lon- 
dons Artillery garden, and furthered with fifteen years 
experience in N. E. exact theory, besides the help of a 
very good head-peice, being a frequent instructer of the 
most martial troops of our Artillery men ; and although 
Charles Town, (which is the place of his own companies 
residence) do not advantage such o're-topping batteries as 
Boston doth, yet hath he erected his to very good purpose, 
insomuch that ail shipping that comes in, either to Boston 
or Charles-Town, must needs face it all the time of their 
coming in ; the cost he hath been at, in helping on the 
Discipline of his Regiment hath profited much ; his own 

* Savage. | Clap. | Tj n »- 


company are led by the faithful Capt. Lievtenant Francis 
Norton, (a man of a bold and cheerful spirit) being well 
disciplin'd, and an able man ; the companies under his ser- 
vice have not all Captains at present, Water-Town 
Band was led by Capt. Ienings, who is supposed to be 
now in England, his Lievtenant remains Hugh Mason ; 
the band of Cambridg led by Capt. George Cook, now 
Colonel Cook in the wars of Ireland, but now led by Capt. 
Daniel Gookin, a very forward man to advance Marshal 
discipline, and withal the truths of Christ ; the Band of 
Concord led by Capt. Simon Willard, being a Kentish 
souldier, as is Capt. *Goggin ; the Band of Sudbury late- 
ly led by Capt. Pelham, who is in England at present, 
his Lievtenant remains, Eclm. Goodinow ; the band of 
Wooburn led by another Kentish Captain ; the Band of 
Reading led by Lievtenant Walker ; the Band of Mai- 
den, being as yet a young Town, who have not chosen 
their Officers, are led by Mr. Joseph Hill : These belong 
to the Regiment of Middlesex, the two Counties of Essex 
and Northfolk are for the present joyned in one Regi- 
ment, their first Major, who now commandeth this Regi- 
ment, is the proper and valiant Major Daniel Denison, a 
good souldier, and of a quick capacity, not inferiour to 
any other of these chief Officers, his own company are 
well instructed in feats of warlike activity, his Capt. 
Lievtenant departed this life some few years since, a god- 
ly and faithful man, which is indeed the fountain of true 
validity ; named Mr. Whitingam ; the Band of Salem 
led by the bold and worthy Capt. William Hauthorn, a 
man of an undaunted courage, with his Lievtenant Loth- 
rope ; the Band of Lyn led by the honored and much 
respected Capt. Robert Bridges, who is also a Magistrate, 
being endued with able parts, and forward to improve 
them for the glory of God and his peoples good ; the" 
Band of Nuberry led by Capt. Gerish, with his antient 
and experienced Lievtenant fGreenlife ; the Band of Row- 
ly led by Capt Brigham ; the Bands of Glocester, Wen- 
ham and Andover, have not yet made choice of Superi- 
our Officers, being in their minority ; these are the Band* 

* Gookin, just before ineationed. f Greejilcaf. 


of the Regiment of Essex, to the which are joyned the 
three Bands of the County of Northfolk, Salsbury, Hamp- 
ton, and Haverhil : there are none chosen to office in any 
of these Bands, but such as are freemen, supposed to be 
men indued with faith in Christ Jesus, wherefore let all 
that truly love the Lord Christ say with Deborah, My 
heart is toward the Governors of Israel, that offered them- 
selves willingly among tne people, their Officers are cho- 
sen by the major Vote of the souldiers, being installed 
into their place by the Major of their Regiment : There 
are of late a very gallant horse-troop listed, it being a fre- 
quent thing with the Officers of the foot companies, to 
turn Troopers, (when their own Regiment is not in ex- 
ercise) for incouragement of others, the Regiments are 
exercised once a year by turnes ; they are also very ob- 
servant to keep their amies in good order ; each oouldier 
is to keep constantly by him powder, bullet and match, 
besides every Town is injoyned to have a common stock 
in like manner, as also the country have their ammunition 
exactly looked unto, by Surveyor General Johnson, one 
very well qualified for the work, ready at all times to put 
the General Court in mind of keeping their store renucd 
by fresh supply, aiid to say right, some particular persons 
may be penurious in laying out their estates upon am- 
munition, but the general of Officers and souldiers are 
very generous that way ; the reverend Doctor Wilson 
gave bountifully for the furthering this Wilderness- work, 
the which was expended upon great Artillery, his gift 
being a thousand pound, beside many persons that came 
over, the Lord was pleased to indow with a large por- 
tion of the things of this life, who were not backward liber- 
ally to dispose of it, to procure means of defence, and to 
that end there was a castle built on an Island, upon the 
passage into the Mattachu-Bay, wholly built at first by 
the country in general, but by reason the country affords 
ho Lime, but what is burnt of Oyster-shels, it fell to de- 
cay in a few years after, which made many of the Towns 
that lay out of the defence thereof to desert it, although 
their safety (under God) was much involved in the constant 


repair and well-mannaging thereof; hereupon the next six 
Towns take upon them to rebuild it at their proper cost 
and charges, the rest of the country upon the finishing 
thereof gave them a small matter toward it ; upon this 
there was a Captain ordained, and put in possession there- 
of by the country, having a yearly Stipend allowed him 
for himself and his souldiers, which he is to keep in a con- 
stant readiness upon the Island, being about eight acres of 
ground ; the Castle is built on the North-East of the Is- 
land, upon a rising hill, very advantageous to make many 
shot at such ships as shall offer to enter the Harbor with- 
out their good leave and liking, the Commander of it is 
one Captain Davenport, a man approved for his faithful- 
ness, courage and skill, the Master Canoneer is an active 
Ingineer ; also this Castle hath cost about four thousand 
pounds, yet are not this poor pilgrim people weary 
of maintaining it in good repair, it is of very good 
use to awe any insolent persons, that putting confidence 
in their ship and sails, shall offer any injury to the people, 
or contemn their Government, they have certain signals of 
alarums, which suddenly spread through the whole coun- 
try ; were there but one Town more erected in this Gov- 
ernment, which were one and thirty, it would joyn all the 
Towns in the same neighbourly together, excepting 
Spring-field. Thus are these people with great diligence 
provided for these daies of war, hoping the day is at hand 
wherein the Lord will give Antichrist the double of all 
*her doings, and therefore they have nursed up in their 
Artillery garden some who have since been used, as in- 
struments to begin the work ; but that which gives the 
greatest hope concerning this particular, is this, that these 
times afford more souldiers depending on the Lord 
Christ through faith for deliverance and true valour, then 
any age since Antichrist began to fall, without which, all 
these preparations were but as so many traps and snares 
to catch a people in, and to the which these Command- 
ers and souldiers are daily exhorted, and therefore let all 
people know that desire the downfal of New England, 
they are not to war against a people only exercised in feat« 

9 VOL. VII. 

• his 5 


of war, but men who are experienced in the deliverances 
of the Lord from the mouth of the Lion, and the paw of 
the Bear ; and now woe be to you, when the same God 
that directed the stone to the forehead of the Phifistine, 
guides every bullet that is shot at you, it matters not for 
the whole rabble of Antichrist on your side, the God of 
Armies is for us a refuge high. Shela. 

[To be continued.] 

A Summary Notice of the First Settlements 


I. In East Tennessee. 

AN the spring of 1768, a few adventurers, from the neigh- 
bourhood of Raleigh in North Carolina, crossed the moun- 
tains, westwardly, in search of a new place of residence. 
And, having explored the country on Watauga River, 
they selected a spot there, made some preparation, return- 
ed, and, the same year, moved over their families, ten in 
number, to live in the interminable wilderness. 

At the head of this little colony was James Robertson, 
afterwards so extensively known by the title of General ; 
whose name the early history of Tennessee, if ever writ- 
ten in detail, will exhibit on many a page. 

This now became a place of rendezvous to all who fol- 
lowed their footsteps over the same stupendous heights. 
And so many gathered in, from the Carolinas and Virgin- 
ia, that, within three years, they could muster nearly three 
hundred soldiers. 

But, in the very infancy of the settlement, by a treaty 
with the Cherokees, held under authority from the gov- 
ernment of the last mentioned province, a boundary was 
established, to run from the White-Top Mountain in a 
west direction to Holston River, on a parallel of latitude of 
about 36* degrees. The inhabitants of Watauga were, 
consequently, left on Indian ground, in no better condition 


than that of trespassers. And it was not long before they 
were ordered, by Alexander Cameron, to move off. Cam- 
eron was deputy agent from the government of England, 
resident among the Cherokees. But part of the Chero- 
kees, notwithstanding his zeal, expressed a desire that the 
trespassers might be permitted to remain, provided they 
would make no further encroachments. 

This favourable symptom was not long neglected. But 
Robertson and John Bean were deputed by these tenants 
at will, in 1771, to treat with their landlords, and agree 
upon articles of accommodation and friendship. The at- 
tempt succeeded. For, though the Indians refused to 
give up the lands gratuitously, they consented, for a stip- 
ulated amount of merchandize, muskets and other articles 
of convenience, the value of the whole estimated at five or 
six thousand dollars, to lease for eight years, all the coun- 
try on the waters of Watauga. After this the settlement 
increased with still greater rapidity than before. 

The next year, Jacob Brown, with a family or two, mi- 
grated from North Carolina, and settled on Nolichucky 
River, a step nigher to the scalpers. There he kept a lit- 
tle supply of goods suited to their taste and convenience, 
in order to maintain a traffic with them to advantage. 
And, by this means, ingratiating himself into their favour, 
he soon courted them to a treaty, in which he contracted 
for the lands on the Nolichucky, as had been done on the 

The property paid to the Indians in fulfilment of these 
covenants, was compensated for, in both cases, by sales 
of the lands. Those who advanced it reimbursed them- 
selves from the settlers. 

Thus a nursery of population was planted in East Ten- 
nessee never to be eradicated. 

But, far removed from the parent provinces, separated 
not only by trackless forests, but by numerous ranges of 
mountains, they were as little protected, controlled, or re- 
collected, by any government whatever, as their cotenants, 
the bears. What people ever approached nearer to the 
imaginary state of nature ? Yet they lived in extraordina- 
ry harmony among themselves, and in perfect amity with 


the Cherokees, the only power by which they were recog- 

Multiplied, however, as they were, some more formal act 
of association had been considered as expedient. And, 
accordingly, a code of laws was drawn up to be signed by 
every individual. If any one should refuse he was to be 
debarred from its benefits. But there was no recusant. 

What example does history furnish of a government 
more perfectly democratical than this ? Magistrates were 
elected, under the denomination of trustees, by whom all 
controversies were to be decided, conformably to the 
written code. There was much energy in the system, 
and it proved very satisfactory. 

Thus organized, their affairs continued prosperous, till 
the commencement of the revolutionary war. And so 
great had been the augmentation, that, in 1776, they 
could have raised seven or eight hundred riflemen. 

But when it appeared, that this grand conflict would in- 
evitably become universal, Cameron sent very enticing 
letters to them, endeavouring with many fine promises of 
protection in case of their loyalty, to attach them to the 
British interest. The peril of their situation was too ob- 
vious ; but they unanimously resolved, whatever the issue 
should be, to participate in the struggle for independence. 

As soon as Cameron had ascertained this determina- 
tion, a project was contrived to spread desolation over the 
whole settlement at once, by making a sudden incursion, 
and attacking it on all quarters by surprise. But the bar- 
barous design was happily frustrated. The electrical 
flame of liberty, so spontaneous, so efficacious, was not 
confined to the atmosphere of civilization. Four white 
men, having long sojourned among the Cherokees, were 
entrusted with the bloody secret. But, true to the cause 
of humanity and freedom, they made their escape, and 
gave seasonable notice of the meditated invasion. 

These tidings produced no inconsiderable terror. A 
large proportion of the people recrossed the Alleghany, 
and fled back for shelter to the several places of their na- 


But the panic was not universal. Enough remained 
to man and maintain a garrison, situated on the Holston, 
near the Sycamore Shoals. Yet so sensible they were of 
their comparative weakness, that they delegated John Car- 
ter and George Russell, to repair to North Carolina, make 
a representation of matters, and solicit the interposition of 
that state, and the necessary assistance. The application 
was attended to, and measures adopted preparatory to their 
relief. All this new country was erected into a county, 
by the name of Washington. And the little republic, 
which originated not in opposition, but convenience, now 
became an integral part of the great commonwealth, with- 
in the chartered limits of which it was situated. The act 
of Assembly for this purpose bears date in December, 
1777. But the settlers, at the suggestion of Robertson, 
had called their territory Washington District, several 
years before. 

Robertson was captain of the garrison ; and the next in 
command was Lieutenant John Sevier, so often afterwards 
elected governor of Tennessee. 

In the fall of the same year, troops arrived from North 
Carolina and Virginia, who were joined by Robertson and 
seventy men from the garrison ; the whole amounting to 
about eighteen hundred. They marched rapidly, struck 
home upon the Cherokees, vanquished wherever they 
came, ruined many towns, and destroyed stocks of pro- 
visions, and so crippled those savage enemies, that they 
were obliged to submit to terms. A treaty was agreed 
upon ; and poor Cameron hurried himself to Pensacola, 

The treaty was held in the spring following, at a place 
in the Holston called Long Island, under the joint author- 
ity of Virginia and North Carolina. Peace was mutually 
promised ; and Robertson was appointed agent, to reside 
at some central place in the Cherokee nation, in behalf of 
the two associated states. 

Only a paragraph more will be added to this article ; 
the design being simply to trace the progress of the set- 
tlement till it acquired rank and permanence. 

A powerful Cherokee chief had refused to join in the 
treaty, persisting in his attachment to the British ; and, 


with a few adherents, went down the Tennessee River, 
dissatisfied, and commenced a new settlement at a place 
called Chickamauga. Numbers followed him, prompted 
by a disposition to plunder and carnage. Discord ensued ; 
and injuries to the whites, perpetrated by this mischievous 
party, became so frequent, following almost in contact 
with each other, that chastisement could no longer be de- 
layed. Accordingly, in 1779, an expedition for that pur- 
pose was undertaken, commanded by Isaac Shelby, the 
late celebrated governor of Kentucky, then a resident in 
Washington county. It was directed specially against 
Chickamauga. Peaceable Indians were not to be molest- 
ed. It proved effectual. Chickamauga fell ; and the 
hostile wretches, partly disabled, and partly intimidated? 
were for the present innocuous. 

II. In West Tennessee. 

A treaty, it is said, was held with the Cherokees in 
1775, by Colonel Richard Henderson, by which they 
ceded to the whites the whole Kentucky country, and all 
the lands on the waters of Cumberland River. Room be- 
ing thus presented, the same enterprising Robertson with 
ten men, including a negro, started, on the 6th of Febru- 
ary, 1779, from the Holston settlement, to explore and 
take possession of the country on the Cumberland. 

To appreciate the greatness of the undertaking, we 
must pause long enough to picture in our minds, an im- 
measureable forest in front, infested by ferocious beasts, 
and not without singular danger from ferocious bipeds ; 
and follow in imagination these eleven heroes, as they 
penetrate three hundred miles into an untrodden undelin- 
eated wilderness. 

Some information, it is true, had been obtained res- 
pecting the country from a daring company of hunters ; 
who passed over Cumberland Mountain in 1768, and 
down the river almost to its junction with the Ohio, in 
quest of peltry and furs. Oby River lay in their route ; 


which then received its appellation from one of their party, 
named Obadiah Tyrrell. But the principal characters 
were Colonel Isaac Bledsoe and Gasper Mansker. 

From the tedious time of their absence, which was 
nearly a year, combined perhaps with the unrivalled 
length of their venatic excursion, they were afterwards 
currently styled the long hunters. To what privations 
will not man submit ! Flesh was their only food. And 
their other accommodations can be easily imagined. 

But it proved a lucky adventure. And some of them 
built canoes, which they loaded with the spoils of the for- 
est ; and then extended their trip to New Orleans by 
water, for the sake of a better market. 

More than ten years had elapsed afterwards, when 
Robertson and associates made their ingress into this land 
of fertility. They too passed along Oby River. And 
having arrived at its mouth, constructed a boat, in which 
they put three of the company, together with the baggage, 
to navigate down stream to a specified place on the Cum- 
berland, near where the the town of Nashville now flour- 
ishes. There they were rejoined by the rest of the elev- 
en, who pursued their devious course on horseback. And 
there they vigourously engaged in the planting of corn. 

But before the month of May, they had received an 
accession of thirty or forty persons more ; some from 
Holston ; some from Carolina ; some from Virginia ; and 
some from the new settlement at Lexington in Ken- 
tucky. And the planting of corn was still continued. 

At length, leaving three men to hoid possession and 
take care of the corn, the rest returned, to bring out their 
families in the fall following. But Robertson with seve- 
ral more went over to the Illinois country, to visit the 
French settlement there. And such was their speed, in 
this peregrination, that in July they had accomplished 
their return to Holston. 

A new country is the place for migration. In October 
they started. 

Roberton himself, with a number of men, driving their 
cattle and other live stock, set forward in the path to 
Kentucky, as the most practicable route, though circuit- 


oils. And they had the good fortune to arrive at their 
corn patches on Cumberland some time in November, 
and to find all safe. 

The families were put afloat, to descend the Tennessee 
River in boats ; and from its mouth to work up the stream 
to the place of their destination. But the veil of futurity 
covered many of the difficulties which they had to encoun- 
ter. They lost in their way thirty or forty of their num- 
ber, some killed and some taken prisoners, by a party of 
Indians, who collected about Chickamauga, to attack 
them unexpectedly. And, besides other accidents, they 
were much delayed by the unusual freezing of the river. 
The severest winter ensued, that white people have ever 
experienced in the Mississippi valley : it was April before 
their voyage was completed. 

And trials were yet in reserve. The greetings were 
scarcely over, when, in the same month of April, 1780, 
the Indians recommenced hostilities, which they contin- 
ued, till the termination of the war then existing with 
England. And they were frequently troublesome after- 
wards, till retaliative vengeance, inflicted upon a number 
of their villages, taught them to dread a people of such 
martial energy, so rapidly increasing in numbers and ex- 
tent against every obstacle and every pressure. 

There were few on my arrival in the country in 1796, 
but could recite scenes of barbarity. General and Mrs. 
Hobertson enumerated to me about twenty persons, then 
living, in West Tennessee, who had lost their scalps. 
The number that had lost their lives was unknown. 

But the days of perturbation were past. In 1783, the 
country had been formed into a county, called Davidson, 
and taken under the protection of North Carolina, to 
which state it belonged. This was of some consequence 
to the people ; though their own prowess, under favour 
of the Deity, was their best security. 

On their first arrival, they had adopted a mode of 
government, suited to their exigencies, and similar to that, 
of which we have seen a specimen on the waters of Hol- 
ston. It proved equally salutary, and continued? till their 
organization into a county. 


Those who admire fortitude will not fail to contemplate 
the circumstances of the first settlers about Nashville. 
Notwithstanding they were surrounded by so many con- 
centric circles of danger and perplexity, human assistance 
was impracticable. Their nearest neighbours, of the same 
complexion, were two hundred miles distant, the settle- 
ment at Lexington scarce able to protect itself. And to 
that in Holston it was three hundred, and roadless. But 
they were preserved, and are now a rich and vigorous 

Hilham, July 1, 1816. 

Note on the County of Hillsborough, N. H. 
December 1, 1816. By John Farmer. 

Situation and Boundaries. 1 HE tract of country which 
constitutes the county of Hillsborough, extends from the 
southern line of the state of New Hampshire to north lat- 
itude 43° 27 ? . It has Grafton county on the north, Rock- 
ingham on the east, Middlesex in Massachusetts on 
the south, and Cheshire on the west. The boundaries as 
established by a law passed 16 June, 1791, are as follow: 
Beginning at the southeast corner of Nottingham- West, 
thence westerly by the state line to the south east corner 
of Rindge, thence by the easterly side lines of Rindge, 
Jaffrey, Dublin, Packersfieid, Stoddard and Washington 
to the north easterly corner of Washington, thence by the 
northerly side line of Washington to the south westerly 
corner of Fishersfield, thence on the westerly side line of 
Fishersfield and New London to the north westerly cor- 
ner of said New London, thence on the north easterly 
lines of New London and Kearsarge, and the northerly 
side line of Andover to Pemigewasset River, thence on the 
line of the county of Strafford and Rockingham to the 
bounds first mentioned. Hillsborough was made a coun- 
ty in 1771, when the state was divided into five counties, 

10 VOL. VII. 


The courts were for many years holelen at Amherst ; but 
as the population increased, the convenience of the inhab- 
itants required a half shire town, and Hopkinton was se- 
lected. The courts are now holden at Amherst in Feb- 
ruary and October ; at Hopkinton in April and Septem- 
ber. The settlement of the county commenced previous 
to the memorable war with the Indians, called " King 
Philip's war." The first English inhabitants seated them- 
selves at Dunstable, which was for many years a frontier 
town, and suffered considerably from the Indians. 

Rivers* The county of Hillsborough is watered by 
Merrimack,* Nashua, Souhegan, Piscataquog, Contoo- 
cook and Black water Rivers. The River Merrimack 
forms the boundary on the eastern line for a few miles be- 
low Hooksett Falls, and above the town of Boscawen to 
the northern line of the county. Nashua runs through the 
south eastern part of the county and empties into the Merri- 
mack at Dunstable. Souhegan rises in Worcester coun- 
ty and enters the county of Hillsborough at New Ipswich, 
pursuing a course through Mason, Wilton, Milford, Am- 
herst and Merrimack, and empties into Merrimack River 
in the town of Merrimack. Piscataquog, which is form- 
ed of numerous branches, rises in the vicinity of Lynde- 
borough and Weare, and empties into the Merrimack, in 
Bedford. ContooCook is a long, narrow stream, watering 
the towns in the western part of the county, and empties 
into the Merrimack near the divisional line between the 
towns of Concord and Boscawen. Blackwater River 
passes through the northern part of the county, and emp- 
ties into the Merrimack at Salisbury. 

Climate. In order to shew the difference of tempera- 
ture, according to Fahrenheit's thermometer, in the south- 
erly and northerly part of the county, the following result 
of thermometrical observations from August, 1810, to 
August, 1811, is subjoined. 

* It is not known Avhen the River Merrimack was disaovered. It was ancient- 
ly spelled Merramacke and Monnomacke. In Molls' folio Geography, printed in 
1701, it is spelt Marimake. 



At Amherst, Lat. 42 

greatest. least. 

1810. August, 85 
fee;>temb. 87 
October, 83 
Novemb. 60 
Decemb. 54 

3811. January, 57 
March, 64 








* Below zero. 

° 57\ 









27 ' 



















At Salisbury, Lat. 43° 27' 

greatest, least. 

s 810. August, 86° 50*> 

Septemb. 8o 45 

October, 76 22 

Novemb. 57 17 

Decemb. 5 1 5 

181 J. January, 50 # 1 1 

February, 4 4 *2 

March, 02 10 

April, 76 20 

May, 76 36 

June, 92 45 

July, 94 54 

77 o 


Mean— 53° 25' 

Below zero. 

The observations at Amherst were made by the writer 
of this article near the meeting house, about 7 miles from 
Merrimack River and 12 from the southern line of the 
state. Those at Salisbury were made by Doctor Job 
Wilson, author of an Enquiry into the nature and treat- 
ment of the Prevailing Epidemic called the Spotted Fever, 
from which the foregoing statement is taken. In com- 
paring the mean of the two statements, it will be found 
that in the spring and summer months there was a great- 
er mean degree of heat at Salisbury ; that in the winter 
months a greater degree prevailed at Amherst. The 
number of fair days at Amherst was 244, of rain 90. At 
Salisbury during the same period the number of fair days 
was 236, of rain 75. 

Population. The following table exhibits the popu- 
lation of each town at every period an enumeration has 
been made. The numbers for 1775, are taken from the 
appendix to the third volume of Dr. Belknap's Hist. N. 
Hamp. The numbers at the other periods have been 
taken from the official account published by Col. Daniel 
Warner, who took the census in 1790, 1800 and 1810. 




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The increase in 15 years, from 1775 to 1790 was 
16,885, in ten years from 1790 to 1800, 11,040, in ten 
years from 1800 to 1810, 5,371. Hillsborough ranks as 
the second county in population in New Hampshire, and 
has but 893 inhabitants less than the county of Rocking- 
ham. The number of votes for governor returned to 
the Secretary's office from Hillsborough county in 1813, 
was 8074; in 1814, 8811. 

Academies. There are two incorporated Academies 
in the county. The first, the New Ipswich Academy, 
was incorporated in 1789, and is still in operation. " Its 
fund is about 2,333 dollars. 5 ' The Aurean Academy at 
Amherst was incorporated in 1750, but for want of effi- 
cient funds discontinued about 1801. A public school 
succeeded, which has been generally supported by as- 
sessments for tuition. This is usually kept about half the 

Manufactures, According to a statement furnished 
by Col. Warner, there were in the county of Hillsbo- 
rough, in 1810, 56 tanneries, which tanned yearly, 6150 
hides and 12,000 skins ; — 1 paper mill, making 12,000 
dollars worth of paper, annually ;— 2 distilleries, pro- 
ducing 5000 gallons of spirits, annually ;■ — 38 fulling 
mills, which fulled 126,500 yards of cloth, annually ; and 
dressed about 90,000 yards of thin cloths ; — 10 shearing 
machines ; — 35 carding machines, going by water, which 
carded 158,000 pounds of wool, yearly ; — 2 woollen 
spinning mills ; — 2 oil mills, producing 6000 gallons per 
annum ; — 5 nail cutting machines, making 10 tons per 
annum ; — 6 trip hammers ; — 16 hatters, making 4000 
fur, and 6000 wool hats, annually ; — 5490 private looms, 
which wove 1,158,160 yards of cloth, annually. The 
number of these manufactures has since greatlv increas- 

Newspapers. The first printing press set up in the 
county, was established at Amherst by Nathaniel Cover- 
ly, who died at Boston, the present month at the age of 
75. The newspapers, with the dates of their establish- 
ment, the names of the editors, will be exhibited in the 



following table, 

They have all been, published at Am- 

Newspapers. Editors* 

" Amherst Journal and the C 
New Hampshire Advertiser." I 


" The Village Messenger." «^ 

The Farmer's Cabinet,' 

Nathaniel Coverly. 

William Biglow and 
Samuel Gushing. 
Samuel Cushing, alon 
SamueJ Preston. 
Joseph Cushing. 

Date of establisliment, &c. 
1G January, 1795. 

^ Richard Boylston. 

9 January, 179fi. 

Com. V2 July. 1796. 

18 April, 1797. 

11 November, 1802. 

10 October, 1809. 

The first of these papers was discontinued about the close of the year 1795, and 
the " Village Messenger" December, 1801. The " Farmer's Cabinet" still con- 

Professional men. The number of attornies in the pre- 
ceding towns is between thirty and forty ;— the number of 
settled clergymen of all denominations is about forty. 
One of the judges of the Superior Court, and two of the 
Court of Common Pleas, one of the senators elect and 
representative to Congress, reside in this county. 

Rev. A. Holmes, D. D. Cambridge. 

Letter from Dr. Franklin to Dr. Heberden, 
1759, on Inoculation for Small Pox. 

Amherst, N. H. October 8, 1816. 
Rev* Sir, 

AT this time I send you an account of the success 
of Inoculation in Boston, written by Dr. Franklin, and 
sent by him to Dr. Heberden of London. I have tran- 
scribed it from a pamphlet printed in London in 1759. 
With much respect, 

Your obedient servant, 

Rev. Dr. Holmes. 

London, Feb. 16, 1759. 

.HAVING been desired by my greatly esteemed friend 
Dr. William Heberden, F. R. S. one of the principal 
physicians of this city, to communicate what account I 


had of the success of Inoculation in Boston, New-England, 
I some time since wrote and sent to him the following pa- 
per, viz. About 1753 or 54, the Small Pox made its 
appearance in Boston, New England, It had not spread 
in the town for many years before, so that there were a 
great number of the inhabitants to have it. At first en- 
deavours were used to prevent its spreading by removing 
the sick or guarding the houses in which they were ; and 
with the same view Inoculation was forbidden ; but when 
it was found that these endeavours were fruitless, the dis- 
temper breaking out in different quarters of the town, and 
increasing, Inoculation was then permitted. 

Upon this, all that inclined to inoculation for themselves 
or families, hurried into it precipitately, fearing the infec- 
tion might otherwise be taken in the common way ; the 
numbers inoculated in every neighbourhood spread the 
infection likewise more speedily among those who did not 
choose Inoculation ; so that in a few months, the distem- 
per went thro' the town, and was extinct ; and the trade 
of the town suffered only a short interruption, compar'd 
with what had been usual in former times, the country 
people during the seasons of that sickness fearing all in- 
tercourse with the town. 

As the practice of Inoculation always divided people in- 
to parties, some contending warmly for it, and others as 
strongly against it ; the latter asserting that the advanta- 
ges pretended were imaginary ; and that the Surgeons, 
from views of interest, concealed or diminished the true 
number of deaths occasion'd by Inoculation, and magni- 
fy 'd the number of those who died of the Small Pox in 
the common way : It was resolved by the Magistrates of 
the town, to cause a strict and impartial enquiry to be 
made by the Constables of each ward, who were to give 
in their returns upon oath ; and that the enquiry might 
be more strictly and impartially, some of the partisans for 
and against the practice were join'd as assistants to the of- 
ficers, and accompany'd them in their progress through 
the wards from house to house. Their several returns 
being received, and summ'd up together, the numbers 
turn'd out as follows, 



in the common way 

I Of these died 

Whites Blacks 






Received the distem- 
per by Inoculation 

Whites Blacks 
1974 139 

Of these died. 

Whites Blacks 
23 7 

It appeared by this account that the deaths of persons in- 
oculated were more in proportion at this time than had 
been formerly observed, being something more than one 
in a hundred. The favourers of Inoculation however 
would not allow that this was owing to any error in the 
former accounts, but rather to the Inoculating at this time 
many unfit subjects, partly through the impatience of 
people who would not wait the necessary preparation, lest 
they should take it in the common way ; and partly from 
the importunity of parents prevailing with the Surgeons 
against their judgment and advice to inoculate weak chil- 
dren, labouring under other disorders ; because the pa- 
rents could not immediately remove them out of the way 
of the distemper, and thought they would at least stand a 
better chance by being inoculated, than in taking the in- 
fection, as they would probably do, in the common way. 
The Surgeons and Physicians were also suddenly op- 
pressed with the great hurry of business, which so hasty 
and general an Inoculation and spreading of the distem- 
per in the common way must occasion, and probably 
could not so particularly attend to the circumstances of 
the patients offered for Inoculation. 

Inoculation was first practised in Boston by Dr. Boyl- 
stone in 1720. It was not used before in any part of 
America, and not in Philadelphia till 1730. Some years 
since, an enquiry was made in Philadelphia of the sever- 
al Surgeons and Physicians who had practised Inocula- 
tion, what numbers had been by each inoculated, and 
what was the success. The result of this enquiry was, 
that upwards of 800, (I forget the exact number) had 
been inoculated at different times, and that only four of 
them had died. — If this account was true, as I believe it 
was, the reason of greater success there than had been 
found in Boston, where the general loss by Inoculation 
used to be estimated at about one in 100, may probably 
be from this circumstance ; that in Boston they always 
keep the distemper out as long as they can, so that when 

11 VOL. VII. 


it comes, it finds a greater number of adult subjects than 
in Philadelphia^ where since 1730 it has gone through the 
town once in four or five years, so that the greatest num- 
ber of subjects for Inoculation must be under that age. 

Notwithstanding the now uncontroverted success of 
Inoculation, it does not seem to make that progress 
among the common, people in America, which was at first 
expected. Scruples of conscience weigh with many, con- 
cerning the lawfulness of the practice : And if one par- 
ent or near relation is against it, the other does not choose- 
to inoculate a child without free consent of all parties, lest 
iii case of a disastrous event, perpetual blame should fol- 
low. These scruples a sensible Clergy may in time re- 
move. — The expence of having the operation performed 
by a Surgeon, weighs with others, for that has been pretty 
high in some parts of America ; and where a common 
tradesman or artificer has a number in his family to 
have the distemper, it amounts to more money than he 
can well spare. Many of these, rather than own the true 
motive for declining Inoculation, join with the scrupulous 
in the cry against it, and influence others. A small 
Pamphlet. wrote in plain language by some skilful Physi- 
cian, and published, directing what preparations of the 
body should be used before the Inoculation of children, 
what precaution to avoid giving the infection at the same 
time in the common way, and how the operation is to be 
performed, the incisions dressed, the patient treated, and 
on the appearance what symptoms a Physician is to be 
called, &x. might by encouraging parents to inoculate 
their own children, be a means of removing that objec- 
tion of the expence, render the practice much more gen- 
eral, and thereby save the lives of thousands.* 


of Philadelphia. 

Note. I have copied this without any alteration, having preserv- 
ed the orthography aud words italicised. 

* A Pamphlet of this description, entitled Plain Instructions for Inoc- 
u la 7 ion in the Small Pox, was written by Dr. Heberden, who, generous- 
ly, and at his own private expense, printed a very targe impression of them, and 
put them into the hands of Dr. Franklin for gratuitous distribution in America. 


Rhode Island State Papers. 

[The following papers, transcribed from the Records of Rhode Island, 
were lately transmitted to the Secretary by Samuel Eddy, Esq. a 
Corresponding Member of the Society. Selected and authenticated 
by himself, the Secretary of that State, they have the fullest claim 
to credence, as official and correct. Extracts from some of them 
have been printed ; but none of them are known to have been pub- 
lished entire. Sensible of the importance of State Papers to the Il- 
lustration of the earJy history of our country, we readily insert these 
valuable documents in our Collections. The notes accompanied 
the paper?. Edit.] 

Deposition of Roger Williams, 1682. 

Warragaiisett, 18 Jane, 1882, Ut Ynlgo- 

I TESTIFY, as in the presence of the ail making and 
all seeing God, that about fifty years since, I coming into 
this Narraganset country, I found a great contest between 
three sachems, two (to wit, Connonicus and Meantinomy) 
were against Ousamaquin, on Plymouth side. I was 
forced to travel between them three to pacify, to satisfy, 
all their and their dependants spirits, of my honest inten- 
tions to live peaceably by them. I testify that it was the 
general and constant declaration, that Connonicus his fa- 
ther had three sons, whereof Connonicus was the heir, 
and his youngest brother's son Meantinomy (because of 
bis youth) was his marshal and executioner, and did 
nothing without his uncle Connonicus' consent. And 
therefore I declare to posterity, that w r ere it not for the 
favour that God gave me with Connonicus, none of these 
parts, no, not Rhode Island, had been purchased or ob- 
tained, for I never gat any thing of Connonicus but by- 
gift. I also profess, that being inquisitive of what root 
the title or denomination Nahiganset should come, I 
heard that Nahiganset was so named from a little island 
(between Puttequomscut and Musquomacuk on the sea 
and fresh water side. I went on purpose to see it, and 
about the place called Sugar Loaf Hill I saw it, and was 
within a pole of it ; but could not learn why it was called 
Nahiganset. I had learnt that the Massachusetts was* 


called so from the Blue Hills.) A little island thereabout, 
and Connonicus' father and ancestors living in those 
southern parts transferred and brought their authority and 
name into these northern parts, all along by the sea side, 
as appears by the great destruction of wood all along 
near the sea side. And I desire posterity to see the gra- 
cious hand of the Most High (in whose hands is all 
hearts) that when the hearts of my countrymen and friends 
and brethren failed me, his infinite wisdom and merits 
stirred up the barbarous heart of Connonicus to love me 
as his son to his last gasp ; by which means I had not 
only Meantinomy, and all the Corveset sachems my 
friends, but Ousamaquin also, who, because of my great 
friendship with him at Plymouth, and the authority of 
Connonicus, consented freely (being also well gratified 
by me) to the Governor Winthrop's and my enjoyment 
of Prudence, yea of Providence itself, and all the other 
lands I procured of Connonicus which were upon the 
Point, and in effect whatsoever I desired of him. And I 
never denied him nor Meantinomy whatever they desired 
of me, as to goods or gifts or use of my boats and pin- 
nace, and the travels of my own person, day and night, 
which though men know not, nor care to know, yet the 
all seeing eye hath seen it, and his all powerful hand hath 
helped me, blessed be his holy name to eternity. 


Deposition of William Coddington, 1677. 

William Codding ton, Esq. aged about seventy 
six years old, testifieth upon his engagement, that when 
he was one of the magistrates of the Massachusetts Colo- 
ny, he was one of the persons that made a peace with 
Canonicus and Meantinomy, in the behalf of all the Nar- 
ragansett Indians, and by order from the authority of the 
Massachusetts, a liltle before they made war with the Pe- 
quod Indians. Not long after, this deponent went from 
Boston to find a plantation to settle upon, came to Aqued- 
neck, now called Rhode Island, where was a sachem 


called Wennametonomey, and this deponent went to buy 
the island of him, but his answer was, that Canonicus 
and Meantinomy were the chief sachems, and that he 
could not sell the land. Whereupon this deponent, with 
some others, went from Aquedneck Island unto the Nar- 
ragansett, to the said sachems, Canonicus and Meantino- 
my, and bought the island of them, they having, as I un- 
derstood, the chief command, both of the Narraganset 
and Aquedneck Island. And further saith not. Taken 
upon engagement in Newport, on Rhode Island, the 27th 
day Sept. 1677. 

Before P. San ford, Assist. 

See Williams' Letter, Hazard, vol. I. 613. 

Form of Government, agreed to by the first 
Settlers on the Island of Rhode Island. 
" The 7th day of the first Month 1 633. 

We whose names are underwritten do here solemnly, 
in the presence of Jehovah, incorporate ourselves into a 
body politic, and as he shall help, will submit our persons, 
lives, and estates, unto our Lord Jesus Christ, the King 
of Kings and Lord of Lords, and to all those perfect and 
most absolute laws of his, given us in his holy word of 
truth to be guided and judged thereby." In the margin 
are these references : Exod. 24. 3. 4. 2 Chron. 11. 3. 
2 King. 11. 17. 

The first act passed under this form is in these words : 
Dated 3 Month 13 day 1638, "I* is ordered that none 
shall be received as inhabitants or freemen, to build or 
plant upon the Island, but such as shall be received in by 
the consent of the body, and do submit to the govern- 
ment that is or shall be established according to the word 
of God." 

This form continued till the 12th of March, 1640. On 
the 16th of March, 1641, they thus describe their govern- 
ment. " It was ordered and unanimously agreed upon, 
that the government which this body politic doth attend 
unto in this Island and the jurisdiction thereof, in favour 


of our Prince, is a Democracy, or popular government 
(that is to say) it is in the power of the body of free- 
men, orderly assembled, or major part of them, to make 
or constitute just laws by which they will be regulated, 
and to depute from among themselves such ministers as 
shall see them faithfully executed between man and man, 
It was further ordered by the authority of this present 
Court, that none be accounted a delinquent for doctrine, 
provided it be not directly repugnant to the government, 
or laws established. 5 ' And on the 17th Sept. following 
(1641) they passed this act. " It is ordered that that law 
of the last Court, made concerning liberty of conscience 
in point of doctrine, is perpetuated." 

Laws of Rhode Island, 1647. 

The Charter from, the Earl of Warwick, &c. bears 
date March 17, 1643 (4.) The first election under this 
Charter, was held at Portsmouth, May 3 9, 1647, A code 
of laws was then agreed on, which is introduced with the 
following words. 

" For the Province of Providence. 

Forasmuch as we have received from our Noble Lords 
and Honoured Governors, and that by virtue of an Ordi- 
nance of the Parliament of England, a free and absolute 
charter of civil incorporation, &x. We do jointly agree 
to incorporate ourselves, and so to remain a body politic 
by the authority thereof. And therefore do declare to 
own ourselves and one another to be members of the 
same body, and to have right to the freedom and privi- 
leges thereof, by subscribing our names to these words 
following, viz. 

We whose names are here underwritten, do engage 
ourselves, to the utmost of our estates and strength, to 
maintain the authority, and to enjoy the liberty, granted 
io us by our charter, in die extent of it according to the 
letter, and to maintain each other, by the same authority, 
in. his lawful right and liberty. 


And now sith our Charter gives us power to govern 
ourselves, and such other as come among us, and by 
such a form of civil government as by the voluntary con- 
sent, &c. shall be found most suitable to our estate and 
condition, It is agreed by this present Assembly, thus 
incorporate, and by this present act declared, that the 
form of government established in Providence Planta- 
tions is IJemocratical,* that is to say, A government 
held by the free and voluntary consent of all, or the great- 
er part of the free inhabitants."! 

And now 10 the end that we may give each to other 
(notwithstanding our different consciences touching the 
truth as it is in Jesus, whereof upon the point we all make 
mention) as good and hopeful assurance as we are able, 
touching each man's peaceable and quiet enjoyment of 
his lawful right and liberty, We do agree unto, and by 
the authority abovesaid enact, establish and confirm these 
orders following. "J 

This code concludes with these words. 

" These are the [a word wanting] laws that concern 
all men, and these are the penalties for the transgressions, 
thereof, which by common consent are ratified and estab- 
lished throughout the whole Colony. And otherwise than 
thus, what is herein forbidden, <) all men may walk as their 
consciences persuade them, every one in the name of his 
GOD. And let the Lambs of the Most High 

* This word is recorded in large capitals. 

j" The charter requires, not only that the form of government be agreed In 
Ci by the voluntary consent of all or the greatest part of them," hut that the laws, 
constitutions, kc. " be agreed unto by the free consent of all, or the greatest part, of 
them." And this was literally the case until the granting of the second charter, 
(1663.) The laws passed by the Court of Commissioners (sir representatives 
from each of the towns of Providence, Portsmouth, Newport and Warwick) were 
not obligatory, until ratified by a majority of the freemen in their town meetings. 

% There is nothing in this code that savours of the bigotry or superstition of the 
times, unless the act against witchcraft may be considered such, which is express- 
ed in these words. " Witchcraft is forbidden by this present Assembly to be used 
in this colony, and the penalty imposed by the authority that we ate subjected to, 
is felony of death." In the margin 1 Jac. 12. is referred to. Their charter re- 
quired "that their laws, constitutions and punishments, be conformable to the 
laws of England, so far as the nature and constitution of the place will admit." 

§ There is nothing in these laws on the subject of religion or conscience, except 
what is contained in the act respecting oaths, and which is transcribed in a note U? 
the answer of the General Assembly to the "proposals" ofCarr, Cartwright, kc. 
May 13, 1665. 




Letter from O. Cromwell to Rhode Island 


To our trusty and well beloved the President, Assistant s 9 
and Inhabitants of Rhode Island, together with the rest 
of the Providence Plantations, in the jVarragansett bat/, 
in New England. 


Your agent here hath presented unto us, some 
particulars concerning your government, which you judge 
necessary to be settled by us here. But by reason of the 
other great and weighty affairs of this commonwealth, we 
have been necessitated to defer the consideration of them 
to a further opportunity. In the mean time we were wil- 
ling to let you know, that you are to proceed in your 
government according to the tenor of your charter, for- 
merly granted on that behalf; taking care of the peace 
and safety of these plantations, that neither through any 
intestine commotions, or foreign invasions, there do arise 
any detriment, or dishonour to this Commonwealth, or 
yourselves, as far as you, by your care and diligence, 
can prevent. And as for the things which are before us, 
they shall, as soon as the other occasions will permit, re- 
ceive a just and fitting determination. And so we bid 
you farewel, and rest 

Your very loving friend 
29 March, 1655. OLIVER P. 

* The men, who at such a time, and under such circumstances, could frame such 
a law, and undeviatingly adhere to its principle, though stigmatized as " hereticks," 
" schismaticks," " antinomians," "anabaptists," " quakers," "seekers," "soul- 
murderers," "children of Korah," "beasts of prey," " the very dregs of famil- 
ism," " incendiaries of commonwealths," " troublers of churches," (and even in 
the year 1809*) the " rebel band ;" or by any, or all the opprobrious epithets that 
bigotry or party zeal can cast upon them, yet will I, ■" reverence on this side 

* Vol. II. 2d series, p. 90. Hubbard, Cotton, Johnson, Mather, &c. &c. 

rhode island state papers. 81 

Letter of Commissioners to Captain Denni- 


To our Honoured and beloved friends, Capt. Dennison and 
Mr. Thomas Stanton, to be communicated to such of the 
English as it may concern , at Peauot, or other parts of 
the Country. 

Beloved Countrymen, 

In the Consideration of the great charge 
that lieth on every one, to endeavour the preservation of 
the peace of this country, and every member thereof, we 
do therefore make use of this present occasion to the end 
premised. And you may please to understand that we 
have, at this very instant, a very solemn and serious infor- 
mation from the Narraganset Sachems, by a chief Counsel- 
ler of them, that they take it ill of some English who live 
near to Uncas his fort, for that (as they say) those English 
by their scouts discoVer to the Nanhegans the approach 
of the Narragansetts, and thereby do defeat their designs 
in war against Uncas. And further these Indians do say, 
that they think those English that so do, doe not do it by 
order of any Colony or Court, but for money given un- 
der hand by Uncas. And further they tell us, that the 
inlanders, culled Mocquages, are in great number coming 
down against Uncas. And these Indians fear that those 
Inlanders, finding any such carriage from those English, 
by making signs, or shout'ng, to give Uncas notice as 
aioresaidof his enemies approach, that then those inlanders 
may be enraged, and either take or kill such scout or 
scouts. And now on this information, these Narragansett 
Sachems desire us so to inform you, for they desire a fair 
corresponding with the English. Thus much only we 
shall add, that is, that you our loving countrymen do well 
consider of the matter, and weigh the grounds of those 
actions, so as, if possible, the peace of the country, and 
therein your own safety, with ours, may be preserved, for 
that is the utmost extent of our desires. And we only 
desire to inform you, but no way to judge in either part 

12 VOL. VII. 


of the Indians quarrels, one with another. And so we rest 
your affectionate countrymen and friends. 

From the General Court of Commissioners 
held for the Colony of Providence Plan- 
tations, at Warwick, 

pr. me John Sanford, 
Dated July 4, 1657. Genl. Recorder. 

This was written " upon the request of the Narragan- 
sett Sachems.' y 

From the General Assembly to the Commis- 
sioners of the United Colonies.* 

Houour'd Gentlemen, 

There hath been presented to our 
view, by our Flonoured President, a letter bearing date 
Sept. 25th. last, subscribed by the Honour'd Gentlemen 

* The proceedings of the Commissioners of the United Colonies to which this 
paper refers, we have thought it useful to extract from Hazard's Collections, 
11.370. Edit. 

The Commissioners heing informed that divers quakers are arrived this summer 
at Road Island and entertained there, which may prove dangerous to the Colo- 
nies, thought meet to manifest their minds to the Governor there as foiloweth : 


We suppose you have understood that the last year a company of qua* 
kers arrived at Boston upon no other account than to disperse their pernicious 
Opinions, had they not been prevented by the prudent care of that Government, 
who, by that experience they had of them, being sensible of the danger that might 
befall tlie Christian religion here professed by suffering such to be received or 
continued in the country, presented the same unto the Commissioners at their 
meeting at Plimouth, who upon that occasion commended it to the General 
Courts of the United Colonies, that all quakers, ranters, and such notorious here- 
tics might be prohibited coming among us, and that if such should, arise from 
amongst ourselves speedy care might be taken to remove them (and as we are in- 
formed) the several jurisdictions have made provision accordingly; but it is by ex- 
perience found that means will fall short without further care by reason of your 
admission and receiving of such from whence they may have opportunity to creep 
in amongst us or means to infuse and spread their accursed tenets to the great 
trouble of the Colonies if not to the subversion of the professed in them ; 

notwithstanding any care that hath been hitherto taken to prevent the same, 
whereof we cannot but be very sensible, and think no care too great to preserve 
us from such a pest, the contagion whereof (if received) within your Colony were 
dangerous, &c. to be diffused to the other by means of the intercourse especially 
to the places of trade amongst us; which we desire may be with safety continued 
between us. We therefore make it our request that you, as the rest of the-Colo- 
nies, take such order herein, that your neighbours may be freed from that dan- 
ger, that you remove those quakers that have been received, and for the future 


Commissioners of the United Colonies, concerning a com- 
pany of people (lately arrived in these parts of the world) 
commonly known by the name of Quakers ; who are gen- 
erally conceived pernicious, either intentionally, or at least- 
wise in effect, even to the corrupting of good manners, and 
disturbing the common peace and societies of the places 
where they arise or resort unto &c. 

Now whereas freedom of different consciences, to be 
protected from inforcements, was the principal ground of 
our Charter, both with respect to our humble suit for it, 
as also to the true intent of the Honourable and renowned 
Parliament of England in granting of the same unto us ; 
which freedom we still prize as the greatest happiness that 
men can possess in this world ; therefore we shall, for the 
preservation of our civil peace and order, die more se- 
riously take notice that those people, and any other that 
are here, or shall come amongst us, he impartially re- 
quired, and to our utmost constrained, to perform all du» 
ties requisite towards the maintaining the dignify of his 
Highness, and the government of that most renowned 
commonwealth of England, in this Colony ; which is 
most happily included under the same dominions, and we 
so graciously taken into protection thereof. And in case 
they the said people called quakers which are here, or shall 
arise or come among us, do refuse to submit to the doing 
all duties aforesaid, as training, watching, and such other 
engagements as are upon members of civil societies, for 
the preservation of the same in justice and peace ; then 

prohibit their coming amongst you, whereunto the rule of charity to yourselves 
and us (we conceive) doth oblige you, wherein if you should we hope you will not 
he wanting; yet we could cot but signify this our desire ; and further declare that 
we apprehend that it will be our duty seriously to consider what further provis- 
ion God may call, us to make to prevent the aforesaid mischief; and for our further 
guidance and direction herein, we desire you to impart your mind and resolution 
to the General Court of the .Massachusetts which assembleth the litb of October 
next. We have not further to trouble y >u at present, but to assure vou wc desire 
to continue your loving friends and neighbours, the Commissioners of the Caitcd 

Boston, Septem, 12. 1657, Simon Bradstreet, President. 

Daniel Denison, 
Thomas Prence, 
John Mason, 
John Talcott, 
Theophilus Eaton, 
William Leete. 


we determine, yea and we resolve (however) to take and 
make use of the first opportunity to inform cur agent re- 
siding in England, that he may humbly present the mat- 
ter (as touching the considerations premised, concerning 
the aforenamed people called quakers) unto the supreme 
authority of England, humbly craving their advice and 
order, how to carry ourselves in any further respect to- 
wards those people ( *) that therewithal there may be 
no damage, or infringement of that chief principle in Our 
charter, concerning freedom of consciences. And we 
also are so much the more encouraged to make our ad- 
dresses unto the Lord Protector his highness and gov- 
ernment aforesaid, for that we understand there are, or 
have been, many of the aforesaid people suffered to live in 
England, yea, even in the heart of the nation. And thus 
with our truly thankful acknowledgments of the honour- 
able care of the honoured gentlemen Commissioners of 
the United Colonies, for the peace and welfare of the 
whole country, as is expressed in their most friendly let- 
ter, we shall at present take leave and rest, 

Yours most affectionately, desirous of 

your Honours and welfare. 

John Sanford, Clerk of the 

Portsmouth, March 13th, 1657-58. 

From the General Assembly 
Of the Colony of Provi- 
dence Plantations. 

To the much honoured John Endicot, Gov. of the 
Massachusetts. To be also imparted to the Hond. 
Corns, of the United Colonies at their next meeting, 



Letter of Commissioners to John Clarke. 
Worthy Sir and trusty friend, Mr. Clarke. 

We have found not only your abil- 
ity and diligence, but also your love and care" to be such 
concerning the welfare and prosperity of this Colony, 
since you nave been intrusted with the more publick af- 
fairs thereof, surpassing that no small benefit, which for- 
merly we had of your presence here at home, that we in 
all straits and incumbrances are emboldened to repair to 
you, for your farther and continued council, care and help, 
finding that your solid and christian demeanour hath got- 
ten no smail interest in the hearts of our Superiors, those 
noble and worthy senators with whom you have had to 
do on our behalf, as it hath constantly appeared in your 
addresses made unto them, which we have by good and 
comfortable proof found, having plentiful "experience 

The last year we had laden you with much employ- 
ment, which we were then put upon by reason of some 
too refractory among ourselves, wherein we appealed un- 
to you for your advice, for the more publick manifesta- 
tion of it with respect to our Superiors. But our intelligence 
it seems fell short in that great loss of the ship, which is 
conceived here to be cast away. We have now a new 
occasion, given by an old spirit, with respect to the Col- 
onies about us, who seem to be offended with us, because 
of a sort of people called by the name of quakers, who 
are come amongst us, and have raised up divers who 
seem at present to be of their spirit,whereat the Colonies 
about us seem to be offended with us, being the said peo- 
pie have their liberty amongst us, as entertained into our 
houses, or into any of our assemblies. And for the pres- 
ent, we have found no just cause to charge them with the 
breach of the civil peace, only they are constantly going 
forth amongst them about us, and vex and trouble them 
in point of their religion and spiritual state, though they 
return with many a foul scar in their bodies for the same. 
And the offences our neighbours take against us, is be- 


cause we take not some course against the said people, either 
to expel them from among us, or take such courses against 
them as themselves do, who are in fear lest their religion 
should be corrupted by them. Concerning which dis- 
pleasure that they seem to take, it w 7 as expressed to us 
in a solemn letter, written by the Commissioners of the 
United Colonies at their sitting, as though they would 
bring us in to act according to their scantling, or else 
take some course to do us greater displeasure. A copy 
of which letter we have herewith sent unto you, wherein 
you may perceive how they express themselves. As also 
we have herewith seat our present answer unto them to 
give you what light we may in this matter. There is 
one clause in their letter which plainly implies a threat, 
though covertly expressed, as their manner is, which we 
gather to be this, that as themselves (as we conceive) 
have been much awed, in point of their continued sub- 
jection to the State of England, least, in case they should 
decline, England might prohibit all trade with them, 
both in point of exportation and importation of any com- 
modities, which were an host sufficiently prevalent to 
subdue New-England, as not being able to subsist ; even 
so they seem secretly to threaten us, by cutting us off 
from all commerce and trade with them, and thereby to 
disable us of any comfortable subsistence, being that the 
concourse of shipping, and so of all kind of commodities, 
is universally conversant amongst themselves ; as also 
knowing that ourselves are not in a capacity to send out 
shipping of ourselves, which is in great measure occasion- 
ed by their oppressing of us, as yourself well knows ; as 
in many other respects, so in this for one, that we cannot 
have any thing from them for the supply of our necessi- 
ties, but in effect they make the prices, both of our com- 
modities and their own also, because we have not Eng- 
lish coin, but only that which passeth among these bar- 
barians, and such commodities as are raised by the labour 
of our hands, as corn, cattle, tobacco and the like, to 
make payment in, which they will have at their own rate, 
or else not deal with us, whereby (though they gain ex- 
traordinarily by us) yet for the safeguard of their religion 


anay seem to neglect themselves in that respect, for what 
will not men do for their God. 

Sir, this is our earnest and present request unto you in 
this matter, that as you may perceive in our answer to 
the United Colonies, that we fly, as to our refuge in all 
civil respects, to his highness and honourable Council, 
as not being subject to any others in matters of our civil 
State, so may it please you to have an eye and car open 
in case our adversaries should seek to undermine us in 
our privileges granted unto us, and to plead our case in 
such sort as we may not be compelled to exercise any 
civil power over mens consciences, so long as human or- 
ders, in point of civility, are not corrupted and violated, 
w r hich our neighbours about us do frequently practice, 
whereof many of us have large experience, and do judge 
it to be no less than a point of absolute cruelty. 

Sir, the humble respects and acknowledgments of this 
Court and Colony, with our continued and unwearied de- 
sires and wishes after the comfortable, honourable and 
prosperous proceedings of his highness and honourable 
Council, in all their so weighty affairs, departs not out of 
our hearts, night nor day, which we could humbly wish 
(if it might not be too much boldness) were presented. 

Sir, we have not been unmindful of your great care 
and kindness of those our worthy friends and gentlemen 
in that supply of powder and shot, and being a barrel of 
furs was returned in that ship, whereof Mr. Garret had 
the command, wherein was betwixt twenty and thirty 
pounds worth of goods shipped, the Colony hath taken 
order for the recruiting of that loss, which we cannot pos- 
sibly get in readiness to send by this ship, but our intent 
is, God willing, to send by the next opportunity. And 
so with our hearty love and respects to yourself, we take 
our leave. 

Subscribed, John Sanford Clerk of the 

From a Court of Commissioners 
held in Warwick, this present 
November the 5th 1658. 

88 rhode island state papers'. 

The Colony of Rhode Island to Richard 

May it please your Highness, 

It was inexpressible sorrow to us 
to receive the tidings of your, and the three nations, and 
our own so great a loss in the late departure of your and 
the nations most renowned Lord and father. And it was 
and is as great a joy unto us, that it hath pleased God to 
provide for the three nations and ourselves, such a cor- 
dial as your Highness is, both in respect of your renown- 
ed stock, and also of that high worth and hope of which 
we have heard your Highness self to be. In whom our 
humble desires are, that the three nations and ourselves 
mav find a healing of our so great a wound and stroke, 

May it please your highness to know, that this poor 
Colony of Providence Plantations, mostly consists of a 
birth and breeding of the providence of the Most High. 
We being an outcast people, formerly from our mother 
nations in the Bishops days, and since from the rest of the 
New English over zealous Colonies : Our whole frame be- 
ing much like unto the present frame and constitution of 
our dearest mother England, bearing with the several judg- 
ments and consciences each of other, in all the towns of 
our Colony, the which our neighbour Colonies do not, 
which is the only cause of their great offence against us. 
Notwithstanding this our outcast state, May it please 
your Highness to be informed that God was pleased to 
turn the heart of the late first great parliament towards 
us, in vouchsafing us a charter cf incorporation and gov- 
ernment, so that it pleased the then Lord Admiral (the 
Earl of Warwick) and the Honourable Commissioners, 
in the name and by the authority of parliament, by many 
of their gracious letters and orders to confirm and 
strengthen us. We have found (notwithstanding our 
sister Colonics' anger against us) high favour with the 
most honourable Council of State (established by author- 
ity of parliament) from whose noble hands we also re- 
ceived letters of gracious confirmation and refreshing. 
And lastly which is unspeakable mourning and joy unto 


us) your Highness dearest father was pleased, under his 
own hand and seal, to refresh us also, as with the dew upon 
the grass, and as with a eloud of the latter rain unto us. 

Illustrious Sir, for your Highness person, our deepest 
wishes and humble desires unto God (the father of lights) 
are for a double portion of your blessed father's spirit to 
be poured down into your Highness noble breast. And 
instead of an earthly crown (which his heavenly mind 
refused) we most earnestly wish your Highness and the 
Lords of your most Honourable Council to be crowned 
with the crown of wisdom and fortitude* prosperity and 
-success, obedience and love of the nations ; and, however, 
of humble patience and submission of the nations (in all 
your trials and changes) unto the most wise God, his 
most holy will and pleasure. 

For ourselves, Gracious Sir, we dare not interrupt your 
high affairs with the particulars of our wilderness condi- 
tions, only we beg your eye of favour to be cast upon our 
faithful agent Mr. John Clarke, and unto what humble 
addresses he shall at any time present your Highness with, 
in our behalf. 

And this we humbly pray at present, that as your High* 
ness illustrious father, when he was necessitated, by his 
great hindrances, to suspend the determination of our 
matters, yet he was graciously pleased presently to refresh 
us with some gracious lines of confirmation and encour- 
agement to our poor plantations and government (a copy 
of which our agent Mr. Clarke can present your Highness 
with) so is it our humble suit that we may rejoice in some 
such present gracious refreshment from the hand of your 
Highness also. Unto whom, Sir, we humbly hope to ap- 
prove ourselves your Highness most humble and faithful 
subjects and servants. 

The Colony of Providence Plantations in the Narragan- 
set Bay in New England. 

To the Sovereign and Illustrious his Highness the most 
renowned Richard Lord Protector of the common- 
wealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the 
Dominions thereunto belonging. These in most 
humble wise presented. 

13 VOL. VII. 


This was Grdered to be sent to Mr. John Clarke their 
agent, to be presented to his Highness for confirmation of 
their charter. It is without date, but was drawn at the 
Session of the Court of Commissioners (General Assem- 
bly) which commenced its Session the 17th. of May 

[This address was never presented, as the power of Richard 
Cromwell had begun to decay before its date, aud was wholly depart- 
ed before it reached England. Ed.] 

Commission to John Clarke. 

Whereas we the Colony of Providence Plantations, 
in New England, having a free charter of incorporation 
given and granted unto us, in the name of King and Par- 
liament of England, &c. bearing date An. Dom. one 
thousand six hundred forty three, by virtue of which 
charter this Colony hath been distinguished from the 
other Colonies in New England, and have ever since, and 
at this time, maintained government and order in the 
same Colony by administering judgment and justice, ac- 
cording to the rules in our said charter prescribed : And 
further, whereas there have been sundry obstructions 
emerging, whereby this Colony have been put to trouble 
and charge for the preservation and keeping inviolate 
those privileges and immunities, to us granted in the fore- 
said free charter, which said obstructions arise from the 
claims and encroachments of neighbours about us to and 
upon some parts of the tract of land, mentioned in our 
charter to be within the bounds of this Colony. 

These are therefore to declare and make manifest un- 
to all that may have occasion to peruse and consider of 
these presents, that this present and principal Court of this 
Colony , sitting and transacting in the name of his most 
gracious and royal Majesty Charles the second by the 
grace of God the most mighty and potent king of Eng- 
land, Scotland, France and Ireland, and all the dominions 
and territories thereunto belonging, &c. Do by these 


presents make, ordain and constitute, desire, authorize 
and appoint, our trusty and well beloved friend, Mr. John 
Clarke, physician, one of the members of this Colony, 
late inhabitant of Rhode Island, in the same Colony, and 
now residing in Westminster, our undoubted agent arid 
Attorney, to all intents and purposes, lawfully tending 
unto the preservation of all and singular the privileges, 
liberties, boundaries and immunities of this Colony, as 
according unto the true intent and meaning of all contain- 
ed in our charter, against all unlawful usurpations, intru- 
sions and claims, of any person or persons, on any pre- 
tences, or by any combination whatsoever, not doubting 
but the same gracious hand of Providence, which moved 
the most potent and royal power abovesaid to give and 
grant Us the abovesaid free charter, will also still continue 
to preserve us, in our just rights and privileges, by the 
gracious favour of the power and royal Majesty abovesaid, 
whereunto we acknowledge all humble submission and 
loyal subjection, &c. 

To our trusty and well beloved friend and 
agent, Mr. John Clarke of Rhode Island, 
Physician, now residing in London or 

Given in the twelfth year of the reign of our Sovereign 
Lord, Charles the second, King of England, Scot- 
land, France and Ireland, &c. at the General Court 
holden for the colony of Providence Plantations, at 
Warwick, the 18th. day of October An : Dom. 

Decision of Carr &c. relative to Misojjam- 


We, by the power given us by his Majesty's commis- 
sion, having heard the complaints of some of his Majes- 
ty's subjects, purchasers of certain lands called Misquam- 
acock, lying on the Eastern side of Pawcatuck river, and 
having likewise heard all the pretences of those by whom 


they have suffered great oppressions, and considering the 
grounds from whence these differences and injuries have 
proceeded, and endeavouring to prevent the like for the 
future, do declare, that no colony hath any just right to 
dispose of any lands, conquered from the natives, unless 
both the cause of that conquest be just, and the lands lie 
within those bounds which the Xing by his charter hath 
given it, nor to exercise any authority beyond those 
bounds; which we desire all his Majesty's subjects to 
take notice of for the future, lest they incur his Majesty's 
displeasure, and suffer a deserved punishment. We 
likewise declare, that ail tho e gifts or grants of any lands, 
lying on the eastern side of Pawcatuck river, and a North 
line drawn to the Massachusetts, from the midst of the 
ford near to Thomas Shaw's house, and in the King's Prov- 
ince, made by his Majesty's Colony of the Massachusetts, 
to any person whatsoever, or by that usurped authority call- 
the United Colonies, to be void. And we hereby com- 
mand all such as are therein concerned to remove them- 
selves and their goods from the said lands, before the 
nine and twentieth day of September next. In the mean 
time, neither hindering the Pequot Indians from planting 
there this summer, nor those of the King's province, who 
are the purchasers, from improving the same, as they will 
answer the contrary. Given under our hand and Seals, 
at Warwick, April 4th. 1665. 

ROBERT CARR [l. s.] 

Commission from Carr &c. 1665. 

Whereas by the authority given us by his sacred 
Majesty, our dread Sovereign, to provide for the peace 
and safety of all his Colonies here in America, and in a 
more especial manner for that part of it called the Narra- 
ganset country, and by his Majesty commanded now to 
be called the King's province : We did, by commission 
under our hands and seals, dated at Petaqumskocte 


March the twentieth 1664, appoint, authorize, and in his 
Majesty's name require, Benedict Arnold, William Bren- 
ton, Esquires, John CoggeshaJl, James Barker, Joseph 
Clarke, William Field, Thomas Olney, Roger Williams, 
William Baulston, John Sanford, Randall Howldon, Wal- 
ter Todd, John Porter arid John Greene, Gentlemen, to 
exercise the power and authority of Justices of the peace 
or magistrates, throughout the whole compass of this his 
Majesty ? s province, and to do whatsoever they think best 
for the peace and safety of the said province* and as near 
as they can to the English laws, till his Majesty's pleas- 
ure be farther known therein ; and in matters of great- 
er consequence, any seven of them, whereof the Govern- 
or or Deputy Governor shall be one, shall be a Court to 
determine any business : Our intent and meaning was 
and is, that the said com mission should be no longer in 
force, than until the 3d. of May next, and that then and 
thenceforward, the Governor and Deputy Governor, and 
all the Assistants for the time being of his Majesty's col- 
ony of Rhode Island <kc. shall be Justices of the peace. 
And therefore by the power given us from his Majesty, 
we order and appoint the Governor and Deputy Govern- 
or, and all the Assistants of the said Colony, for the time 
being, to be and to exercise the authority of Justices of 
the peace in this the King's province, and to do whatever 
they think best for the peace and safety of the said prov- 
ince, and as near as they can to the English laws, till his 
Majesty's pleasure be farther known therein ; and in 
matters of greater consequence, any seven of them, where- 
of the Governor or Deputy Governor shall be one, shall 
be a Court to determine any business. Given under our 
hands and seals, at Warwick, April 8th. 1665. 

ROBERT CARR, [t. s.] 



Propositions of Commissioners Carr &c. to 
the General Assembly. 

Whereas the will and pleasure of his royal Majesty 
our Sovereign Lord and King is declared unto this As- 
sembly (May 13. 1665) under the hands of his hon- 
ourable Commissioners, and here presented by the Gov- 
ernor, consisting of five particulars, being as foiioweth, 
and recorded in the general records by order of the Gen- 
eral Assembly. 

It is his Majesty's will and pleasure, 

1. That all householders, inhabiting this Colony, take 
the oath of allegiance ; and that the administration of jus- 
tice be in his Majesty's name. 

2. That all men, of competent estates and of civil 
conversation, who acknowledge and are obedient to the 
civil magistrate, though of differing judgments, may be 
admitted to be freemen, and have liberty to choose and 
to be chosen officers, both civil and military. 

3. That all men and women, of orthodox opinion, 
competent knowledge and civil lives, who acknowledge 
and are obedient to the civil magistrate, and are not scan- 
dalous, may be admitted to the sacrament of the Lord's 
supper, and their children to baptism, if they desire it, 
either by admitting them into the congregations already 
gathered, or permitting them to gather themselves into 
such congregations, where they may enjoy the benefit of 
the sacraments ; and that difference in opinion may not 
break the bands of peace in charity. 

4. That all laws and expressions in laws, derogatory 
to his Majesty, if any such have been made in those late 
troublesome times, may be repealed, altered and taken of 
(a word obliterated) 

5. That this Colony be put in such a posture of de- 
fence that if there should be any invasion upon this Isl- 
and, or elsewhere, in this Colony (which God forbid) 
you might in some measure, be in a readiness to defend 
yourselves, or if need be, to relieve your neighbours, ac- 


cording to the power given you by the King in your 
charter, and to us in commission and instruction. 


To the Governor or Deputy Governor, 
asssistants and freemen of the colony 
of Rhode Island and Providence 
Plantations (part of a line obliterated) 

It appears by an after entry, that these " proposals " 
bore date March 4. 1664, 5. 

" Whereupon, and in a deep sense of his Majesty's 
most royal and wonderful grace and favour, more partic- 
ularly and at large expressed in his gracious letters pa- 
tents, lately given and granted unto this colony, in which 
is expressed and declared his Majesty's especial and ten- 
der care and indulgence extended to tender consciences, 
differing in matters of religious worship and concern- 
ments, and more especially in matters of forms of oaths, 
arid ceremonies or circumstances relating thereunto, giv- 
ing and granting to this corporation power to give and 
take such engagements as they shall think fit, being or- 
dered by the General Assembly of this Colony, not con- 
trary to, but as near the laws and customs of England as 
the constitution of the place will admit : Considering 
therein the liberty of conscience therein granted, the As- 
sembly do, with one consent, acknowledge with all hum- 
ble thankfulness the most tender respect and care by his 
royal Majesty expressed in the said royal charter, as also 
in these five propositions, for the good and welfare of this 
his Majesty*^ colony, and therefore, in all cheerful obe- 
dience to and observation of the premises, and therein 
minding the privilege granted to tender consciences, do 
in the first place order and declare, that whereas in this 
colony it hath been always accounted and granted a liber- 
ty to such as make a scruple of swearing and taking an 


oath,* that instead thereof they shall engage, under the 
penalty of false swearing, though they swear not in pub- 
lic engagement, as well as if they did swear, that there- 
fore this most loyal and reasonable engagement be given, 
by all men capable within this jurisdiction, for their alle- 
giance to the King &c. The form of which engagement 
shall be as followeth. You A. B. solemnly and sincere- 
ly engage true and faithful allegiance unto his Majesty, 
Charles the second, king of England, his heirs and suc- 
cessors, to bear, and due obedience unto the laws estab- 
lished, from time to time, in this jurisdiction to yield, 
unto the utmost of your power, according to the privi- 
lege by his said Majesty granted, in religious and civil 
concernments, to this colony, in the Charter ; which said 
engagement you make, under the peril and penalty of 
perjury." They then declared " that none shall have ad- 
mission to vote for publick officers or deputies, or enjoy 

* Coddington's engagement under the first government, on the Island of Rhode 
Island, was in these words. "I William Coddington Esquire, being called and 
chosen by the freemen incorporate of this body politic to be a Judge amongst 
them, do covenant to do justice and judgment impartially, according to the laws ot 
God, and to maintain the fundamental rights and .privileges of this body politic, 
which shall hereafter be ratified according unto Got,', the Lord helping me so to 


The freemen engaged thus " We that are freemen incorporate of this body 
politic do elect and constitute William Coddington Esquire, a Judge amongst us, 
and do covenant to yield all due honour unto him, according to the laws of God, 
and, so far as in us lies, to maintain the honour and privileges of his place, which 
shall hereafter be ratified according to God, the Lord helping us so to do." (March 
7. 1638.) 

Under the second government on the Island, the engagement was in these words. 
*«To the execution of this office I judge myself bound before God to walk faith- 
fully, and this I profess in the presence of God." (March, 16. 1641.) 

Among the laws of 1647 is this. " Forasmuch as the consciences of sundry men, 
truly conscionable, may scruple the giving or taking of an oath, and it would be no 
ways suitable to the nature and constitution of our. place (who professeth ourselves 
to be men of different consciences, and not one willing to force another) to debar 
such as cannot so do, either from bearing office among us, or from giving in testi- 
mony in a case depending, Be it enacted by the authority of this present Assem- 
bly, That a solemn profession oi testimony, in a Court of Record, or before a 
Judge of Record, shall be accounted throughout the whole Colony of as full force 
as an oath; and because many, in giving engagement or testimony, are usually 
more overawed with the penalty which is known, than with the Most High, who 
is little known in the Kingdoms of men, It is therefore further agreed and order- 
ed, that he that falsifieth such a solemn profession or testimony, shall be accounted 
among us as a perjured person, and his penalty shall be " &c. 

From the first settlemeut of the Colony to the present limey an oath could not 
be required of any one. 


any privilege of freemen, till " they had taken this en- 


It was "his Majesty's will and pleasure " thus expressed by his Comi 
and the resolution of the Assembly thereon, relative to (he oath of allegiance, 
and riot the militia law. which probably occasioned the difficulty mentioned by 

wrinley, (vol. 5 page 219) in his incorrect and partial account, and in which he 
says the government and council passed an order for outlawing the people called 
quakers, because they would not bear arms, and to seize their estate." By the 
militia law now passed, the number of training days in each year were reduced 
trom eight to six ; and the obligation to perform military duty, was not extended 
to any who were not obliged by the former law. 

Vffi I t!le " ? n &' a £ emenl " ot allegiance, and not the militia law, occasioned the 
(Iimcnlty mentions! above, is proba! le from tlie correspondence which appears to 
have taken place between the Commissioners and Coddington. The latter address- 
ed a paper to the Commissioners dated March 9. 1664, 5, a reply to which was 
made by the Commissioners dated March 15 1664, 5. " Coddington, Nicholas 
Gaston and others," at the request of the Assembly, attended May 15. 1665, and 
received from them a copy of the Commissioner' s reply and proposals, " tor his 
and the rest's consideration to mind and obey accordingly" (These papers are 
not on record.) 

This is farther evident from what took place at the session March 27.1666. 

i here having been a long agitation about the engagement, that was enacted and 
agreed upon by the General -\ssemb ; y in May last, that is tiiought to be too hard 
on the conscience by many, the sssembly, after much debate, have thought fit 
to ch' ose a committee to consider of a way to mitigate the abovesaid engage- 
ment," &c. The commitee were Benedict Arnold and Nicholas Easton, The 
following was the result,, (agreeably to their report) "The Assembly having se- 
riously weighed the inconveniences that at present appear in this colony, by rea- 
son that many such as have been able and well qualified, active members in carry- 
ing on the affairs of this corporation, are now made incapable, for that they cannot 
give the engagement in that very form that was contrived by the serious advice of 
the General Assembly, in May 1665 anil judged to be suitable to answer the most 
tender consciences, in the performance of their duty to his Majesty and to the col- 
ony : But some terms therein seeming to some too much touching on the con- 
science, which, whether it happen for want of understanding the scope of the terms, 
or by indeed seeing somewhat that is inconsistent with religious concernments, 
the Assembly being (as far as they can justify themselves therein) really willing 
to indulge men conscientious, or that solemnly profess so to be, do therefore, for 
the satisfaction of all such, order and declare, that such as are free in their con- 
sciences so to do," may take the engagement prescribed the May preceding, or if 
they choose, the oath of allegiance as prescribed in England. "But if any pro- 
fess thej-e are some words in either, which in conscience they cannot consent to 
say or use, yet if either in open Court, or before two magistrates that are engaged, 
as by a former law o*' the colony is therefore made, any such person that so doth 
solemnly profess his conscience is straitened as afore is said, jet can and do, in 
words significant, there declare his allegiance and submission to his Majesty's gov- 
ernment, as he is supreme head of the nation, and do profess seriously, that they 
resolve and intend to yield obedience, actively or passively, to the laws made by 
virtue of his Majesty's authority, every such, so promising or engaging," to be 
admitted to the privilege of a freeman. The difficulty probably consisted in that 
part which, promised "due obedience unto the laws established from time to 
time," as by this they promised obedience to the militia law. And yet by the 
engagement to office prescribed May 3. 1665, the officer promised not only " true 
allegiance unto his Majesty, his heirs and successors, to bear," but "equal right 
and justice to do unto all persons, within this jurisdiction, to the utmost of his skill 
and ability, without partiality, according to the laws established, or that should be 
established." Coddington and Easton must both have taken this engagement, as 
they both were members from Newport in March 1666, and at the election in May 
1C66 the latter was chosen Deputy Governor, and the former assistant, and no al- 
teration made in the engagement to office, or allegiance, or in the militia law. 
14 VOL. VII. 


To the third " proposal, " they say, " This Assembly 
do, with all gladness of heart and humbleness of mind, ac- 
knowledge the great goodness of God, and favour of his 
Majesty, in that respect, declaring that as it hath been a 
principle held forth and maintained in this colony, front the 
very beginning thereof, so it is much on their hearts to 
preserve the same liberty to all persons within this colony, 
forever, as to the worship of God therein ; taking care for 
the preservation of civil government, to the doing of jus- 
tice, and preserving each other's privileges from wrong 
and violence of others." 

To the fourth "proposal " " That all acts in the late 
troublesome times past " " derogatory to his Majesty " 
" were made void," &c. Then follows a long act res- 
pecting the militia, providing magazines, &c. 

Addresses to the King, and the Earl of 
Clarendon, respecting Charter rights.* 

To the King's most excellent Majesty, 

The humble petition and address of the Governor and 
Company of his Majesty's (.olony of Rhode Island 
and Providence Plantations, in New England, 

Most humbly sheweth, 

That whereas your Majesty's most hum- 
ble subjects and supplicants, as soon as we heard of the 
joyful tidings of your Majesty's happy restoration to the 
possession of your royal crown and dignity, making our 
humble addresses by petition unto your royal majesty, in 

* These Addresses were dated May 3d. 16G5, and sent by Col. Cartwright and 
lost, as appears by an entry Sept. 1666; when the Governor (W. Brenton) W. 
Baulston, W. Harris, J. Greene and J.Clarke were "desired and authorized to 
draw up the Colony's address to his Majesty, a letter to the Lord Chancellor, to- 
gether with a letter to Col. Cartwright, and the ordering the manner of sending 
them. Also the copies of those formerly sent is left to the said committee, as 
they, in their wisdoms shall judge meet." Cartwright was taken by the Dutch, 
and lost all his papers, as. Hubbard, p. 585, informs us. 


which we employed that faithful and trusty agent Mr. 
John Clarke, did thereupon, by your Majesty's royal 
bounty, obtain a most free and ample Charter of incor- 
poration, for our possessing, improving and governing the 
lands and islands in and of the Narragansett Bay and 
country in New England, which grant your Majesty was 
graciously pleased to make firm and good, to us and our 
successors forever, under the great seal ; and that also 
done, after your Majesty had taken cognizance of the In- 
dian Sachems submission of die said Country unto your 
Majesty, in the year 1662, in which they remembered an 
address of the same nature made some 18 years before, to 
your royal father of blessed memory, which their address 
was never, nor could be taken notice of until their late ad- 
dress aforementioned in 1662. In mean time we living and 
governing here, by vinue of a Charter granted in his late roy- 
al Majesty's name, by the Lords and Commons in 1643, 
the said Indians sold several considerable tracts of the 
Narraganset country unto people of this Colony, and re- 
ceived therefor full satisfaction, as in their said late ad- 
dress they do acknowledge : And indeed some thousand 
of pounds it hath cost the people of this Colony, in those 
purchases, even more than the other Colonies hath ex- 
pended for ten times as much which they possess, who 
yet could not content themselves, but encroached on this 
small corner, not only dispossessing, molesting, captiveing 
and lining your Majesty's leige people here living, but 
also claiming all the Country by strange pretences of free 
purchases, and gifts by forced mortgages, from the In- 
dians, therein including the Indians' rights unsold, with 
those aforesaid sold to some of this Colony. Whereupon 
it pleased your Majesty, in your royal wisdom, to send 
your honourable Commissioners to enquire into these 
matters, who have with exceeding travail and care, pains 
and patience, judgment and discretion, accordingly most 
honourably discharged the trust in them reposed : And 
upon finding the Indians to own their subjection, former 
and latter, and seeing the hard dealings by the other Col- 
onies used to them and us, did for a present expedient, 
distinguish those lands from the rest of this your Majes- 


ty's Colony, by the name of the King's province, and pro- 
hibited all Colonies from the exercise of jurisdiction 
therein : And after, by a special commission, under their 
Honours hands and seals, did commit the government to 
the Governor and Council of this Colony, till your Maj- 
esty's plea c ure be further known : All which being the 
effect of your Majesty's gracious and fatherly care of us 
your poor unworthy subjects : Thereby we feel much 
ease at present from great oppressors, and for it we re- 
turn all humble thanks, as in duty bound : And however 
by this late result, our charter seemeth to he very much 
impaired, and as it were in part suspended for the present, 
yet we in all humility do confess and own your Majesty's 
royal wisdom, and the justice of those honourable per- 
sons, your Majesty's Commissioners, believing there is not 
any the least intent to make void our charter in any part, 
but rather to reconfirm and enlarge it. Wherefore we have 
made bold, in some other papers, humbly presented to 
the Right honourable the Earl of Clarendon, Lord high 
Chancellor of England, to declare some reasons why of 
right and necessity, the whole country of Narragansett, as 
in the very letter of the Charter, should belong to this 
your Majesty's Colony ; as also why the line between 
your Majesty's Colony of New Plymouth and us, should 
be settled accordingly, though at present somewhat short- 
ened ; and for the more clear demonstration of the same 
matters, we have caused a draught to be made of Plym- 
outh and Connecticut, and more particularly of this your 
Majesty's Colony lying between them, and herewith hum- 
bly presented it. 

Therefore in the great experiences of your Majesty's 
most wonderful grace and favour shewed unto us, we 
prostrate ourselves in all loyalty and humility at your 
Majesty's feet, most humbly imploring your royal grace 
and favour, to restore your Majesty's royal grant to its 
former state and extent, readjoining the King's province 
to the rest, and so reconfirm unto us that your Majes- 
ty's said late royal grant, as it is under the great seal, and 
to set and settle our eastern bounds also accordingly. 
So shall we be encouraged to go on in propagating plan- 


tations of that which lieth waste, and by God's help and 
your Majesty's gracious favour, shall be able to serve 
your Majesty in protecting and directing the Indians here 
living, instructing their children in learning and civil ed- 
ucation, as also in putting this Colony in a posture of 
defence, promoting of trade, husbandry and fishing, and 
governing ourselves in peace and justice, under your 
Majesty, and forever devoted to pray for your Majesty's 
long life and greatness here, and eternal glory hereafter. 

These to the right honourable Edward Earl of Claren- 
don, Lord high Chancellor of England, most humbly 

Right Honble. 

However there are upon us so very many and 
great obligations to your Lordship, for those unmerited 
favours hitherto extended unto this his Majesty 's, Colony, 
which here to recount would but add to your Lordship 
trouble to read, and to ourselves greater measure of shame, 
in that we have not, nor as yet cannot, save in empty words, 
any way return your Lordship any the smallest token of our 
acknowledgments, but are even in a wanting, and con- 
sequently in, a craving condition for your Lordship's fa- 
vour to be still our defender and relief. May it please 
your honour, this poor, suppressed, and almost extin- 
guished Colony, next under God and his Majesty, owe 
even their all unto your Lordship : And however have 
not wherein else to shew their grateful acknowledgments, 
did design to choose and set apart, out of this small tract, 
a competent and convenient tract of land for a farm of a 
thousand acres or thereabouts, and to have begged your 
Lordship's acceptance of the same, so as to own and dis- 
pose of it at your honour's pleasure and should take it as 
the greatest favour possible, your Lordship's acceptation 

Now it so falls that a present seeming cloud passing 
over our Colony, hath eclipsed the splendour of our char- 
ter, and rendered us in sort incapable of disposing aught 


in the far greater part of his royal Majesty's grant and of 
our absolute clear purchases from the Indians. But be- 
lieving there is no intent, but that all will be restor- 
ed to its clear and full extent unto us, in which we hum- 
bly implore your Lordship's favour to be our helper and 
protector. Some reasons we have made bold to present 
to your Lordship in two papers, shewing why of right 
and necessity that now called the King's province be still 
continued and adjoined to the rest of this Colony, and 
why the line between Plymouth Colony and us be estab- 
lished as in the map prescribed, it being according to the 
very letter of the Charter to us granted. And have yet a 
further humble petition to your Lordship, concerning 
some help or encouragement towards fortification of this 
bay ; which in very deed is the most excellent in New- 
England. Considering the climate, most healthful ; site, 
most commodious ; in the middle of the colonies ; har- 
bours most safe for the biggest ships that ever sailed the 
sea, and of all sorts whatsoever ; and for outlet and inlet, 
so good as none can equal it ; that in the hardiest winters, 
when the Massachusetts and others, to the East and 
West, are fast locked up with strong doors of ice, this is 
always open ; besides the conveniency of the main land 
and islands, at the very entrance so near each other, easy 
to be secured by forts in either channel. One means, 
may it please your Lordship, to encourage the growth of, 
and give strength to, this his Majesty's colony, would be 
by some act of grace, extending some peculiar privilege, 
in point of freeness of commerce, hence to other his Maj- 
esty's dominions, with some ease, in some measure, as to 
taxes upon that is imported or exported, though but for 
some years. But we dare not direct your Lordship's 
wisdom, but only implore your Honble. countenance 
in what shall seem best, only one thing shall be bold to 
propose, concerning an estate that is bequeathed in Eng- 
land for the pious end of propagating the gospel, in con- 
verting, or at least instructing, the Indians in the knowl- 
edge of moral virtues, and by degrees to know God. 
Here are the greatest number of Indians living in the 
confines of this little spot, that are in any part of New- 


England besides ; and however those which are grown up 
to ripe years, in their wild and uncivil manners, will hard- 
ly leave their own sensual customs, yet were there a 
school erected, with means to maintain it, for the bringing 
their children, some to learning, and some to handicrafts 
for the increase of manufactory, there would in a few 
years, by the blessing of the Lord, appear a very hopeful 
change, and in one generation, they would, in a great meas- 
ure, be made happy, and also be a mean of good advance 
unto his Majesty's interest in these parts, under the gov- 
ernment by his Majesty already here established unto us 
under the great seal : And therefore we humbly implore 
your Lordship's favour in furthering this good word, if so 
it shall in your honour's wisdom appear to be. 

And thus craving your Lordship's pardon for our ex- 
treme boldness and importunity, we shall humbly recom- 
mend to your Honble. consideration the perusal of our 
humble petition to his royal Majesty, herewith presented 
to your Lordship's view, humbly craving your Lordship's 
favour to cover or excuse our boldness, or any other er- 
rors therein (to us unawares) committed ; and so far to 
extend your Honour's favour to us, as we may thereby be 
restored to that happiness of enjoying that most ample 
grant, in its full extent, the which we own ourselves your 
Lordship's greatly obhged for procuring the same at first, 
but most exceedingly bound to your Lordship for those 
high favours mentioned in your Honble. letter to us, 
therein declaring such unexpected regard to us, as was 
and is wonderful, and hath emboldened us thus to pre- 
sume to give your Lordship this further trouble by the 
hands of this noble and Honble. gentleman, Colonel 
Cartwright, to whom and the other Honble. Commis- 
sioners we are most deeply engaged for that exceeding 
care, pains and travail, taken in our behalves, and the most 
unbiassed resolutions by their Honour's proceeds declared, 
upon the hearing of all differences, so as we have cause, 
and hope shall "have, to bless the Lord and the King's 
Majesty, and return all humble thanks to your Lordship 
for this happy visitation by these Honble. persons, 
whereby those incredible oppressions we endured, of 


scorn and contempt, slander and reproach, threatening 
and molestation, captiveing and imprisoning, fining and 
plundering the people of this Colony, is now made clear 
before their Honours : And therein clearly discovered a 
combination of all the Colonies to root us up and expose 
us to ruin in seeking out new places of the wilderness, 
there to struggle with all sort of difficulties, as in the be- 
ginning of the plantation they forced us to, and denied us 
relief in greatest dangers, which our sufferings could not 
be known to any but God and ourselves, until this time 
of hearing was come. But not to give your Lordship 
more trouble at this time, we humbly cast ourselves and 
cause at your Lordship's feet, and with ail cheerfulness 
subscribe ourselves, in behalf of this his Majesty's CoIcn 
ny of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. 
Your Lordship's most humbly and 

faithfully devoted servants. 

Some reasons humbly presented unto the Right Honble. 
Edward Earl of Clarendon, Lord high Chancellor of 
England, by the Govr. and Compy. of his Majesty'' s 
Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, 
shewing why it is both right and of necessity, that the 
part of the said Cohny, distinguished by the name of the 
King^s province, should remain to the said Colony. 

1. Forasmuch as we have had possession, by free 
purchase, in some part of the middle of the Narragansett 
country, by the Indian's sale, about seven or eight and 
twenty years, besides what was before (that time) grant- 
ed to the four towns of Providence, Portsmouth, New- 
port and Warwick. 

2. For that the said country is wholly and clearly 
contained in the grant made in his late Majesty's name, 
by the Lords and Commons, in 1643, before the In- 
dians surrendered themselves and lands unto his late Maj- 
esty's government and protection, which grant was since 
confirmed, and that which Mr. Wells under hand got of 
the same country was prohibited, being never passed at 
Council table nor registered. 


3. For that the Indians, since the said grant, have 
sold several parts of the said country, and taken full satis- 
faction for it of people of this Colony, who bought and 
possessed it quietly, until in this four or five years the 
other Colonies, by clandestine purchases and forced 
mortgages, have encroached both upon that these people 
had purchased as aforesaid, and the rest as yet unsold, and 
this is fully cleared to be true by the Indian Sachems own 
acknowledgments, in their address to his royal Majesty 
in April, 1662, which address was, by the honourable 
Commissioners, Sir Robert Carr, Knight, George Cart- 
wright and Samuel Maverick, Esqrs. here produced, and 
to the said Sachems read, and by them clearly understood 
and owned. 

4. Forasmuch as the whole is contained in his Maj- 
esty's late royal grant to this Colony in 1663, and to di- 
vide the same in two several parts will render both so in- 
considerable as that neither will in any measure be suffi- 
cient for any competent number of people to live upon, 
besides the inconveniences that will arise by mixture of one 
with the other which would render both in a state of 
much trouble and discouragement to people for building 
or settling upon it, except contained in one entire tenure 
as granted to the Colony aforesaid and under that one 

5. For that the whole is considered to be fully grant- 
ed in our patent under the great seal containing all that is 
now called the King's province, and the rest is no way 
answerable unto the least of the other Colonies in quanti- 
ty, as by a map calculated in that respect according to 
true information and knowledge, and herewith presented, 
it doth appear, so that on either part (if parted) there can 
be no competency to raise any considerable supply of 
provisions for trade for his Majesty's other plantations, 
nor can this Colony grow to any maturity of strength to 
serve his Majesty, but groan under the weight of poverty, 
and be subjected still to the will of the other Colonies to 
give what they please for the little we raise, we being not 
able to transport it, as being not worth while, far abroad, 

14 VOL. VII. 


to make the best of it, because of the little quantity there- 

6. For that by experience we have found, that by 
reason of the interruption this Colony hath had in the pos- 
sessing the Narraganset, now called the King's province, 
which interruptions was by force from the other Colonies, 
as it is cleared to the Honourable Commissioners afore- 
mentioned, many of the people of this Colony have been 
forced to expose themselves to seek out other plantations, 
to their utter ruin and undoing, and some into Plymouth 
claims 12 or 16 miles from Rhode Island ; which had we 
had the use of that said Narraganset Country, would have 
in a good measure sufficed and encouraged ourpwn peo- 
ple, and have given strength and growth to the Colony to 
have set upon trading and fishing, &c. 

7. And lastly that country of the Narraganset of right 
belongs to this Colony, not for the aforesaid reasons only, 
but also for that although the Sachems did about 20 years 
since submit it and selves to his Majesty's late royal fath- 
er, of glorious memory, yet no cognizance could be or 
was then or ever after by his said Majesty taken of the 
same, nor until the Sachems made their last address unto 
his royal Majesty, in the year 1662, which their address 
being taken notice of and it mentioning the said country 
and owning it to be contained in our former grant, &c„ 
his most royal Majesty was thereupon and thereafter how- 
ever graciously pleased to give and grant the said Narra- 
ganset country expressly unto this corporation, all it and 
the rest under the name of the English Colony of Rhode 
Island, &c. as in the said charter, under the great Seal, is 
more particularly mentioned, which said grant we hum- 
bly and cheerfully expect to be firm and good, and will 
so be accounted and confirmed by his Majesty's royal 
grace to us and ours forever : And the rather because his 
Majesty granted that which the Indian Sachems had so 
freely and fully surrendered to his royal will and pleasure 
to order and dispose. 


Some reasons humbly presented to the Right Honble. Ed- 
ward Earl of Clarendon, Lord high Chancellor of Eng- 
land, by the Gov, and Company of his Majesty 's Colo- 
ny of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, for 
settling the Eastern line according to the meaning and 
letter of the Charter, 

1. Because that line entrencheth not on Plymouth 
patent (such as it is) for that it is not bounded by the sea 
on the south in that grant, but by a river called Narra- 
ganset river, no such river being known. 

2. Because Rhode Island lieth as enclosed, and in a 
manner embayed, within the land which Plymouth would 
have to be within their jurisdiction : And yet it is the 
Narraganset bay and therefore good reason that the main 
land inclosing and so near adjoining to the island should 
pertain to it, especially being expressly granted by his 
royal Majesty in our late charter, in express words, three 
miles to the east of the most easterly and north easter- 
ly part of the said bay. 

3. Because the Island being small, scarcely holding 
three miles broad, any great part of it, and fifteen long, 
the inhabitants, especially on that side the island lying 
very near the main, are forced there to winter their cattle, 
and otherwise also to keep them there, which land hath 
otherwise never been improved by Plymouth, but it hath 
lain waste near forty years since they first began that plan- 
tation. Besides, many of ours for mere necessity, have 
bought lands near the water on that side of the Indian own- 
ers, and possessed it many years peaceably ; it being so 
very remote from Plymouth town and from any town of 
that Colony, as that it would be of little use to them if 
they had it. 

4. Because the nearness of that land on the east side 
is by experience an annoyance to this government, by 
being only at present out of the jurisdiction of this Col- 
ony there being farms made by some of this Island peo- 
ple, just over the river within call of the Island, where 
any that are culpable ( ) by the law here, 


make their escape over and there are out of reach, even 
( ) Plymouth town so very remote, that 

under three or four days time we ( 

) whatever the occasion be, in which time the of- 
fender is enabled to make a final escape, nor can we make 
the chief *part of this colony but on this Island, having 
none else fit, as this, which is indeed hard to be equali- 
zed in New-England for reception and safe riding of ves- 
sels of all sorts and in all seasons, and hardest frosty 
winters, which is not so in any other parts of this country. 

5. Because the main land on the east side as aforesaid 
is so near the Island, and the river between so convenient, 
that a town on that side would answer to them on this 
side very commodiously on all occasions of relief or de- 
fence ; and indeed this Colony can never be secured from 
invasions, if that side (for such a quantity as is mentioned 
in our charter) be not in this jurisdiction and at its devo- 
tion, it lying so remote from Plymouth, as afore is said, 
that it cannot answer them to fortify it, it being near fifty 
miles from them by land, but above 100 by water. 

6. Because the people of this Island there settled and 
settling themselves, having been used to and lived in this 
government, do earnestly long still to be under the pro- 
tection and direction thereof, as also they being so near 
us and so very remote from Plymouth, by which means 
it is very difficult for them to attend their Courts of Jus- 

7. Because the native Indians, both Sachems and oth- 
ers, not only, and often, in former times have mentioned 
and desired to be in, or under this government, but even 
also of late, since we received the late royal grant under 
the great seal, have by word and writing desired they 
might be esteemed, deemed and owned, within this ju- 
risdiction, having always for near thirty years had very 
near, frequent and friendly commerce and intercourse 
with us. 

port ? 


General Assembly of Rhode Island to Gov- 
ernment of Plymouth. 

Newport, November. 2d. 1671. 
Much Honrd. and beloved friends, 

These are to give you to under- 
stand, that your loving and welcome lines, both of Sept. 
14th. and 29th. last past, hath been communicated unto 
us by our Honrd. Govr. &c. the contents of both being 
very much obliging, and doth indeed move us to be 
thankful unto the Most High, for preserving us yet in 
peace, and diverting the cloud which he was pleased to let 
hang over the country, threatening a storm of war, or 
the sad effects that attend thereupon as burning, massa- 
creing, and destroying persons and estates, which would 
inevitably have followed upon an absolute breach with the 
natives, as we were well aware of. And it exercised our 
minds, and put us upon labour and charge to withstand 
or prevent it. Neither can we but, together with you, 
acknowledge the goodness of the Lord, in so mercifully 
sparing the country. Also acknowledge your prudent 
and patient proceedings in that matter, and your candid 
respect and great affection expressed unto us, in giving 
us seasonable information of your apprehensions, resolu- 
tions and conclusions had, taken and made, concerning 
those matters. And you may assure yourselves, that 
you may expect from us, as occasion shall require it, 
such demonstrations of our love and duty to yourselves, 
as is becoming us, not only as we are English subjects, 
to one and the same king, but also as neighbours and 
friends, very nearly obliged to love and serve your Honrs. 
in all sincerity. And it is not a little grievous unto us, 
that we cannot procure the like cause from our honored 
the Colony of Connecticut, from whom we meet with 
very hard, harsh and undesirable passages, which we 
would be glad they would forbear. But they are put 
upon it by the ambition and covetousness of some few. 
And truly it presseth upon us very much, to complain to 
our Sovereign for relief, which, if we be forced to do, it 


is not difficult to conclude what issue it may produce 
over the whole country. But were it possible to prevent 
such an issue without evident ruin to ourselves, &c. we 
should willingly adhere to such advice as might tend 
unto the peace and safety of the whole. But not further 
to trouble your Honors at present we rest, 

Your very affectionate friends and neigh- 
bours, the General Assembly of his Maj- 
esty's colony of Rhode Island and Prov- 
idence Plantations, convened October 25. 
1671. Signed by order of said Assem- 
bly, pt\ John Sanford, Clerk. 

To the Right Worshipful Thomas Prince Esq. Govr. 
of his Majesty's colony of New Plymouth, to be 
communicated to the rest of the Honord. Council 
and Genrl. Court there. These present with care. 

General Assembly of Rhode Island to Gen- 
eral Assembly of Connecticut. 

Newport, Oct. 25th. 1676. 

Hoard. Gentlemen, 

We cannot omit to manifest to you our abso* 
lute dislike of your late proceeds (if our information be 
true) which from credible persons of our Colony have 
been asserted, and confirmed by several of yours, and 
some in authority, that you have, by order of your Court, 
determined to deprive us of our just rights and privileges 
in the Narraganset country (alias King's province) gra- 
ciously granted to us in our charter by his Majesty, and 
confirmed by his Honrd. Commissioners. By virtue of 
which power, we have peaceably enjoyed the govern- 
ment, disposition, and other privileges therein, for seve- 
ral years past. Therefore much strange that you should, 
under pretence of subduing the Indians, monopolize our 
privileges, by warning our inhabitants from settling upon 
their own plantations in said Narraganset, that were 


forced, by reason of the late war with the natives, to desert 
their habitations for the security of their lives, with what 
else of their stock and moveables they could preserve, till 
way, by the providence of God, should be made for their 
return to their own as aforesaid. It is well known that 
the United Colonies did desert several of their out plan- 
tations, and some were by the enemy drove and necessi- 
tated so to do, for safety of their lives. If for that cause 
only, the colonies should lose their charter rights, and 
particular persons their lands and privileges, it would 
to them (and all rational men) appear ridiculous, and 
without doubt disapproved by his Majesty, if it should 
come to a hearing. We are very apt to believe, that if 
matters come to a just inquiry concerning the cause of 
the war, that our Narraganset Sachems, which were sub- 
jects to his Majesty, arid by his foresaid Commissioners 
taken into protection, and put under our government, and 
to us at all times manifested their submission by appearing 
when sent for.* Neither was there any manifestation of war 
against us from them, but always the contrary, till by the 
United Colonies they were forced to war,f or such submis- 
sion as it seems they could not subject to, thereby involv- 
ing us into such hazards, charge and losses which hath 
fallen upon us in our out plantations, that no Colony have 
received the like, considering our number of people. But 
admit the cause never so just, approved and allowed by 
his Majesty, on your parts, as to the said war, as its well 
known and owned that his subjects have liberty to pursue 
his known enemies, in order to subdue them, in any part 
of his dominions where they come, and cannot but be own- 
ed a great favour, and that for such kindness or privilege, 
the said inhabitants should lose their possessions, cannot 
but be looked at a great oppression and ingratitude, 
which to deal plainly is our case (if information be true as 

* There is evidently an omission here. 

f By the charter of 1663, it is declared rt That it shall not be lawful to or for the 
rest of the Colonies to invade or molest the native Indians, or any other inhabitants, 
inhabiting within the bounds and limits hereafter mentioned fthat is of the Cote- 
ny,J (they having subjected themselves unto us, and being by us taken into our 
special protection) without the knowledge and consent of the and com' 
pauy of our Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. ' 


aforesaid.) Is it not sufficient that, as God hath made 
you (with the assistance of the Pequods and other In- 
dians) instruments to subdue those you made war with, 
and have had many privileges in our said Colony without 
interruption from us ; and for our said kindness you en- 
deavour to reward us with the depriving us of our just 
rights, and our inhabitants of their settlements upon their 
own again, will appear very unjust. And further to sug- 
gest, that the land was left void, and therefore free for 
others to settle, we say, in as much as our authority saw 
cause to draw our people into a nearer compass, thereby 
to preserve their lives and estates (which true wisdom 
would lead all men to) did thereby maintain our Colony 
in being. But had our Colony been wholly deserted, 
and the people and authority vanquished, there might 
have been some colour. So hoping you will take the 
premises into your serious consideration, and avoid any 
future provocations by threats or actions, in our foresaid 
boundaries ; otherwise you must expect our opposition to 
the utmost of our abilities. And further know, that our 
intentions are (if violated of our just rights by your au- 
thority) do purpose with all expedition to make applica- 
tion to his Majesty, the consequence of which may prove 
inconvenient to some. But blame not us who are forced 
thereto ; but its rather our hearts desire, peaceably to en- 
joy our own, and with you and all men to live neighbour- 
ly and friendly, which is the true desire of your very loving 
friends and neighbours. 

Signed by order of the General 
Assembly sitting Oct. 25. 1676. 
Pr. John Coggeshall, Clerk 
of the Assembly, 

To the Honrd. the Genl. Assembly of Connecticut 
Colony, if sitting, or to the Honrd* the Govr. and 
Council of said Colony, these present with care. 



Number of Inhabitants in Rhode Island, 


Whites. Blacks. Indians. Total. 



King's County, 




4,460 1,648 
20,755 3,101 


( Newport, Ports- 
mouth, New Shore- 
(ham & Jamestown. 
Providence, War- 
wick and E.Green- 
C Westerly, 
,985 1 7,935 ( N. Kingstown and 

( S. Kingstown. 

1,272 34,128 
54,435 3,761 1,432 59,678 

35,939 4,697 J J5J;|; k n s g & 40,639 





















2,47 1 






51 869 total 



























ftp. P.9=i total 


Whole number. 
34, '28 




History and Description of Abington, 
(Mass.) Aug. 1816. 

ABINGTON is an interior town of the county of Ply- 
mouth. It lies in latitude 42° 9'N. longitude 70° 47' 
W. ; and is bounded northerly on Hingham, Wey- 
mouth and Randolph, about six miles ; easterly on Scit- 
uate one, and on Hanover five miles ; southerly, on 
Pembroke and Bridge water ; and westerly also on 
Bridge water several miles. It is distant from Plymouth 
twenty miles N. W. ; from Boston (by turnpikes) seven- 
teen S. S« E. ; from Hingham cove ten miles S. ; from 
Weymouth landing seven S. ; and from Hanover four 
corners, six miles W. Incorporated June, 1712.* 

The original growth of this township was chiefly wal- 
nut, oak, beech, birch and white pine. This tract, which 
is a moist and strong soil, and in some degree rocky, 
has general elevation ; yet not of very unequal surface. 
It may be, as an entire township, the best grazing dis- 
trict in the county of Plymouth. 

Much of the southeast section of this town was, and 
yet continues swampy, as well as rocky. Hence the pop- 
ular name, " Little Comfort," yet in use for that region ; 
a tract of cedar swamp, with an intermixed growth, ex- 
ists there, while in the northeast a long ridge of eleva- 
ted pasture of a good soil continues, from its original 
growth, to be called " Beech Hill." With this excep- 
tion, there seems to be not any other remarkable hills. 

Abington and its vicinity formerly afforded large sup- 
plies of square and ranging timber, as well as masts, to 
the numerous ship yards seated below. The hurricane 
or gale of October, 1804, prostrated an extensive tract 
of timber forest trees, chiefly white pine, of which it was 
remarked, that the second growth fell while the first then 

* Abingdon in Berkshire, Eng'and, is 56 miles N. W. of London, and 7 south 
of Oxford. It has stated fairs, chiefly for horses and cattle, and is a well built 
town. It furnishes malt, sacking and sail cloth. There was a period when sev- 
eral towns in the American colonies took this name ; in some instances, probably, 
from the title of a popular nobleman, the Earl of Abingdon. 


survived the gale. The loss of one or two persons only 
in this place, in timber trees, was then estimated at 
310,000.* Forest trees have in some instances become 
an article of nurture ; one lot of oak, now of size to be 
felled as fuel, was, in 1780, in part, a tilled field. 

Uplands produce the best timber trees, those of the 
swamps not being in equal estimation. 

Fuel is now valued, as it may be more or less remote 
from Weymouth Landing, being from five to four dol- 
lars the cord. The remaining wood lands are chiefly in 
the northwest section, while the northeast also, near Ac- 
cord Pond, is in woods, and unsettled. 

The inhabitants of Abington, an emigration chiefly 
from Weymouth, have hitherto pursued, in some res- 
pects, similar modes in the improvement of lands ; an 
attention generally to the breed and subsistence of cows, 
with the productions of the dairy, being the prime ob- 
ject. It also takes the lead in the county, in supplies 
for the flesh market of beef and mutton ; many are pro- 
fessed butchers, who are constant in their attendance at 
the markets of Boston, Plymouth, Duxbury and inter- 
mediate shore towns. The cattle are purchased at the 
Brighton fairs, and the sheep chiefly at Scituate, Marsh- 
field, and other places, not depending on itself for either, 
although some sheep are reared for their wool, yet not in 
great numbers. There may be 1500 sheep or more 
kept in Abington. 

The arable lands are productive. Indian corn, winter 
rye, and oats, yield, on an average, corn twenty five, rye 
fifteen, and oats forty bushels the acre. 

From the prevalent moisture of the soil, the crops of 
upland hay are abundant, while the fresh meadow, of 
which there is some near the brooks, is not of the best 
quality. One of its brooks, after passing into Pem- 
broke, and then into Bi idgewater, took the name " Poor 
Meadow Brook," in the last named town, before the year 

* In a tract of 500 acres, owned by the Mr. Reeds, the gale of Sept. 23, 1815, 
caused similar and more extensive destruction of timber tree6. 


Attention is given to orchards, and some cider is sent 
to market, yet not in great quantity. 

The " Bicknell apple, 1 ' so termed, is here cultivated. 
It yields a great proportion of juice, but as to quality is 
rather watery. Some other kinds, better adapted to the 
purposes of cider, should be introduced, for the soil and 
situation is generally propitious to fruit, we should sup- 
pose, in the northwest section of the town, 

With respect to cider, as to quality as well as abun- 
dance, Middleborough has ever been unrivalled, as pro- 
ducing the best in the^ county ; the soil and aspect, and 
it may be the species of fruit, having peculiarities of 

It were to be wished, therefore, that an attention to the 
planting of new orchards should be excited and encour- 
aged in that extensive township, as combining both pri- 
vate and publick utility, for even in case of emigration, 
the value of the alienated farms would be enhanced. 
The price of cider, as well as its scarcity, at the present 
period, compared with ten or twenty years since, shows 
a remarkable deficiency. 

A gentleman, who dwelt on a farm in the north section 
of the town of Plymouth, made these remarks, under the 
year 1742—3. "A failing fruit year, canker worms, 
drought, a failure of herbs, roots and grain. My farm 
yielded but fifteen barrels of cider, which produced 
forty eight the year before." At that period, more cider 
was made, even in the town of Plymouth, in a year, than 
at the present period in some interior towns ; but the an- 
nals of agriculture and orcharding will doubtless ever 
present unequal comparative results, attributable to a va- 
riety of causes. 

Ponds and Brooks. Accord Pond, an half mile in di- 
ameter, and intersected in early annals by the colony 
line,* N. E. and S. VV., is common to Hingham, Scitu- 

* 1640. The commissioners, who rati the colony line, thus describe it. 
"'From the mouth of the brook that runneth into Conohasset marshes (which we 
fall by the name of the Bound Brook) with a strait and direct line to the middle 
of a great pond that lyelh on the light hand of the upper path, or common way, 
that leadeth between Weymouth and Plymouth; close to the path as we go along; 
which was formerly named (and still we desire may be called) Accord Pond ; ly- 


ate, and Abington, the town first named taking near half 
of it, while the remainder is again bisected by the cor- 
ner bounds of the other two. The water is deep. An 
outlet, which admits alewives from the sea, after travers- 
ing the whole length of Hingham, mingles with tide waters 
at Gen. Lincoln's mills. 

The name of this pleasant pond, which is situated near 
the pest road from Boston to Plymouth, was probably 
first given by the planters of Hingham and Scituate, 
when adjusting their town lines. It affords to anglers a 
place of agreeable pastime, being almost within view of 
two taverns.* 

-This is the only permanent natural pond in which Ab- 
ington has any claim. 

On the northern confines of the town is the source of 
several brooks, running through the Town, S. E. indicat- 
ing a general elevation on the north border, being a part 
of the ridge which separates the waters of Neponset and 
Weymouth from those of North River and Taunton Riv- 
er. All these brooks are in dry seasons in a degree inter- 

Beaver Brook, the most permanent, arises near the 
limits of Randolph, traverses the west part of this town 
and the east of Bridgewater, where it becomes a tributary 
to the great river. 

Another brook, a longer stream,! passes, as has been 
noticed, into Pembroke, and then into Bridgewater, yet 
more easterly. 

There are two others, one of which is a tributary to 
North River in Hanover. It is very rare that any fish, 
other than eels, are taken in the brooks. The mill ponds 

ing about 5 or 6 miles from Weymouth southerly, and from thence with a strait 

line to the southernmost, part of Charles River, and 3 miles southerly inward into 

the country, according as it is expressed in the Patent." 

Signed, William Bradford, 
Israel Stoughton, 
John Endicott, 
Edward Winslow. 
This line was completed in 1664, and is now the north bound of Scituate, Ab- 

ington, Bridgewater, Easton, Marshfield, Attleborough and Cumberland, to Pa- 

hieket River. 

* Leonard's in Scituate, and Whfton's in Hingham. 
j The longest tributary, in this quarter, to Taunton Rnrer. 


afford pickerel and perch. This town is an exception to 
any alewife fishery privileges within its boundaries. All 
these brooks run from Abington and none into it. In 
\ery wet seasons, when the ponds are full, some of the 
water of the great pond in Weymouth, will flow souther- 
ly, which shews that the colony line is, in this part of 
it, on the height of land. This pond in Weymouth is 
one hundred and three feet above tide water level. 

The description of mill erections on the several brooks 
is as follows : Grist mills five ; saw mills seven ; wool- 
len factories two. 

Roads, The turnpike road from New Bedford to Bos- 
ton, passes through this town, and the common road from 
the upper part of Pembroke to Boston, with several cross 
roads to the sea coast towns, and those of the interior. 
The quality of the soil affords firm and pleasant roads, 
occasionally wet however in the eastern section, in the 
vernal and autumnal seasons. 

Schools, There may be ten school districts conve- 
niently dispersed. The annual average of such indigent 
persons as are supported by the town is generally fifteen 

In military affairs this place is an integral part of the 
third regiment, fifth division, furnishing nearly five com- 
panies, viz. one of artillery, one uniformed light infantry, 
two without uniform, and lately a company of riflemen. 

Manufactures. An air furnace, now extinct, was 
erected many years since, by the late Aaron Hobart, Esq. 
who, during the revolution, furnished the publick with 
cannon and shot, made here. Bells have also been cast at 
this furnace, one of which of 9001b. the largest in the 
county, still continues on the meeting house in the first 

Men's Shoes, the making of which may employ a hun- 
dred persons, are made in quantity for the Boston market, 
where the leather is mostly purchased. This business 
is more peculiar to the north section of the town. 

Bricks are made in sufficient quantity for the use of 
the inhabitants, and some for distant sale, from clay, 
which is found not far from the old meeting house. The 
clay is of inferior quality. 


Cold Tacks, so termed from the manner in which they 
are made, have become an article of important manufac- 
ture in this town. Their history is as follows. About the 
year 1786 Mr. Ezekiel Reed, who lived in the north 
part of Bridgewater, invented a machine to cut tacks and 
nails,* which was immediately introduced at Abington, 
where it in a short period received great improvements, 
which progressed from that date to the present time. In 
the year 1815 not less than 150 millions of tacks were 
made here, and sold in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, 
and Baltimore, while some were sent to a greater distance. 

Capt. Jesse Reed, son to Ezekiel, has lately invented 
a machine to make tacks by one operation, by which 
means one hand has made sixty thousand in a day. He 
has already six machines in operation, and six others 
nearly completed, which, together with the patent right, 
he has sold to Mr. Elihu Hobart of this town for 11,000 
dollars. These machines were built in Pembroke, 
where they are now in operation. Their use will proba- 
bly soon supersede the manual operation, so that an 
hundred and fifty persons in this vicinity, accustomed to 
the latter, must seek other employments. These tacks 
are chiefly used by saddlers, chaise-makers, trunk-mak- 
ers, card-makers, upholsterers, cabinet makers, and also 
for wafer-boxes, &c. &c. By examining a pair of wool 
cards, w r e shall notice four dozen, at the least, in each 
pair. One pound of iron will make six thousand, and of 
the smallest size, ten thousand. Packed in papers, they 
are afforded at from one shilling to two shillings and 
three pence the thousand. The flat rolled plates are 
procured at slitting mills ; the rest of the process, cut 
with shears and headed cold, is a manual operation ; 
hence their name. 

Publick Buildings. There are three Congregational 
meeting houses, two of which have bells. The second 
was erected at an expense of S80u0, and has two cupo- 
las ; the others spires. All are constructed of wood and 

* It is confidently asserted in Abington, that " this was the first invention to 
rut ?mi'c in this or any other eoHntry." 


The private dwellings are neat and commodious, con- 
ferring value on well cultivated farms, beside which 
there are a few well accustomed stores. Populous in it- 
self, and within the circle of several towns of similar de- 
scription, Abington is an agreeable, healthy, and plea- 
santly situated village. Its proximity to Weymouth 
Landing, and to Hingham, gives it an immediate and 
easy water communication with the metropolis, thereby 
commanding local benefits over more inland towns. 

Population, Census of souls, 

A. D. 1790, souls 1453, heads of families 254 
1800, „ 1623, houses 200 

1810, „ 1704. 

In the autumn of 1805 a mortal fever prevailed, caus- 
ing an unusual number of deaths of adults. The an- 
nual average in the bills of mortality may be stated 
seventeen, for a series of years, in the whole town, fifteen 
and twenty being the extremes. Three persons died in 
1814, each of whom was about ninety years of age, and 
there are now (1815) living the following persons above 
that age : William Hersey, Caleb Chard,* Daniel Lane, 
Mrs. Farrow. 

Ecclesiastical History. 
First Church. Succession of ministers. 
Rev. Samuel Brown, ordained Nov. 17, 1714; died 
Sept 12, 1749, set. 62. 
Ezekiel Dodge, ordained May 23, 1750 ; died 

June 5, 1770, set. 48. 
Samuel Niles, ordained Sept. 25, 1771 ; died 

January 16, 1814, set. 69. 
Holland Weeks, installed Aug. 9, 1815. 
Rev. Mr. Brown was born at Newbury, 1687, gradu- 
ated at Harvard College, 1709; there are some of his 
descendants, who continue in Abington. Rev. Mr. 
Dodge was born at Ipswich Hamlet* (now Hamilton) 
1722, and was graduated at Harvard College, 1749. 

* William Chard was clerk of writs in Weymouth, 1669. 
| Or in Manchester. 


Rev. Mr. Niles was born in Braintree, Dec. 14, 1745, 
(a son of the late Hon. Samuel Niles) and was graduated 
at Princeton College, about 1768. For the two last 
years of his life his publick labours were suspended by- 
paralytic affections. His surviving widow was a daugh- 
ter of his predecessor, Mr. Dodge. 

Second Church. In the year 1808 a number of the 
inhabitants of the south part of Abington and of the east 
of Bridgewater were incorporated as the " Union Calvin- 
istic Society." The meeting house, already noticed un- 
der publick edifices, is in Abington. 

Rev. Daniel Thomas, a graduate of Brown Universi- 
ty, 1803, was ordained June 1, 1808. 

Third Church. 1813 "The third society in Abing- 
ton" was incorporated in the northerly part of the town. 
Rev. Samuel W. Colbourn, who is a graduate of Dart, 
mouth, 1795, was installed, October 27, 1813. 

There seems a large proportion of religious societies in 
Abington, compared with its population and territory, 
yet comprising, as is common, parts of border towns, it 
may have local convenience, of the expediency of which 
those who reside in more compact towns may not be ex- 
act judges. 


The Court of Plymouth Colony early intended a fu- 
ture town on the territory above Scituate and below 
Bridgewater. The first grants, which fall within it were 
made as folio w r s : 

1654. A considerable tract to Mr. Nathaniel South- 
er,* who had been their first Clerk of Court, " above 
Weymouth path." 

1664, a further grant to his heirs ; and also, under the 
same date, to the heirs of Clement Briggs,f another 
tract in that vicinity. 

* Mr. Souther, who had removed, was dead, 1659. He was first chosen clerk, 
16S6. His heirs and children were John Blake and Mrs. Hannah Johnson of 

f Clement Briggs (felt-maker) arrived at Plymouth in the Fortune, 1621, 
and removed to Weymouth. Another grant was made to his heirs above Bridg«- 
water, which falls in Mansfield. This name is common in these places. 

17 VOL. VII. 


1672. Subsequent to this date, the heirs of Phineas 
Pratt* have grants located there. He was of the Wey- 
mouth first planters, coming from thence to Plymouth 
in 1623, when that plantation was broken up. 

1656. Three miles square from Accord Pond southerly 
above Scituate was granted Mr. Hatherley and others. 
This grant was sold in 1663 ; the greater part of it to 
Otis, Thaxter, Jacob, &c. Hingham partners, and yet 
bears the name " great and small shares," now partly in 
Abington and partly in Hanover. 

1668. A tract two miles long by three fourths of a 
mile wide, was sold by the colony to James Lovell, 
John Holbrook and Andrew Ford of Weymouth for 23/. 
above Mr. Hatherley's grant, and adjoining the colony 
line.f These two latter grants, therefore, constitute 
nearly the whole north line of the town. Under this 
date also, Robert Studson and others, bought a tract 
south of the Hatherley grant, (laid out in 1684) and which 
probably falls in Abington, or it may be Pembroke. 

Lieut. Peregrine White of Marshfield at a certain pe- 
riod (before 1660) had a grant of land, which falls in 
Abington, described as being between two brooks, in 
the fork of them, and in which description the aboriginal 
names of the brooks are given, which clearly proves them 
to be the Beaver Brook, and the one east of it, and 
enables us to affix, with historical truth, an aboriginal 
name to Abington, which is Manamooskeagin, " much 
or many beavers" — a type of industry and of mechanical 

When the colony line was completed, 1664, many 
gores of lands remained, and were assigned to the 
towns respectively, on either side ; thus it seems Bridge- 
water and this plantation below it shared one. In the 
year 1683, " Accord Pond Shares" paid a colonial tax 
of 22s. and the " Ford's Farm Lands" L3s., while the 
whole plantation was, as to civil concerns (but not the 

* Phineas Pratt, (joiner) was in Plymouth about 1623. He removed to 
Charlestown, and was living there, 1677. He married at Plymouth a daughter of 
Cuthbert Cuthbertson, 1630. 

f This grant took the name " Ford's Farm Lands," and became a general 
name for the plantation- 



soil) annexed to the constablerick of Bridge water, 1690, 
and received corporate privileges under Massachusetts, 
1712. Settlements began, probably, about 1668 or 9. 

The first town meeting was held March 2, 1712 — 13, 
when William Reed was chosen town clerk, and William 
Hearsey, William Tirril, William Reed, Selectmen. 

As to the origin of the population, it is evidently, the 
greater part, from Weymouth, Hingham and Scituate, 
with a few early names from Duxbury, Bridgewater, 
Pembroke, Braintrec, Dorchester, &c. The census of 
1790 gives these proportions of origin. 












Tirril Hunt Chard 
Whitmarsh Torry Orcutt 
Paine Briggs 
Reed Burrill 
Pool Norton 






Norton Porter 
Lane Hobart 
r Ripley Chubbuck 




Curtis Colson Dunba 

Hobart Totman 



ue Nash Samso 



Beal Wales 

There are many miscellaneous names, most of which are 
probably from Weymouth and Hingham. 

W T hen we began these inquiries in Abington, the ter- 
ritory which it comprises seemed to be a chasm in Ply- 
mouth colonial history, for which, while tracing the his- 
tory of older corporations, we could not account to our 


satisfaction. It is an opinion on the spot, that it was ta* 
ken from Bridgewater ; but a critical research evidences 
that it was only from its temporary civil jurisdiction. 

Under the heads of church and ministerial dates and 
manufactures, much assistance has been afforded by the 
accurate and intelligent communications of Mr. Jacob 
Dyer of Abington, to whom this publick tribute of ac- 
knowledgment is due. 

It may be further remarked, that the aboriginal name 
for the beaver, which we find here, seldom occurs in the 
Narraganset dialect, where another and a very different 
name prevailed for that animal, and which is typical of 
"floods" indicating the dams, which they construct. 

Sketch of Walpole, (N. H.) By Mr. A. 

VV ALPOLE is a post town in the county of Cheshire, 
N. H. It is situated on the eastern bank of Connecti- 
cut River, opposite to Westminster, (Vermont.) It has 
Charlestown on the north, Alstead and Surry on the 
east, and Westmoreland on the south. Its distance from 
Portsmouth is 118 miles ; from Dartmouth College, 48 ; 
from the Massachusetts line 25, and from Boston, (Mass.) 
90, with which it has easy and frequent communication. 

The face of the town is beautifully diversified with 
hills and vales. Its soil is characterized by nothing dis- 
tinct from other towns on Connecticut River, The 
meadows afford excellent tillage and the uplands are infe- 
ferior to none in the state. Cold River passes through 
the north part of this town, and forms a junction with 
the Connecticut. 

There are two toll bridges here across Connecticut 
River ; one of which is directly over the well known Cat- 
aract, Bellows' Falls, affording to the traveller, as he 
passes, a view most sublime and interesting. Two turn- 
pike roads pass through the town. The first settlement 
was made in 1749 ; and two years after was granted by 


charter to Col. Benjamin Bellows, who was a principal 
proprietor and whose numerous posterity continue to oc- 
cupy a large proportion of it. 

The population of the town has been regularly pro- 
gressive ; it has never experienced any extraordinary 
pestilential epidemic to retard it. The present number 
of inhabitants is about 2000. It has been regularly sup- 
plied with a Congregational preacher since the year 1761, 
without any ecclesiastical difficulties : at this time the 
whole town is happily united under the ministrations of 
the Rev. Pliny Dickinson. It has but one meeting- 
house, which is large and commodious, built of wood in 
the year 1787, and furnished with a good bell and organ. 

Although there is no incorporated academy in this 
town, yet its advantages of school education are not ex- 
ceeded in any town in this section of the State. In ad- 
dition to the common district schools, (twelve in number) 
which are kept three or four months in winter by a man, 
and about the same in summer by a woman, there is 
constantly kept in the village a grammar school, and, 
during the summer months, a young ladies' academy for 
the instruction of misses of this and the neighbouring 
towns, in all the useful and ornamental branches of fe- 
male education. 

As to mechanics, Walpole enjoys every convenience 
that is common in a country town. There are a variety 
of grist and saw mills, one oil mill, two clothier's works, 
two cotton factories, carding machines, distilleries, &c. 
eight stores and six publick houses. 

[The following paper, extracted from Vol. I. p. 77, of the Massachu- 
setts Colony Records, was written in November, 1 635, The occa- 
sion of this humble confession may be found in Gov. Winthrop's 
Journal, p. 90, but nothing more was known of the subject, until 
the discovery of his unpublished manuscript, from which we learn 
that the writer of the apology was drowned in a shipwreck on the 
coast of Spain, as he was returning home. This was in December, 
1 644, though Hubbard, pp. 524, 5, has fallen into errour in tran- 
scribing, abbreviating and compounding the narrative, and made it 
occur the year after. Pratt was accompanied by his wife. It may 

126 pratt's apology. 

be interesting to copy from the inedited part of Winthrop his re- 
port." " This man [Pratt] was above sixty years old, an experi- 
enced surgeon, who had lived in New England many yeais, and 
was of the first church at Cambridge in Mr. Hooker's time, and 
had good practice, and wanted nothing. But he had been long dis- 
contented, because his employment was not so profitable to himself 
as he desired ; and it is like he feared, lest he should fall into want 
in his old age, and therefore he would needs go back into England 
(for surgeons were then in great request there by occasion of the 
wars) but God took him away childless." 
It is amusing to notice how the equivocations of the writer are re- 
ceived as satisfaction for his calumnies against the barren rocks, 
sands and salt marshes of our country ; but the ministers and magis- 
trates seem to have exhibited more policy in receiving than he did 
in makiug his explanations. Similar complaints against the ungrate- 
ful soil of New England are often heard in our days, but they are 
left to a more effectual correction than that of civil or ecclesiastical 
advisers. 2. 

Pratt's Apology. 

The answer of me John Pratt to such things as I hear 
[torn] perceive objected against me> as offensive in my 

Jb IRST generally whatsoever I writ of the improbability 
or impossibility of subsistance for ourselves or our pos- 
terity without tempting God, or without extraordinary 
means, it was with these two regards ; first, I did not 
mean that which I said in respect of the whole country, 
or our whole patent in general, but only of that compass 
of ground, wherein these towns are so thick set together, 
and secondly I supposed that they intended so to remain, 
because (upon conference with divers) I found that men 
did think it unreasonable that they or any should remove 
or disperse into other parts of the country ; and upon this 
ground I thought I could not subsist myself, nor the plan- 
tation, nor posterity ; but I do acknowledge that since my 
letter there have been sundry places newly found out as 
Newbury, Concord, and others (and that within this pat- 
ent) which will afford good means of subsistence for men 
and beasts, in which and other such like new plantations, 
if the towns shall be fewer and the bounds larger than 
these are, I conceive they may live comfortably. The 


like I think of Connecticut, with the plantations there now 
in hand ; and what I conceive so sufficient for myself, I 
conceive so sufficient also for my posterity ; and concern- 
ing these towns here so thick planted, I conceive they may 
subsist, in case that besides the conveniences which they 
have already near hand, they do improve farms somewhat 
farther off, and do also apply themselves to, and do im- 
prove the trade of fishing and other trades. As concern- 
ing that intimation of the commonwealth builded upon 
rocks, sands, and salt marshes, I wish I had not made it, 
because it is construed contrary to my meaning, which I 
have before expressed. And whereas my letters do seem 
to extenuate the judgment of such as came before, as 
having more honesty than skill, they being scholars, citi- 
zens, tradesmen, &x. my meaning was not so general as 
the words do import, for I had an eye only to those, that 
had made larger reports into England of the country, 
than I found to be true in the sense aforesaid. And 
whereas I may seem to imply, that I had altered the minds 
or judgments of the body of the people, magistrates and 
others, I did not mean this in respect of the goodness or 
badness of the land, in the whole plantation, but only in 
point of removal, and spreading farther into other parts, 
they afterwards conceiving it necessary, that some should 
remove into other places, here and there, of more en- 
largement. And whereas I seem to speak of all the 
magistrates and people, I did indeed mean only all those 
with whom I had any private speech about those things ; 
and as for the barrenness of the sandy grounds, Sec. I 
spake of them as then I conceived, but now by expe- 
rience of mine own, I find that such ground, as before I 
accounted barren, yet being manured and husbanded 
doth bring forth more fruit than I did expect. As for 
the not prospering of the English grain upon this ground, 
I do since that time see that rye and oats have prospered 
better than I expected ; but as for the other kinds of 
grain, I do still question, whether they will come to such 
perfection as in our native country from whence they 
come. And whereas I am thought generally to charge 
all that have written into England by way of commenda- 

128 pratt's apology. 

tion of this land as if what they had written were gene^ 
rally false, I meant it only of such excessive commenda- 
tions as I see did exceed and are contrary to that which 
I have here expressed. And as concerning that which I 
said, that the gospel would be as dear here as in Eng- 
land, I did it to this *end, to put some which intended to 
come hither only for outward commodity to look for 
better grounds, ere they look this way. As for some 
grounds of my returning, which I concealed from my 
friends, for fear of doing hurt, I meant only some parti- 
cular occasions and apprehensions of mine own, not in- 
tending to lay any secret blemish upon the state ; and 
whereas I did express the danger of decaying here in 
our first love, &c. I did it only in regard of the manifold 
occasions and businesses which here at first we meet 
withal, by which I find in mine own experience (and so 
I think do others also) how hard it is to keep our hearts 
in that holy frame which sometimes they were in, where 
we had less to do in outward things, but not at all 
intending to impute it as necessary to our condition, 
much less as a fruit of our precious liberties which we 
enjoy, which rather tend to the quickening of us, we 
improving the same as we ought. This my answer 
(according with the inward consent and meaning of my 
heart) I do humbly commend to the favourable conside- 
ration and acceptance of the Court, desiring in this, as in 
all things, to approve myself in a conscience void of of- 
fence towards God and man. 


This answer of John Pratt before written, voluntarily 
by him made, as we are witnesses, so do we also join 
with him in humble desire unto the Court, that it may 
be favorably accepted, and whatever failings are in the 
letter in regard of the manner of expressions (which may 
seem hardly to suit with these his interpretations) we do 
desire the indulgence of the Court to pass over without 
further question. Peter Bulkley, 

John Wilson, 
Thomas Hooker. 


Whereas John Pratt of Newtown being called before 
us at this present Court and questioned for a letter which 
he Wrote into England dated (blank) wherein he raised 
an ill report of this country, did desire respite till the 
next day to consider of his answer, he hath now deliver- 
ed in this before written, whereupon his free submission 
and acknowledgement of his errour the Court hath ac- 
cepted for satisfaction, and thereupon pardoned his said 
offence, and thereupon order that it shall be recorded, 
and such as desire copies thereof may have the same. 

John Haynes, Govr. William Coddington, 
Richard Bellingham, Willm. Pinchon, 
John Winthrop, Allerton Hough, 

Thomas Dudley, Increase No well, 

John Humfrey, Simon Bradstreete. 

Note on Ezekiel Cheever. By William 
Lyon Esq.. of New Haven. 

IN a note [Coll. Hist. Soc. Vol. viii. p. 66."] under 
the account of Ezekiel Cheever, some further informa- 
tion is desired respecting him. I am ignorant whether 
he came from England with Governor Eaton, 1637, or 
joined him at Boston ; but he came to New Haven with 
him. His name appears in the plantation covenant, sign- 
ed in Newman's barn, June 4, 1639. Although a poor 
man, he must have been of considerable estimation, as he 
signed among their principal men. Every thing was done 
with much formality at that time. By their doomsday 
book, I find his family consisted of himself and wife on- 
ly ; she died in 1649. His estate was set at 20Z. and a 
few acres of wild land beside. He taught school, and 
sometimes conducted publick worship. It is probable 
that he wrote his Accidence at New Haven. In 1644 
his salary was raised to 1.30 per annum ; for three years 
before he had received but Z.20 per annum. When the 
church was gathered, John Davenport directed them " to 
select eleven of their most godly men as a nomination for 
church pillars, that there might be no blemish in church 

18 VOL. VII. 


work." Cheever was chosen for one. These were to 
select seven among themselves, because we read in Pro- 
verbs, " Wisdom hath hewn out her seven pillars." I 
suppose he left this town about the year 1650 (his name 
does not appear on the records after that) and spent the 
remainder of his long- life in the Bay. In Cambridge 
Catalogue I see that Thomas Cheever was graduated in 
1677 ; perhaps a son of Ezekiei by a second wife. 

Additional Note, Edit. 

Dr. Cotton Mather, in " An Historical Introduc- 
tion" to his funeral sermon upon Mr. Ezeki el Cheever, 
after learned remarks on grammarians and schoolmasters, 
gives the following account of his own revered precep- 
tor. " We generally concur in acknowledging, that 
New England has never known a better. I am sure, I 
have as much reason to appear for him, as ever Crito for 
his master Socrates. The short history of his long use- 
fulness is to be comprised in the ensuing articles." 

" He was born in London many years before the birth 
of New England. It was January 25, 1614, [i. e. 16i'y.] 
He arrived into this country in June, 1637, with the rest 
of those good men, who sought a peaceable secession in 
an American wilderness, for the pure evangelical and in- 
stituted worship of our great Redeemer, to which he 
kept a strict adherence all his days. He then sojourned 
first a little while, part of a year, at Boston ; so that at 
Boston he both commenced and concluded his American 
race. His holy life was a married life. He began the 
laborious work of a school-master at New Haven ; where 
he continued for twelve years. From New Haven he re- 
moved unto Ipswich, in Dec. 1650, where he laboured 
eleven years. From Ipswich he removed unto Charles- 
town, in Nov. 1661, where he laboured nine years. From 
Charlestown he came over to Boston, January 6, 1670, 
where his labours were continued for eight and thirty 
years. He died on Saturday morning, August 21, 1708, 
in the ninety fourth year of his age ; after he had been 
a skilful, painful, faithful schoolmaster for seventy years ; 
and had the singular favour of heaven, that though he 


had usefully spent his life among children, yet he was 
not become twice a child, but held his abilities, with his 
usefulness, in an unusual degree ..o the very last." 

In the Sermon, Dr. Mather says, "It was noted, 
that when scholars came to be admitted into the College, 
they who came from the Cheeverian education, were 
generally the most unexceptionable. He flourished so 
long in this great work, of bringing our sons to be men, 
that it gave him an opportunity to send forth many 
Bezaleeh and Aholiabs for the service of the tabernacle ; 
and men fitted for all good employments. He that was 
my master, seven and thirty years ago, was a master to 
many of my betters, no less than seventy years ago ; so 
long ago, that I must even mention my father's tutor for 
one of them." Particular notice is taken of " his piety, 
and his care to infuse documents of piety into the schol- 
ars under his charge, that he might carry them with him 
to the heavenly world. He so constantly prayed with us 
every day, and catechised us every week, and let fall 
such holy counsels upon us ; he took so many occasions 
to make speeches to us, that should make us afraid of 
sin, and of incurring the fearful judgments of God by 
sin ; that I do propose him for imitation." Having 
shown what his " Master was in the school," he adds, 
" Out of the school he was one, antiqua fide , priscis mor- 
ibus ; a Christian of the old fashion; an Old New 
English Christian ; and I may tell you, that was as 
venerable a sight, as the world, since the days of primi- 
tive Christianity, has ever looked upon. He was well 
studied in the body of divinity ; an able defender of the 
faith and order of the gospel ; notably conversant and ac- 
quainted with the scriptural prophecies. He lived as a 
Master, the term which has been for above three thou- 
sand years, assigned for the life of a Man ; he continued 
to the ninety fourth year of his age — his intellectual force- 
as little abated as his natural." 

In a poetical " Essay" on his memory, Dr. M. as- 
cribes the learning of New England to him and to Cor- 
let, another eminent schoolmaster, who taught the gram- 


mar school in Cambridge for many years, and who is 
celebrated in the Magnalia. 

" Tis Corlet's pains, and Cheever's, we must own, 
That thou, New England, art not Scythia grown." 

In the following description, we perceive characteris- 
tics of the writer, as well as of the master. 

" He liv'd, and to vast age no illness knew ; 
Till Time's scythe waiting for him rusty grew. 
He litiS, and wrought ; his labours were immense ; 
But ne'er declined to preterperfect tense." 

To the Essay is subjoined the following 


Ludimagister ; 

Primo Neoportensis ; 

Deinde, Ipsuicensis; 

Postea, Carolotenensis ; 

Postremo, Bostonensis : 


Doctrinam ac Virtutem 

Nostri,* si sis Nov-Aoglus, 

Colis, si non Barbarus ; 


a Quo non pure tan turn, sed et pie, 



a Q,uo non tantum ornate dicere 

coram Hominibus, 

sed et Orationes coram Deo fundere 

Efficacissimas ; 


a Quo non tantum Carmina pangere, 

sed et 

Ccelestes Hymnos Odasque Angelicas, 



Qui discere voluerunt ; 

ad Quam accensa sunt, 

• N6sti ? 


Q,uis queat numerare, 

Q,uo t Ecclesiarum Lumiua ? 


Qui secum Theologiae abstulit, 

Peritissimus Theologus, 

Corpus hie suum sibi minus charum, 


Vixit Annos, XCI V. 

Docuit, Annos, LXX. 

Obiit, A. D. M. DCC. VIII. 

Et quod mori potuit, 


Expectat Exoptatque 

Primam Sanctorum Resurrectionem 



Anniversary of the Landing of the Fore- 

1 HE 187th anniversary of this memorable event was 
celebrated at Plymouth on Monday, the 22d of Decem- 
ber, in the usual style. The discourse on this occasion 
was delivered by the Rev. Horace Holley, whose well 
known oratorical powers were exerted on this occasion 
in the happiest manner, and afforded great delight and 
satisfaction to his numerous auditors. The festival was 
concluded with a publick dinner, and a ball in the even- 
ing. It is intended to erect a publick hall in this ancient 
town, devoted to the particular purposes of this celebra- 
tion, which must every year acquire increasing interest, 
as those blessings are multiplied, which have followed 
from the heroic constancy of the founders of the colony. 

Three years more will complete the second century ; 
it may be presumed that the jubilee will then be celebrat- 
ed with greater efforts to commemorate this epoch. 

We intend, on a future occasion, to collect the facts 
connected with this celebration from the commencement, 
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Boston Votes, 

The following regulations, adopted on the 30th November, 1635, I 
have transcribed from the third page of the first volume of Records' 
of this town, as fairly exhibiting the views of the earliest settlers. 
To such sources, which have not been exhausted even by the une- 
qualled diligence of Hutchinson and Hazard, must everv man re- 
sort, who would thoroughly investigate the causes of modern cus- 
toms, the cunabula gentis nostrae. The last item will be duly 
appreciated, when the reader recollects, that Vane, who was next 
year chosen governour, had arrived in our colony only in the pre- 
ceding month. 2* 

AT a general meeting upon publique notice, 
Imprymis it is agreed that noe further allotment shall be 
graunted unto any new comers, but such as may be likely 
to be received members of the congregation. Item that 
none shall sell their houses or allotments to any new com- 
ers, out with the consent and allowance of those that are 
appointed Allotters. Item that all such as have allot- 
ments for habitations allotted unto them shall build there- 
on before the first of the first month next, called March, 
or else it shall be in the power of the allotters to dispose 
of them otherwise. Item that Mr, William Hutchinson, 
Mr. William Colborne and Mr. William Brenton shall 
set pryses upon all cattell, comodities, victualls and la- 
bourers and workmens wages and that noe other prises 
or rates shall be given or taken. Item that none of the 
members of this congregation or inhabitants amongst us 
shall sue one another at the lawe before that Mr. Henry- 
Vane and the twoe Elders, Mr. Thomas Ollyver and 
Thomas Leverett have had the hearing and desyding of 
toe cause if they cann." 


A Description of Bridgewater, 1818. 

BrIDGEWATER, which is now one of the largest 
towns in the common wealthy was originally a plantation 
belonging to Duxbury. Soon after that town was incor- 
porated, the inhabitants applied to the Court at Plymouth 
for a grant of lands, or, as they expressed it, " an exten- 
sion to the westward." The first order of court respect, 
ing it was in August 1644, as follows. 

" Upon the petition of Duxbury men, it is thought 
good by the Court, that there be a view taken of the lands 
described by them, namely, seven miles up into the 
woods from Plymouth bounds at Jones' river. And if 
it prove not prejudicial to the plantation to be erected at 
Teightaquid, nor to the meadows of Plymouth at Win- 
nytuckquett, it may be confirmed unto them ; provided 
also the herring or alewife river at Namassachusett shall 
be equally between the two towns of Duxbury and 

The next year, 1645, the grant was made a$ follows. 
" The inhabitants of the town of Duxbury are granted a 
competent proportion of lands about Saughtuckquett to- 
wards the west for a plantation for them, and to have it 
four miles every way from the place where they shall set 
up their centre ; provided it entrench not upon Winny- 
tuckquett formerly granted to Plymouth. And we have 
nominated Capt. Miles Standish, Mr* John Alden, 
George Soule, Constant Southworth, Joseph Rogers, 
and William Brett, to be feoffees in trust for the equal 
dividing and laying forth the said lands to the inhabi- 

The whole number of inhabitants in Duxbury at that 
time, who were entitled to this grant, was fifty-four, 
each of whom, " by agreement among themselves," had 
one share, and they reserved two shares, one for a minis- 
ter to be settled among them, and one for a miller, mak- 

19 VOL. VII. 



ing in the whole 56 shares, 
tors were 

William Bradford, 
William Merrick, 
John Bradford, 
Abraham Pierce, 
John Rogers, 
George Partridge, 
John Starr, 
Mr. William Collier, 
Christopher Wadsworth, 
Edward Hall, 
Nicholas Robbins, 
Thomas Hayward, 
Mr. Ralph Partridge, 
Nathaniel Willis, 
John Willis, 
Thomas Bonney, 
Mr, Miles Standish, 
Love Brewster, 
John Pay body, 
William Pay body, 
Francis Sprague, 
William Basset, 
John Washburn, 
John Washburn, jun. 
John Ames, 
Thomas Gannett, 
William Brett, 
Edmund Hunt, 

The names of the proprie- 

WiUiam Clarke, 
William Ford, 
Mr. Constant Southworth, 
John Cary, 
Edmund Weston, 
Samuel Tompkins, 
Edmund Chandler, 
Moses Simons, 
John Frisk, 
Philip Delano, 
Arthur Harris, 
Mr. John Alden, 
John Fobes, 
Samuel Nash, 
Abraham Sampson, 
George Soule, 
Experience Mitchell, 
Henry Howland, 
Henry Sampson, 
John Brown, 
John Haward, 
Francis West, 
William Tubbs, 
James Lindell, 
Samuel Eaton, 
Solomon Leonardson, 
Mr. James Keith, 
Samuel Edson. 

The two last, Mr. James Keith, who was afterwards 
their minister, and Samuel Edson, their first miller, were 
neither of them inhabitants of Duxbury, or originally 
proprietors, but became so afterwards when they settled in 
the town. Mr. Keith was from Scotland, and Edson 
from Salem. 

This grant was considered as a preemptive right on- 
ly, and before they entered therefore upon the lands they, 
" by the approbation and appointment of the court," 


purchased the soil of the natives agreeably, to the follow- 
ing deed. 

" Witnes^ these presents, that I Ousamequin Sachim 
of the Contrie of Pocanauket, have given, granted en- 
feofcd and sould unto Myles Standish of Duxborough 
Samuel Nash and Constant Southworth of Duxborough 
aforesaid in the behalf of all y c townsmen of Duxborough 
aforesaid a tract of land usually called Saughtucket ex- 
tending in length and the breadth thereof, as folio weth, 
that is to say from y e weare att Saughtuckett seven myles 
due east and from the said weare seven (miles) due 
west, and from the said weare seven myles due north 
and from the said weare seven myles due south ; the 
w ch tract the said Ousamequin hath given granted 
enfeoffed and sould unto y e said Myles (Standish) 
Samuel Nash and Constant Southworth in the behalfe of 
all y e townsmen of Duxborough as aforesaid w th all the 
emunityes priveleges and profitts whatsoever belonging 
to the said tract of land w Lh all and singular all woods 
underwoods lands meadowes Rivers brooks Rivelets &c. 
to have and to hould to the said Myles Standish Samuel 
Nash and Constant Southworth in behalfe of all the 
townsmen of the towne of Duxborough to them and 
their heyers forever. In Witnes whereof I the said 
Ousamequin -have here unto sett my hand this 23 of 
March 1649. 1^ 

the m k of C *y Ousamequin 

In consideration of the aforesaid bargain and sale wee the 
said Miles Standish Samuel Nash and Constant Southworth 
doe bind ourselves to pay unto y e said Ousamequin for 
and in consideration of y e said tract of land as folio weth 

7 Coats a y d and half in a coat 

9 Hatchets 

8 Howes 
20 Knives 

4 moose skins 
10y ds and half of cotton 

The above is a literal and exact copy of the original 
deed in the hand writing of Capt. Standish, which is now 
in the possession of the writer of this article. 

Myles Standish 
Samuel Nash 
Constant Southw r orth " 


Ousatneqilin, or Ossamequin, sometimes written 
Woosemeqirin, was Massasoit himself, who in the latter 
pan of his life had adopted that name. This contract js 
said to have been made and executed on a small rocky 
hill where Stth Latham now lives, anciently called 
Sachem's RocH, a little south of Whitman's Mills im the 
east parish. The wear, which they at first established as 
their centre, was a little above the mills, back of Deacon 
William Harris' house, and near the ancient fording 
place. The first mill erected or. this stream stood near 
the wear, which consequently became useless and was 
discontinued as a fishing place. Traces of the old road 
at the fording place on the south side of the river* and 
alsp of the old wear at the bottom of the river, are still 
to be seen. 

This river and the pond from which it proceeds, as 
well as the neighbourhood in which thfey are situated, 
still retain the name of SatUcket, a contraction of Saqua- 
tuckett, orMassaquatuckett, as it was sometimes written. 
"While the grant from the court was only four miles 
each way, equal to eight miles square, this purchase from 
the Indians was seven miles each way, equal to fourteen 
miles square. The reason of this difference is not very 
obvious ; but the purchase was probably ttitde thus ex- 
tensive, either in reference to the " seven miles" nteri- 
tioned in the first order of court, or with a view to addi- 
tional grants in future. 

The plantation was incorporated into a distinct town in 
the year 1656, agreeably to the following art of court, 
" Oixiered that henceforth Duxbury new plantation be 
allowed to be a township of itself, distinct from Duxbu- 
ry, and to be called by the name of firidgewatet ; pro- 
vided that all public rates be born by them With Dux- 
bury upon equal proportions." This proportion ap- 
peared, by a public tax assessed about that time, to have 
been established at one third ; as Duxbury paid £."6 ; : 9, 
and Bridge water I. 2 : : 3. The name was probably 
adopted from fancy, as most of the names of towns 
were in the " old Colony/' and not because any of the 
settlers came from Bridgewater in England. 


The inhabitants soon discovered, that they had riot left 
themselves four miles on the east of their centre at the 
wear, without encroaching upon the Major's purchase, 
so called, (now part of Pembroke,) and, what was pn> 
bably a more important discovery to them, they found 
alSOj that there was a large tract of swamp and meadow 
lands, called Hockomock, lying on the west beyond their 
four miles towards Taunton (now Easton and Raynham.) 
They therefore began very early to make application to 
court for leave to move their centre, and extend their 
limits, westward, so as to include these lands ; as ap- 
pears, as well as the reasons they assigned for it, in the 
following order in 1658. " It is agreed by the court 
that there shall be chosen such as the town of Bridge- 
water shall think meet, that are no way engaged in the 
rtew plantation of Duxbury, to view out the land and 
meadow desired by Bridgewater, and to consider of the 
reasonableness of their desire in reference to the accom- 
modating of some useful men in church and Common- 
wealth and make true report of the same to the court." 
And iri 1662 the same was granted them as follows. 

" In answer to a petition preferred to the court by 
Bridgewater, it is agreed^ that the meadow land lying 
northward and westward from the centre within the seven 
miles is granted them." 

They afterwards, by the leave of court* removed their 
centre about one mile and half west from the wear and 
constituted a large oak Tree, near the old dwelling house 
of the present Thomas Hay ward, their central monument ; 
Which was ever afterwards* as long as it stood* called the 
" centre tree," and the place still retains the name of 
" the Centred Some remains of the stump are still 
Visible m the wall on the south side of the road, and are 
in the divisional line between the east and West parishes* 

In 166B the court, " in answer to a petition of Bridge- 
water desiring their enlargement may extend to the six 
miles they fjrurchased of the Indians by order of 
court *" made another grant to the town of " six miles 
from the centre en the north side, if die line of t&e Colo- 
ny hihdftfh itot, and on the west sicte up to Tawaton 


bounds," now Easton and Raynham, " and on the south 
and southeasterly sides unto Titicut river, as far as the 
six miles extends, and so likewise on the east side, that 
is to say, the whole six miles from the centre, east, west, 
north and south ; always provided, that grants of lands 
formerly made by court be not molested. It is also or- 
dered that those lands, that are between Bridgewater and 
Namasket," now Middleborough, " already granted, 
shall be determined by the court unto what township 
they shall belong ; and that the Indians be not molested ; 
and that they be careful to provide a competency of land 
for Mr. Keith." 

This was commonly called " the two miles additional 
grant," as the first was, " the old four mile grant." It 
would seem by some expressions in this grant, as if it 
were understood, that the original purchase of the In- 
dians had been only six miles each way, and not seven, 
as the fact was. There seems also to have arisen about 
that time a question in the court as to the extent of it ; 
for we find the depositions of Constant Southworth and 
Samuel Nash, two of the purchasers, respecting it, upon 
record, in which they say, " they purchased six miles 
every way from the wear, and have for it' the writing or 
deed under Qssamequin's own hand, which is seven 
miles." Probably they had ascertained, that six miles 
would comprehend all the land around them, not includ- 
ed in other grants, and had therefore asked of the court 
for that extent only, and doubts had arisen whether they 
had purchased that quantity of the Indians. These de- 
positions were probably introduced to show they had 
purchased six miles and more, even " seven." 

By this additional grant, they obtained their two miles 
on the north towards the colony line, and some on the 
east, north of " the major's purchase," in the north east 
corner of the town ; but, very little, if any, elsewhere. 
Their original four miles would extend to the " major's 
purchase" on the east, and " the Taunton north purchase" 
on the west, and the Indian plantation at Teightaquid had 
been reserved by the Court in all their grants. This plan- 
tation had been granted to the Titicut Indians by Chick- 


atabut, a sachem of Massachusetts living on Neponsct 
river, being 1 " three miles on each side of the river," and 
was called, Keketticut, or Ketticut, or Teightaquid, and 
now commonly written Titicut. So much of it, however,as 
lies north of the river was contained within the six miles, 
and they were afterwards allowed to purchase it of the In- 
dians, and Elder Brett, Mr. Nicholas Byram, and Mr. 
Samuel Edson, were appointed by court for that purpose. 
They accordingly, November 20, 1672, procured a deed 
of it from Pomponoho, alias Peter, chief of the Titicut 
Indians ; being " all the land lying north of Titicut river, 
within the bounds of Bridgewater, what lands were mine 
or were either my father's or grandfather's or any otherwise 
conferred on me, excepting one hundred acres lying up 
the river to the eastward of Small Brook, given to an In- 
dian called Charles, my brother in law, and a certain par- 
cel of land lying against the wear and bounded by the 
landing place, running to the head of my field containing 
about ten acres to the utmost;" signed with his mark, p, 
witnessed by Joseph Hayward and John Gary, sen. and 
acknowledged before Josiah Winslow, governor. The 
consideration was 16/. viz. " 61. current money, and 10/. 
in good merchantable corn." The two lots reserved were 
afterwards purchased of the individual Indians owning 
them by some of the settlers of the town. The 100 acres 
were purchased of Charles by Edward Mitchell and Eli- 
sha Hayward. Thus all the lands within the most exten- 
sive limits of the town, appear to have been fairly pur- 
chased of the natives ; and we have the above named 
Governor Winslow's attestation upon record, that this 
was the case in all the towns in the old colony. 

If there were any lands within the last grant, " lying 
between Bridgewater and Numasket," besides those con- 
tained in the Titicut plantation, the Court, having re- 
served the right to themselves to determine unto which 
town they should belong, settled that question afterwards 
by constituting the river the boundary between Bridge- 
water and Middleborough. 

In the year 1685, the Court of Assistants were em- 
powered to examine, allow and confirm, from time to 
time, all claims and titles to lands formerly granted to 


towns or individuals by the General Court, and when al- 
lowed they were to tf pass the seal of the government for 
confirmation. " In pursuance of this order, the grants 
above mentioned were confirmed by Thomas Hinckley, 
psq. governor, March 6, 1686, and the boundaries of the 
whole town, generally, described. The deed was attest- 
ed by Nathaniel Clark, secretary. And on the 23d of 
December, of the same year, a deed of confirmation was 
also procured from " Josiah, son of Josiah Wampatuck," 
called an Indian sachem, lining at Mattakeset, now Pem- 
broke, of all the town lying " north of the south four mile 
line;" that is, all excepting the late " Titicut purchase" 
contained in the deed of Pomponoho, which needed no 
confirmation. The consideration of Wampatuck's deed was 
"ten pounds in money, and one hundred acres of land ly- 
ing on the upper end of poor iraeadow on both sides of the 
river." These one hundred acres were afterwards bought 
-and 'are now owned by individuals in the town. This deed 
,of confirmation was made to Samuel Edson, sen. Ensign 
Haward, and John Willis, sen. in behalf of all the propri- 
etors, signed with Wampatuck's mark, witnessed by John 
.Soule, Joseph Bearstow, and Samuel Tinsley, probably 
inhabitants of Mattakeset, and acknowledged before Wil- 
liam Bradford, deputy governor. It appears, therefore, 
sthat the greatest part of the town has been twice purchas- 
ed of the natives, once of Massasoit, and again of Wam- 
-patuck, a valuable consideration having been paid to each. 
The original " four mile grant" was never allotted, but 
remained in common among the proprietors, who, in 1662, 
after " some of the committee, originally named in the 
grant for laying it out, were dead, and others, taken oif by 
other occasions," were authorized by Court to appoint a 
committee from among themselves to lay out their lands, 
and all their agreements respecting their proprietary were 
to be recorded by the clerk of the town, who .was conse- 
quently made clerk also of the proprietors. There was 
an attempt however made to divide the whole " commons" 
at once among the proprietors ; but William Brett, their 
eldei, wrote to Gov. Winslow requesting him with "the 
honored Court" to prevent it. His letter is long and par- 


ticular, stating tlije arguments on both sides. He also 
states, that a majority in the town had been procured in 
favour of it, by the influence of "Nicholas By ram, Sam- 
uel Edson and others." His letter, still remaining, bears 
date February £0, 1671. The proprietors had their meet- 
ings, officers, and records distinct from the town, and 
were accustomed, from time to time, to make grants of a 
certain number of acres, from five to twenty, which each 
proprietor had a right to pitch, and call on the committee 
to lay out for him ; which being done, and a return of 
the survey made and entered on their books, created a 
perfect title in such proprietor. Any person, not a pro- 
prietor, finding common land, might purchase a right of 
any one, who had not taken up his full quantity upon any 
of the grants then existing, and procure to himself a title 
to it in the same manner. Instances of common land 
having been taken up in this manner have occurred even 
to the present day. 

But all the lands obtained by the additional two mile 
grant, together with the lands contained in the deed 
from Pomponoho, were divided into lots and drawn by 
the proprietors. They were divided in the first place in- 
to four parcels or tracts, three on the north and one on 
the south. That on the south was called " the Titicut 
purchase." Those on the north were differently designat- 
ed. One was called " the three miles at the east end and 
beginning next to the Colony line." Another was called 
" the easterly two miles, commonly called the young 
men's shares." Another was called " the two miles in 
the west, commonly called the west shares." They 
were however mistaken in supposing their six miles 
north carried them to the old colony line ; as there was a 
gore of land remaining, beginning at a point at the north 
west corner of the town and widening so that between 
the north east corner and the colony line there was a 
great distance. This fact was awhile zealously disput- 
ed, but at last settled in the long contested case of Abra- 
ham Thayer vs. Daniel Howard and others. The west- 
erly part of this gore, commonly called " the Howard 
farms," having been purchased of the Massachusetts pro- 
20 vol. VII. 


vince, after the union of the two colonies, by Daniel 
Howard and Robert Howard, was annexed to Bridgewa- 
ter on the petition of the Selectmen of the town. The 
remainder of it had before been incorporated with the 
town of Abington. Indeed by the plain and express 
language of the statute the whole gore was included in 
Abington ; but for some reasons, which do not appear, 
the " Howard farms" seem to have been considered as 
" belonging to no town," till they were annexed to 
Bridge water, October 15, 1730. These several grants 
and additions constitute all the territory ever belonging to 
Bridgewater in its greatest extent. There have been 
some considerable diminutions of it since. June 10th, 
1712, the north east corner of the town, containing all the 
land lying east of Beaver Brook and north of the present 
bounds of the east parish was incorporated with the 
town of Abington. The greatest part of this town was 
taken from Bridgewater. The petitioners call themselves 
inhabitants of the east part of Bridgewater, who, with oth- 
ers, desire to be incorporated into a town. A small gore al- 
so on the east side of the town, beginning at a point at Hali- 
fax and extending northerly, was annexed to Pembroke 
June 7, i754. Excepting in these instances, the town 
has never been curtailed, and its boundaries as finally 
settled may therefore now be generally described as fol- 
lows. On the east it is bounded by Pembroke and Hali- 
fax ; on the north by Abington, Randolph and Stoughton ; 
on the west by Easton and Raynham ; and on the south 
by Middleborough. It is the north west town in the 
county of Plymouth ; adjoining the county of Norfolk, 
or old colony line, on the north, and the county of Bristol 
on the west. Titicut river, often called Taunton great 
river, is its boundary on the south, adjoining Middle- 
bo; ough. It is a little more than ten miles long from 
north to south, and seven miles wide from east to west, 
and contains about seventy three square miles. The 
centre of the town is about 26 miles from Boston. 

The first settlement of the town commenced in the west 
parish in the year 1651. Each settler had a house lot of 
six acres on the town river, then called Nunketest, or 


Nunketetest. The new settlement itself was sometimes 
called by this name, while the plantation received the 
more general name of Saughtucket. These were the re- 
spective names of the two principal ponds in the town, 
and of the rivers issuing from them. These house lots 
were contiguous and the settlement compact, extending 
on each side of the river from the house where Seth La- 
throp lately lived, down to the four corners by the dwell- 
ing house of Ansel Hay ward. It cannot now be precise- 
ly ascertained how many of the first proprietors ever 
became inhabitants of the town ; but probably not more 
than one third part of them. Some of them after a short 
residence returned or removed to other places. It has 
been said that Capt. Miles Standish resided there one or 
two years ; but this is not certain. His son, Ensign Jo- 
siah Standish, was there several years. The following 
were permanent settlers there. Thomas Hayward, John 
H award, Nathaniel Willis, John Willis, William Basset, 
John Washburn, John Washburn, Jun. Thomas Gannett, 
William Brett, John Gary, Samuel Tompkins, Arthur 
Harris, John Fobes, Experience Mitchell, Solomon 
Leonardso», Mr. Keith, and Samuel Edson. Of these, 
William Basset and Experience Mitchell are the only 
persons, who arrived at Plymouth in the three first ships ; 
and the only two, of all the " forefathers,' ' ever known to 
have lived in the town. They were both original owners 
of lands at Plymouth, Duxbury and Bridgewater, and 
lived in all these places as they were successively settled. 
The former came over in the second ship, Fortune, in 
1621, was a blacksmith, a large landholder, and one of 
the land committee in the Colony. He lived in the south 
parish, and died in 1667 His library was large and vaL 
uable for that period. His wife, Elizabeth, was probably 
a Tilden. William Hatch, sen. married one of his daugh- 
ters, and Lieut. Peregrine White another, named Sarah. 
His son William lived at Sandwich, and was a marshal. 
His son Joseph lived on the paternal estate at Bridgewater ; 
and the late Joseph Basset, Esq. one of his descendants 
was the largest landholder in the town. 


Experience Mitchell came in the third ship, Ann, in 
1623. He married Mary, daughter of Francis Cook, His 
son Edward was an early settler in Bridgewater, while he 
himself remained at Duxbury till, having become old, he 
settled his estate among his sons, and removed and lived 
with his son Edward in the east parish, where he died in 
1689 about §0 years of age. His son Jacob settled in 
Dartmouth, where he and his wife were both killed by the 
Indians in 1675, on which event their infant children were 
removed to Bridgewater ; one of whom, Jacob, settled af- 
terwards at North Yarmouth, and another, Thomas, was 
the ancestor of part o^ the present family at Bridgewater. 
Five great grandsons of Experience are now living, one 
of whom, Gushing Mitchell, owns the paternal estate. 
It is believed there are no male descendants living of any 
other of the forefathers related in the same degree. These 
are sons of the lnte Col. Edward Mitchell, an only son ; 
and at the time of his birth his father Edward was nearly 
seventy years old ; and his mother was Alice Bradford, 
great grand daughter of governour Bradford. Experience 
had two other sons, John and Thomas. A son of John by 
the name of Experience early settled in Providence, one 
of whose sons of the same name lately died in Uxbridge 
nearly one hundred years of age. The first Experience 
was the ancestor of most, if not all, of the name in New 

Early settlers came in also from other towns ; as Ni- 
cholas By ram, Thomas Whitman, Joseph Shaw, and 
John Kingman, from Weymouth ; Jonathan Hill, from 
Dorchester; John Field, from Providence; Samuel 
Packard, Isaac Lazell, William Hudson, and Isaac John- 
son, from Hingham ; and David Perkins, from Beverly. 
Some of them were " purchasers of rights ;" but the best 
knowledge of the early proprietors may be obtained from 
their names, as they appear, in the allotments of the addi- 
tional grants as early as 1682. They are 

Samuel Edson, Joseph Alden, 

Samuel, } , . . Isaac, his son, 

Joseph, 3 ' l sons ' Robert Latham, 



James, son of Rob't Latham, 

John Field, 

Joseph Lapham, 

John Washburn, 

John, ^1 

Samuel, j 

Joseph, J> his sons, 

Thomas, | 

Jonathan, J 

Guido Bailey, 

Guido, his son, 

Mark Lathrop, 

Samuel ? u • 

Edward S h ' SSOnS ' 

Thomas Hayward, 

Lt. Thomas, "| 


Joseph, I his sons, 

Elisha, j 

John, J 

Ensign John Haward, 

John, i 

James, > his sons, 

Jonathan, j 

Na'thaniel Willis, 

Elkanah, 1 

Comfort, C his sons, 

Benjamin, 3 

John Willis, 

John, his son, 

Samuel Packard, 




John, j 

John Ames, 

John, his nephew, 

Thomas Snell, 

William Brett, 


his sons, 

William, ) 
Nathaniel, C f " 8 " 1 
Elihu, S 

Edward, ? sons of John 


-of Wil- 


William, 3 Fobes, dee'd. 

Isaac, son of Arthur Harris, 


Samuel Allen, 

Samuel, his son, 

Giles Leach, 

Samuel, his son, 

Samuel Tompkins, 

Solomon Leonard, 

Solomon, ^| 

Samuel, , . 

John, \ hls sons > 

Isaac, j 

Mr. James Keith, 

John Gary, 



T .,' v nis sons, 

Jonathan, j ' 

James, j 

William Snow, 

William, f , . 

Joseph, 5 h,s wns ' 

Joseph, son of William Bas 

set, deceased, 
John, son of Thomas Whit 

man, deceased, 
John Aldrich, 
Jonathan Hill, 
Samuel Sheverick, 
Richard Holt, 
Edward Mitchell, 
Nicholas Byram, 
Nicholas, his son, 
John Gordon, 
George Turner. 


Many of these fathers had other sons, who were prob- 
ably not of age or not proprietors. Samuel Edson had 
another son, named Josiah ; Joseph Alden, two other 
sons, Joseph and John ; Robert Latham, a son, Chilton ; 
John Haward, a son, Ephraim ; Samuel Allen, five oth- 
er sons, Nathaniel, Ebenezer, Josiah, Eiisha, and Nehe- 
miah ; Thomas Whitman, two other sons, Nicholas and 
Ebenezer ; and so of others. Other settlers were not at 
that time proprietors or " purchasers of rights," and there- 
fore their names do not appear. 

The first officers chosen in the town, which was in 
1657, were John Willis, deputy, Arthur Harris and John 
Haward, surveyors, and Samuel Tompkins, constable, 
Mark Lathrop, John Ames, John Cary, and Thomas 
Hay ward, were town officers as early as 1660. In the 
same year, John Willis was appointed to administer oaths, 
and was therefore the first magistrate there. Thomas 
Hayward, Jun. was the next, and Elihu Brett the third. 
The two first militia officers, " allowed and approved" by 
the Court, were Thomas Hayward, Jun. lieutenant, and 
John Haward, ensign. They were afterwards promoted. 
The " Town Council" in Philip's war were William 
Brett, Samuel Edson, and John Willis. The selectmen 
in 1690 were Capt. Thomas Hayward, Lieut. John Ha- 
ward, John Willis, John Field, and John Kingman. The 
town clerks have been John Cary, Samuel Allen, Nathan- 
iel Brett and Eliakim Howard. 

The settlements extended first into the south part of 
the town, and towards Taunton, as their principal inter- 
course was with the people of that place, where was the 
nearest mill for grinding their corn, whither they were ac- 
customed to go frequently on foot, and carry their grists 
on their backs. There were not many settlements in the 
easterly part of the town, till 1685, when we find on record 
a petition from Samuel Allen, William Brett, Isaac Har- 
ris, John Haward, Jun. Jonathan Hill, Thomas Whitman, 
and Samuel Allen, Jun. praying for a road and stating, 
u that God by his providence had placed their habitations 
on the east side of the town, some two, and some three 
miles from the meeting house, the mill, ajid the chief part 


of the town, and that they had a horse bridge over Mat- 
field river," since called " John's river," probably from 
John Haward, Jun. who lived on the banks of it, near 
wh^re the late Col. Edward Mitchell lived. 

The orthography, as it respects the names of the early 
settlers, has in many instances considerably changed. 
John Haward and his descendants, who originally omitted 
the y in their name, finally changed it to Howard. This 
is said to have been first done by Doct. Abiel Howard, 
who graduated at Cambridge in 1730, and had his name 
so inserted in the catalogue. Thomas and his descend- 
ants have retained their original name of Hay ward. They 
were undoubtedly both of the same name of Hayward, 
and probably of the same family ; but the relation between 
them, if any, is not known. There is a letter remaining 
with the descendants of John, from some one of their an- 
cestors in England, subscribed Hayward, or Haward. 
Both names have however been uniformly there spoken, 
as if written Howard. Cary was sometimes written Ca- 
rew. Leonard was written Leonardson, sometimes Len- 
nerson ; Harris, Harrison ; Lathrop, Laythorpe ; Pack- 
ard, Packer, and was always so pronounced; Harden, 
Harding ; Fobes, Vobes ; Alger, Agur, or Auger, and 
formerly so pronounced. Minister Keith uniformly wrote 
Agur, Packer ; and also Byron, for Bvram. 

Thomas Gannett died in 1655, before the incorporation 
of the plantation, and is the first death there on record. 
Matthew Gannett of Scituate was his brother. Caleb 
Gannett, Esq. of Cambridge, is of this family. 

Francis Godfrey, a carpenter, "an aged inhabitant," 
and one of the " colony troopers," died there in 1669. 
The family is now extinct there, as well as those of Tomp- 
kins, Turner, Lapham, Holt, Sheverick, Gordon, Bacon, 
and Bailey. 

Thomas Hayward was one of the eldest of the settlers. 
He died in 1681, and his descendants are more numerous 
than those of any other name in town. The present Re- 
gister of Probate, the High Sheriff of the County, and the 
Minister at Barnstable, are of this family. 


John Howard was brought up in the family of CapL 
Miles Standish ; was a carpenter ; and his descendants 
are numerous, and have been, and still are, one of the 
most influential families in the town. The late Rev. 
Simeon Howard, D. D. of Boston, Zechariah Howard of 
Canton, and the present Bezaliel Howard of Springfield, 
descended from him. 

Nathaniel and John Willis died early, Ihe former the 
first school-master, and the latter the first Deacon, Dep- 
uty, and Magistrate in the place. They were brothers. 
Lawrence Willis was also early in the town. Richard 
Willis was at Plymouth, in 1630 ; and Henry Willis was 
a volunteer in the Pequot war. These were probably of 
the same family, but in what degree related does not ap- 
pear. The Rev. Zephaniah Willis of Kingston is of this 

Thomas Whitman settled in the east parish, and mar- 
ried Abigail, daughter of Nicholas Byram. His son John 
had no children, Ebenezer settled in the south, Nicholas 
remained in the east parish. His descendants are very- 
numerous in Bridge water, and more of them have receiv- 
ed a publick education, than of any other name in town. 
Several of them have been clergymen. Nine of this 
name, and all of them his posterity, are now in the profes- 
sion of the law in this Commonwealth. The family is 
remarkable for longevity. Nicholas had four children, 
who lived to above 85, two of them above SO years ; and 
others above 70. Others of the same family have lived 
to above 80, and one to above 90 years. Four are now 
living of the respective ages of 94, 87, 84, and 80. 

Samuel Edson was one of the first deacons, and his pos- 
terity have spread into different and distant parts of our 
country. He erected the first mill in the town. This 
family appears to be the only one of the name. Edson is 
not to be found in any foreign list of names. It is sup- 
posed to be a contraction of Edwardson. He was from 
Salem. Three of his descendants by the name of Josiah, 
have been distinguished in their day and representatives 
of the town. The first was his son and has been known 
in latter times by the appellation of " old Justice Edson." 


He was the donor of the " school lands." He left no 
children. The second was grandson, son of Joseph, and 
has been called " old Capt. Edson." The third was the 
late Col. Edson, son of the last, and one of the seventeen 
Rescinders, so called, and a Mandamus Counsellor. He 
died early in the revolution at New York, or on Long- 
Island. Before that period he had been a deacon in the 
south parish, where he lived, and had been a very respect- 
able and influential man w the town. Old Samuel Ed- 
son died 9th July, 1692, aged 80 years. His wife Su- 
sanna died 20th Feb. 1699, aged 81 years. 

John Washburn, sen. died there before 1670. His de- 
scendants settled principally in the south part of the town, 
but became very numerous and spread into the neighbour- 
ing towns and even to the remotest parts of the country. 

Joseph Alden, second son of the Hon. John Alden of 
Duxbury, settled in the south. This family has been also 
remarkable for its longevity. Abundant information 
has been given respecting them in " the Collection of 
American Epitaphs," the author himself being one of 

Robert Latham settled in the east parish, and was pro- 
bably son of William, one of the " forefathers," He 
married Susanna Winslow of Boston, daughter of John 
Winslow, brother of the Governor. Her mother was 
Mary Chilton, daughter of James Chilton, who arrived at 
Plymouth in the first ship, May Flower. She is said to 
have been the first person, who leaped from the ship, at 
their landing. Robert had two sons, who together bore 
the name of their ancestor above named, James and Chil- 
ton. And these were long continued as christian names 
in the family, which is not so numerous in the town as 
formerly, many of them having emigrated into Hampshire, 
the District of Maine, and other places. Arthur Latham 
of Lyme is one of this family and also a descendant of 
Arthur Harris. 

John Ames had no children ; and in 1697 gave his es- 
tate by deed principally to his nephew John Ames, son of 
his brother William of Braintree. These brothers were 
sons of Richard Ames of Bruton in the county of Somer- 
21 vol. vii. 


setshire in England. John the nephew, (born in 1651,) 
removed to Bridgewater, and had five sons, John, Nathan- 
iel, Thomas, William, and David. Nathaniel, (born in 
1677,) was the father of old Dr. Ames of Dedham, (born 
1708,) father of the late Hon. Fisher Ames. Dr. Ames 
had two wives successively of the name of Fisher ; and a 
son by each, named Fisher. The first, dying young, but 
not till after his mother, and her estate having vested in 
him, gave rise to the famous law suit, in which it was first 
determined, that real estate ascended, contrary to the En- 
glish rule, to the father as next of kin by the Province 
law. The family of Ames is still numerous in Bridge- 

Samuel Packard's descendants are the second in point 
of numbers in the town and are principally settled in the 
north parish. The Rev. Asa, Hezekiah and Theophilus 
Packard, are of this family ; so also was Elijah Packard, 
formerly a minister at Manomet Ponds in Plymouth. 

Thomas Snell was one of the largest landholders in 
town, and his family numerous. The Rev. Thomas 
Snell of North Brookfield, who delivered the last election 
sermon, is one of his descendants. 

John Fobes' descendants are principally in the south 
part of the town. The late Rev. Perez Fobes, D. D. of 
Raynham, was one of them. 

John Carey was among the most respectable of the first 
settlers and his family one of the most influential in the 
town. He was the first Town Clerk ; one of his name 
and family was afterwards Town Clerk at Bristol. He 
died in 1681. Some of his family are still remaining in 
the east, north and south parishes. Others of them re- 
moved to New Jersey. 

Samuel Allen settled in the east parish, and was the se- 
cond Town Clerk. He married a daughter of George 
Partridge, and his posterity are very numerous. Capt. 
Jacob Allen, who was killed at the capture of Burgoyne, 
was his great grandson. 

Nicholas Byram settled also in the east parish ; his wife 
was Susanna Shaw of Weymouth. He died about 1687. 
He had but one son ; his name was Nicholas, who had four 
sons, Nicholas, Josiah, Ebenezer and Joseph, This fam- 


ily was formerly numerous and influential, but most of 
them removed many years ago. Nicholas and his family 
only remained. Josiah's family went to N. Yarmouth ; 
Ebenezer's to N. Jersey. Joseph was a physician ; one 
of his sons, Joseph, went to Maine ; another, Benjamin, 
to Vermont. 

Arthur Harris was one of the first settlers in the west 
parish. He married Mercy, youngest daughter of the 
above named John Winslow of Boston. His descendants 
settled early in the east parish. He finally lived and died 
in Boston, and his will is there on record ; but his estate 
and even his house was in Bridgewater, as appears by his 

Some of the descendants of Constant South worth, Sol- 
omon Leonard, Giles Leach, William Snow, Mark Lath- 
rop, and Jonathan Hill, still remain in different parts of the 
town, as well as in the adjoining towns. There are other 
families, and some of them numerous, whose names are 
not to be found among those of the early proprietors. 
Such are Alger, Copeland, Kingman, Robinson, Cham* 
berlin, Pratt, Sbaw r , Orcutt, Benson, Lazell, Hudson, 
Johnson, Hooper, Thayer, and others. 

Emigration from the town has been so great, that 
there has been but little increase in its population for 
twenty years. Formerly they went to the westward, and 
northerly into Hampshire, but latterly more into the Dis- 
trict of Maine. The census of 1790, was 4975 ; in 1800 
it was 5200, the number of houses was 740. The last 
census of 1810 was 5157 ; and the relative population of 
the different parishes was as follows. West 1065— south 
1234— east 1195— north 1354— Titicut 318. The last 
U. States land tax was in the West 505,47 — south 552,99 
—east 579,82— north 598,52— Titicut 150,54— Total 

Bridgewater was the first interior settlement in the coun- 
ty of Plymouth, and many of the settlers were probably 
young men, born in this country, and therefore well calcu- 
lated to encounter the troubles and dangers they w r erc 
soon called to meet. In Philip's war, which commenced 
in 1675, they displayed great resolution and intrepidity. 
Surrounded by a savage foe, " they were strongly advis- 


cd and solicited to desert their dwellings, and repair down 
to the towns by the sea side." They however resolutely 
kept their ground and defended their settlement ; and en- 
couraged and assisted other towns to do the same. They 
erected a stockade or garrison on the south side of the riv- 
er, and also fortified many of their dwelling-houses. At 
the commencement of hostilities, June 21, 1675, seven- 
teen of their number " well armed and furnished with 
horses, the first that were on the march in all the country," 
went to Metapoiset, a small settlement about twelve 
miles from Svvanzey, " to strengthen the garrison at that 
place/' They were met by people from Swanzey, driv- 
en irom their habitations, and filled with terror, who ad- 
vised and persuaded them to return ; but they fearlessly 
pursued their course and accomplished their object. They 
were in " many perils" while there, but returned safe, af- 
ter the greatest part of the garrison, consisting of seventy 
persons, most of whom were women and children, were 
safely conducted on to Rhode Island. Six persons, who 
were killed at that time as they were with their teams, con- 
veying their corn into the garrison, were the first that fell 
in that war. 

April 9th, 1676, being Sunday, the enemy burnt a 
house and barn, and rifled several other houses in the 
town ; but they soon fled and were not to be overtaken, 
though closely pursued. May 8th, about three hundred 
Indians with Tispaquin for their leader made another as- 
sault on the east end of the town on the south side of the 
river, and set fire to many of the houses ; but the inhabit- 
ants, " issuing from their garrison houses," fell upon them 
so resolutely, that the enemy were repelled ; and, a heavy 
shower of rain falling at the same time, the fires were soon 
extinguished. The attack was then renewed on the north 
side of the river, but the enemy was soon defeated, and 
the next morning entirely disappeared, after having burnt 
two houses and one barn. On this occasion thirteen houses 
and four barns only were burnt, and but five of these were 
in the village. The rest were on the borders of the settle- 
ment, and deserted at the time. There is a tradition that, 
excepting the garrison houses, every house but one in 
town was burnt. This was probably true as it respected 


the out-houses or dwellings on the borders or skirts of the 
town only, and not those in the centre or village, which 
were considered in some degree as fortified or garrison 
houses. This is the more probable, as the house ex- 
cepted is said to have belonged to Nicholas Byram, which 
was in the easterly part of the town, and quite distant from 
the principal settlement. It stood where Capt. Isaac 
Whitman now lives. July 14 and 15, a party of Indians 
came upon the north side of the town, but, after killing a 
few cattle, retired. July 18, 19 and 20, the inhabitants 
pursued the enemy and took sixteen of them, of whom 
two only were men. 

The following extract from an ancient manuscript, sup- 
posed to have been written by Comfort Willis,* who then 
held the office of " town trooper," was furnished by the 
Hon. Daniel Howard. 

" On Saturday Capt Hayward, Sergeant Packard, John 
Willis and Isaac Harris went out to see if the Indians 
were coming down upon them, and they saw an Indian, 
which made them think the enemy was at hand ; and 
they immediately pressed Comfort Willis and Joseph Ed- 
son to go post to the governor the same day at night to 
tell him of it. And he went to Plymouth with them the 
next day to send Capt. Church with his company. And 
Capt. Church came with them to Monponset [a large 
pond in Halifax] on the Sabbath and came no further that 
day, and he told them he would meet them the next day. 
And Comfort Willis and Joseph Edson came home at 
night and told their friends of it, and Ensign Haward, 
Samuel Edson, Josiah Edson, Joseph Edson, John Wash- 
burn, Samuel Washburn, Thomas Washburn, John Field, 
Nicholas Byram, Samuel Allen, Samuel Allen, Jun. John 
Gordon, John Haward, John Packard, John Ames, Com- 
fort Willis, Guido Bailey, Nathaniel Hayward, John 
Whitman, John Hayward, and Samuel Leach, went out 
on Monday, supposing to meet with Capt. Church ; but 
they came upon the enemy and fought with them and took 
seventeen of them alive and also much plunder. And they 

* It has been suggested that Comfort and Benjamin Willis were sons of John, 
and hot of Nathaniel, as before stated. 


all returned, and not one of them fell by the enemy ; and 
received no help from Church." 

This was probably July 31, 1676, when some of Phil- 
ip's " special friends" were killed, and among others his 
uncle, who fell by his side. Had the soldier known, 
44 which had been the right bird," as Hubbard expresses 
it, Philip himself might have fallen, and the war been thus 
brought to a more speedy termination. The party " were 
few and not able to keep close together, so that the cun- 
ning fox escaped through the bushes undiscerned in their 
rear." Hubbard relates that a remarkable " trembling 
fear was discerned to be upon the Indians at this time, so 
that one of them having a gun in his hand well laden was 
liot able to discharge it, but suffered an English soldier to 
come up and shoot him." This happened in the south 
part of the town, near the great river. John Ames is 
said to have distinguished himself on this occasion by his 
undaunted resolution in rescuing some of his companions 
from the hands of the enemy. 

They joined Capt. Church the next day, and pursued 
the enemy till the third of August, when, " having no 
provision but what they took from the enemy, they has- 
tened to Bridgewater, sending an express before to pro- 
vide for them, their company being now very numerous, 
having killed and taken one hundred and seventy-three. 
The gentlemen of Bridgewater met Capt. Church with 
great expressions of honour and thanks, and received 
him and his army with all due respect and kind treat- 
ment." The prisoners were conveyed into the town 
pound at night, and an Indian guard set over them. 
" They were well treated with victuals and drink, and 
had a merry night ; and the prisoners laughed as loud as 
the soldiers, not having been so well treated for a long 
time." The next day Capt. Church arrived safe at Ply- 
mouth with all the prisoners. 

Amidst danger, and often actually assaulted, it is re- 
markable that not only at this time, as above stated, but 
during the whole of that war, in which from time to time 
great numbers of them were engaged, not one of the in- 
habitants was killed. All the narratives of that conflict 
describe Bridgewater as a fortunate and highly favoured 


town, while they unite in giving them high encomiums 
for their courage and activity in the service. 

Capt. Jacob Allen, who was killed at the capture of 
Burgoyne, was the second inhabitant of the town, who 
ever fell in battle ; and one John Snell, who was killed in 
the old French war was the first. 

Hubbard informs us that in " June, 1676 (it was 1675) 
a man and a woman were slain by the Indians, and 
another woman wounded and taken, " in Dartmouth. 
These were Jacob Mitchell and his wife before mention- 
ed, and one Dorothy Hayward, as appears by her deposi- 
tion, taken June 25, 1677. 

From June 3, 1656, the time when the town was in- 
corporated, to the year 1691, inclusive, when the two 
colonies were united, the representatives to old Plymouth 
Court appear in the following order : 1657, John Willis ; 
1661, William Brett; 1676, Samuel Edson; 1678, John 
Haward ; 1684, Thomas Hayward; 1691, Josiah Edson. 

From that period to the present time the representatives 
to the General Court of Massachusetts appear in the fol- 
lowing order. 

1692 Josiah Edson and to 1713 Samuel Edson, 
David Perkins, 1714 Josiah Edson, 

1693 Samuel Allen, 1715 Edward Fobes, 

1694 David Perkins, 1716 John Field, 

1695 Elihu Brett, to 1719 Rich. Davenport, 

1696 David Perkins, to 1722 Edward Fobes, 

1697 Samuel Edson, 1723 Ephraim Howard, 

1698 Josiah Edson, 1724 Rich. Davenport, 
to 1700 Elihu Brett, 1725 Thomas Ames, 

1701 ? 1726 Joseph Keith, 

1702 5 none 1727 Isaac Johnson, 

1703 Edward Fobes, to 1729 Isaac Johnson and 

1704 David Perkins, John Alden, 
to 1707 William Brett, 1730 Isaac Johnson, 

1708 Edward Fobes, *1730 Neh. Washburn, 

to 1710 Joseph Hayward, 1731 Isaac Johnson, 

1711 Edward Fobes, to 1734 John Holman, 

* There were two courts this year. The governour, being dissatisfied mth the 
court because they would not render his salary permanent, dissolved them and is- 
sued, a new 



1735 Josiah Edson, 2d. 
to 1737 John Holman, 1761 

1738 Ebenezer Byram, 1782 

1739 Josiah Edson, 1783 
to 1741 Ebenezer Byram, to 1785 

1742 Neh. Washburn, 

1743 Josiah Edson, 1786 

1744 John Holman, 1787 

1745 Josiah Edson, to 1790 

1746 Josiah Edson, 3d. 1791 
to 1748 Daniel Howard, 1792 
to 1750 Josiah Edson, 1793 
to 1755 Daniel Howard, to 1795 
to 1766 Josiah Edson, 1796 
to 1769 Edward Mitchell, to 1798 
to 1771 Josiah Edson, to 1803 

1772 Daniel Howard, to 1806 

1773 Josiah Edson, to 1808 

1774 Edward Mitchell, 3 809 
1774? Edward Mitchell 1810 

1775 3 and Richard Per- to 1812 

kins were delegates 
to the Provincial 
Congress, at their 
several meetings at 
Salem, Concord, 
and Cambridge. 1813 

1776 Edward Mitchell, 
Hugh Orr, 
Eiiphalet Cary, 
Nathi. Reynolds, 

Oakes Angier, and 1814 
Thomas Hooper, to 1816 

1777 Edward Mitchell, 
Nathl. Reynolds, 

1778 Nathan Mitchell, 
Oakes Angier, 

1779 Oakes Angier, 

Josiah Hayden, 1817 

1780 Nathan Mitchell, 

David Kingman, 
Nathan Mitchell, 
Hugh Orr, 
Nathan Mitchell, 
Nathan Mitchell & 
Elisha Mitchell, 
Daniel Howard 2d. 
Elisha Mitchell, 
James Thomas, 
Simeon Dunbar, 
Beza Hayward, 
Daniel Snow, 
Beza Hayward, 
Daniel Snow, 
Nahum Mitchell, 
Daniel Snow, 
Daniel Mitchell, 
William Baylies, 
Nahum Mitchell, 
Daniel Mitchell, 
Nahum Mitchell, 
William Baylies, 
Ezra Kingman, 
Gideon Howard, 
Daniel Crane, 
Caleb Cary, 
Daniel Howard, 
Gideon Howard, 
Daniel Crane, 
Nathan Mitchell, 
Ebiezer Alger, 
Daniel Howard, 
Daniel Howard, 
Bartholom. Brown, 
Ezra Kingman, 
Abiezer Alger, 
Noah Fearing, 
Caleb Howard, 
Daniel Howard. 


Benjamin Willis and Nathan Mitchell were delegates 
to the convention at Cambridge for forming the constitu- 
tion of this Commonwealth, in September, 1779. 

Daniel Howard, Elisha Mitchell, Hezekiah Hooper, 
and Daniel Howard, Jun. were the delegates to the conven- 
tion of this state for adopting the constitution of the Unit- 
ed States, in 1788. 

The county was incorporated in 1685. The Senators, 
which Bridgewater has furnished are Hugh Orr, from 
1785 two years— Nathan Mitchell, 1787 — Daniel How- 
ard, from 1788, six years — Beza Hay ward, from 1796, 
nine years — Nahura Mitchell, from 1813, two years.' 

[When 2d or 3d is affixed to a name, it means only that it is the 
second or third person of the name, who has represented the town.] 

Ecclesiastical History, 
The first settlements being in the west parish, the first 
church was of course formed there ; but they were few 
in number, and, although they might and probably did 
meet together on the Sabbath for social worship, yet were 
unable to maintain a minister, and thus form themselves 
into a regular church, and enjoy the full benefits of the 
christian institutions. In this situation they remained 
from 1651 to 1664 ; about twelve years. The Rev. James 
Keith was their first ordained minister, and the record of 
his settlement, in which the terms of it are particularly 
expressed, bears date the 18th day of Feb. 1664. He is 
there called " a student of divinity, having some compe- 
tent time improved his gifts amongst them in the work of 
the ministry, and having also due approbation by the tes- 
timony of the Rev. Eiders of other churches of Christ, to 
whom he was known." He was a Scotchman, educated 
at Aberdeen, and probably came to Boston about the year 
1662, and was introduced to the church at Bridgewater 
by Dr. Increase Mather, whom he always considered as 
his best friend and patron. In the second preface to the 
" Bridge water's Monitor" (the first having been written 
by Increase and Cotton Mather) it is said that they had 
not an ordained minister till 1663. This had reference 
probably to the old style. He had preached with them, 
22 vol. vii. 


as appears by the above vote of the town, for some time, 
but was not ordained trll the spring of 1664. The terms 
of his settlement were liberal. They granted him a house 
lot cf twelve acres " with a house built thereon by the 
town," and a purchase right so called, being one fifty- 
sixth part of the town, and also 40/. annual salary ; 20/. 
to be paid in Boston and the other half at home. In 1667 
they made him an additional grant of thirty cords of wood 
annually, " the cutters of the wood to have five groats and 
the drawers seven groats a cord." In 1681 they raised 
his salary from 40 to 50/.,; 20/. to be paid at Boston in 
money, and 30/. at home in corn and provisions. In 1689 
they agreed to allow him annually 10/, in corn in lieu of 
his thirty cords of wood. He married Susannah, daugh- 
ter of Samuel Edson. She died quite advanced in years, 
and he married in his old age (1707) the widow Mary 
Williams, relict of Thomas Williams of Taunton. He 
died July 23, 1719, aged 76; of course was about 21 
years of age when he was ordained. 

In Mather's Magnalia he is numbered among the third 
class, " who were all such ministers as came over after the 
reestablishment of the episcopal church government in 
England, and the consequent persecution of the non-con- 
formists." This must have been a mistake with regard 
to Mr. Keith, as he was from Scotland ; and besides could 
not have been a minister before he came over, being very 
young and but a student when he arrived. He had six 
sons, James, Joseph, Samuel, Timothy, John, and Josiah, 
and two daughters, Margaret Hunt, and Mary Haward. 
James settled in Mendon, and the others in Bridgewater 
and Easton. His posterity are exceedingly numerous, 
two hundred persons in Bridgewater alone bearing his 
name in the late census. A great many of them are also 
in Easton, Middleborough, Mendon, and the District of 
Maine. Israel Kekh, formerly Adjutant General of the 
Commonwealth, is one of his descendants. 

William Brett, who was among the first planters of the 
town, was a ruling elder in the church, and probably as- 
sisted and aided them in their public worship from the 
commencement of their settlement to the time of Mr. 
Keith's ordination, as well as afterwards. He was a. well 


educated and intelligent man, as appears by his letters to 
Governor Winslow ; and was much esteemed by his 
brethren, and often employed in their secular affairs He 
iived to a good old age, and died in 1:682, leaving three 
sons before named, who were respectable and valuable 
men. William was a representative ; Nathaniel, a deacon 
and town and proprietor's clerk ; and Elihu, a magistrate. 
The following extract is from the early church records 
of Plymouth. " The worthy church of Christ at Bridge- 
water have for their pastor Mr. James Keith, who came 
by the wise disposing hand of Providence out of Scot- 
land. William Brett, a grave and godly man, is their rul- 
ing elder, and John Willis, their deacon, a good man and 
one that hath approved himself faithful. They carry on 
in a way of peace, holiness, and good gospel order." 

The Rev. Daniel Perkins, successor of Mr. Keith, was 
ordained Oct. 4, 1721. He was a native of Topsfield 
in the county of Essex, and was graduated at Harvard in 
1717. He married Ann Foster of Charlestown, and had 
one son and one daughter. His son, the late Dr. Richard 
Perkins, married Mary Hancock, sister of the Governor ; 
old Mr. Perkins having previously married her mother, 
the widow Hancock, for his second wife. Dr. Perkins 
left a numerous family, all of whom excepting Daniel and 
George W. Perkins, now live in Boston. These two and 
their families still live in Bridgewater. The daughter of 
the Rev. Mr. Perkins married the Rev. Mr. Bridge of 
Framingham, and afterwards the Rev. Mr. Harrington of 
Lancaster. The Rev. Mr. Perkins died Sept. 29, 1782, 
in the 86th year of his age, and in the 62d of his minis- 
try. His son, the late Dr. Perkins, died Oct. 16, 1813, 
aged 83. 

The Rev. John Reed, D. D. the present successor of 
Mr. Perkins, was ordained as colleague, June 7, 1780. 
He was graduated at Yale in 1772, and is son of the late 
Rev. Solomon Reed of Middleborough, 

South Parish. 
A second precinct was incorporated June 1, 1716. 
This division of the society was made in pursuance of a 


report of John Gushing, Edmund Quincy, George Leon- 
ard, Henry Hodges and Jacob Tomson, a committee ap- 
pointed by the General Court for this purpose. The line 
of partition was made easterly and westerly across the 
town, leaving much the largest part on the northerly side, 
" regard then being had to the ereciing of other parishes 
in future," as increasing settlements should require. The 
new parish was called the South, and the old one the 
North. The new meeting-house was erected on v the 
" easterly side of John Washburn's field," and was dedi- 
cated on the 14lh June, 1717, on which occasion Mr. 
Keith delivered a sermon, which is published in the 
*' Bridge water's Monitor." The Rev. Benjamin Allen, 
their first pastor, was a native of Tisbury of Martha's 
Vineyard, graduated at Yale in 1708, and ordained July 
9, 17i8. He continued with them about ten years, but, 
being an unsuccessful manager of his secular concerns, 
he fell into debt, and the parish, after often relieving him, 
became at last weary of it, and he was dismissed by an 
ecclesiastical council. He afterwards, about 1730, was 
installed at Cape Elizabeth, and was the first minister of 
that place, where he died May 6,. 1754, aged 65. He 
had several daughters ; one married a clergyman in Barn- 
stable county, of the name of Upham ; another, a clergy- 
man of the name of Emery ; two married gentlemen of 
the name of Jourdan ; the daughter of one of them, Clem- 
ent Jourdan, Esq. was wife of the late Rev. Enos Hitch- 
cock, D. D. of Providence. A grandson of his, Clement 
Jourdan, lives in Buxton. 

The Rev. John Shaw, his successor, was a native of the 
east parish of Bridge water, son of Joseph Shaw ; was grad- 
uated at Harvard 1729, and ordained Nov. 17, 1731. His 
grandfather was probably John Shaw of Weymouth, 
whose sister married Nicholas By ram. He died April 
29, 1791, aged 82 years, and in the 60th year of his min- 
istry. He married a daughter of the Rev, Samuel An- 
gier of Watertown, and had five sons, Oakes, Bezaliel, 
William. John, and Samuel. The four first were clergy- 
men ; and Samuel is a physician, and lives on the pater- 
nal estate at Bridgewater. He left also a daughter, who 


is the wife of Gen. Nathaniel Goodwin of Plymouth. He 
delivered the sermon at the ordination of Mr. Taft of 
Braintree, (now Randolph) which is in print. 

The Rev. Zedekiah Sanger, D. D. his present succes- 
sor, was born at Sherburne, graduated at Harvard 1771 ; 
was formerly minister of Duxbury, and afterwards install- 
ed as colleague at Bridge water, Dec. 17, 1788. There 
is a small ministerial fund in this parish ; the trustees of 
which were incorporated Feb. 7, 1803. It was then nearly 
one thousand dollars, and has been augmented since. 

East Parish, 

Dec. 14, 1723, the east end of the north parish, then so 
called, ever since called the west parish, together with nine 
persons of the south parish, namely, Barnabas Seabury, 
Thomas Latham, Charles Latham, Nicholas Wade, Na- 
thaniel Harden, Thomas Hooper, William Conant, Isaac 
Lazeli and Joseph Washburn, with their families and es- 
tates, were constituted a precinct, called the east parish. 
This was done also in pursuance of a report of a view- 
ing committee of court, consisting of Isaac Winslow, 
Samuel Thaxter,. Josiah Cotton, Isaac Little and John 
Quincy. The boundaries were a due north line from the 
south parish through the " centre tree," and the old Ply- 
mouth road on the south-easterly side. 

The Rev. John Angier, ( son of the Rev. Samuel An- 
gier of Rehoboth, and afterwards of Watertown,) grad- 
uattd at Harvard in 1720, was their first minister, or- 
dained October 28, 1724. He married a daughter of 
Ezra Bourne, E*q. of Sandwich. His mother was daugh- 
ter of the Rev. Urian Oakes, formerly President of Har- 
vard University, and her mother was daughter of the fa- 
mous Dr. William Ames of England, author of " Medulla 
Theologian." He died April 14, 1787, in the 86th year 
of his age, and in the 63d of his ministry. 

His son, the Rev. Samuel Angier, graduated at Harvard 
in 1763, was ordained colleague with him Dec. 23, 1767, 
and died Jan. 18, 1805, in the 62d year of his age. His 
other son, Oakes Angier, was an attorney, settled at Bridge- 
water, and a man of some distinction and eminence in his 


profession. He had a daughter also, who married die 
Rev. Ephraim Hyde of Rehoboth. Samuel left no chil- 
dren. Oakes left a family, one of whom, John, is settled 
in Belfast. Dr. Eliot, in his Biographical Dictionary, sup- 
posed the late Hon. Fisher Ames to have been descended 
from the above named Dr. William Ames, anc ne same 
is repeated in the preface to Fisher Ames' works ; but the 
account here given of the family of Ames, (page 153) 
drawn from authentic sources, renders this supposition 
altogether improbable. 

The present successor of the Rev. Samuel Angier is 
the Rev. James Flint, who is a native of Reading in the 
county of Middlesex, was graduated at Harvard in 1802, 
and ordained Oct. 29, 1806. 

North Parish. 

January 3, 1738, the north part of the west parish and 
a small part of the north-west corner of the east parish 
were incorporated into a precinct, and called the north 
parish. The boundaries are a due east line from Easton, 
a half a mile north of " the white oak tree at Jonathan 
Packard's corner" to the east parish line ; and thence north 
easterly to Beaver Brook, together with three families and 
their estates, on the east side of the river. 

The Rev. John Porter was their first pastor, a native of 
Abington, was graduated at Cambridge in 1736, ordained 
Oct. 15, 1740, and died March 12, 1802, in the 87th year 
of his age, and the 62d of his ministry. He had four 
sons, who received a publick education. One of them, 
Huntington, is a minister at Rye, N. H. The Rev. Eli- 
phalet Porter, D. D. of Roxbury, is also one of them. One 
of his daughters also married the Rev. Thomas Crafts of 

The Rev. AsaMeech, his successor, was ordained Oct. 
15, 1800, and was dismissed by a mutual council in 1811, 
and was afterwards installed, and still continues, minister 
of Canterbury, Connecticut. He is a native of that state. 

His successor, the present Rev. Daniel Huntington, was 
born in Norwich, Conn, and ordained Oct. 28, 1812. He 
received a degree at Yale College in 1816. He is brother 


of the Rev. Mr. Huntington of Boston, and son of Gem 
Jedediah Huntington of New London. His salary is 
IS 700, the highest in the town. 

Feb. 4, 1743. The south-west part of the south paribh 
with a part of Middleborough, was incorporated into a 
precinct commonly called Titicut parish. It lies south of 
the old four mile line so called. The Rev. Solomon Reed 
before mentioned, a native of Abington, and graduated at 
Cambridge in 1739, was their first minister ; the late Rev. 
David Gurney a native of Bridgewater, and graduated at 
Cambridge in 1785, was their second ; and the present 
Rev. Philip Colby is now their pastor. The meeting 
house is in Middleborough, and alt their ministers have 
resided there, the largest part of the parish belonging to 
that town. 

Besides these territorial precincts there is a small Epis- 
copal church in the south parish, consisting of about thirty 
or forty members, who, with their families and estates, 
were incorporated June 14, 1815, by the name of " Trin- 
ity church, 1 ' It is of much longer standing, being nearly 
sixty eight years old, and originated in a grant of about 
fourteen acres of land made 23 Jan. 1747, by one Samuel 
Edson to the society in England for the propagation of 
the gospel in foreign parts, on condition that the income 
be applied to the support of publick worship according to 
the usage of the church of England. The present house 
was erected in 1748 by individual subscription. They 
formerly became much reduced in numbers, but have 
lately revived and increased. In April, 1812, they con- 
veyed the glebe to the Trustees of donations at Boston, 
and it is leased for nine hundred and ninety-nine years to 
John Edson, one of the members, for 21 dollars a year. 
June 12, 1816, having expended about 80 dollars in re- 
pairing their house, and voted 30 dollars to be assessed 
for the support of public worship, it was solemnly conse- 
crated by Bishop Griswold and the Rev. Messrs. Blake 
and Crocker. 

There is also a Baptist meeting house in the west part 
of thewest parish. The society consists of members. 


partly from Easton and partly from Bridge water. It was 
formed about the time that Dr. Reed was ordained, and 
has been lately incorporated. Their ministers have been 
Mr. Robertson, Mr. Rathburn, Mr. Smith, and the pre- 
sent, Mr. Shurtliff. 

It is very remarkable that each of the Congregational 
parishes are now enjoying the labors of their third minis- 
ter. The general longevity of their pastors is also worthy 
of notice. Four of them, Mr. Perkins, Mr. J. Angier, 
Mr. Shaw, and Mr. Porter, who were coLernporaries, lived 
to the great ages respectively of 86, 86, 85, 87, and died 
in the 62d, 63d, 60th, and 62d year of their ministry. 
These, with Mr. Keith, who was 76, and Mr. Samuel 
Angier, who was -62 years of age, are the only ministers 
that ever died in the town. 

The census of the several parishes, taken Sept. 24, 1764, 
is as follows : 

West parish 106dwel'g houses, 121 families, 880 persons. 
South 162 „ 173 „ 1056 „ 

East 142 „ 157 „ 959 „ 

North 120 „ 131 „ 833 „ 

Titicut 41 „ 48 „ 262 „ 

571 630 3990 

This, compared with the census of 1810, (page 155,) 
will show the comparative increase in the population, 
which has been greatest in the aggregate in the north, that 
being the youngest and largest parish ; but for a few 
years past it has been equally great, if not greater, in 
the east. 

Schools and Education* 
This town has been remarkable for its attention to edu- 
cation both public and private. Mr. Keith and Elder 
BrC : *^ the infancy of the town, procured a subscription 
of about 12/. to be paid in Indian corn for the use of the 
College at Cambridge, " according to the order given by 
the court." Assessments were also formerly made very 
liberally both in town and parishes for the maintenance of 



schools. Latterly the town assessments have been in- 
creased, and those of the parishes consequently discontinu- 
ed. There are in the town upwards of thirty school houses, 
and as many districts, in which from two to three thou- 
sand dollars are annually expended. 

There is also in the south parish an academy, which 
was established and the trustees thereof incorporated on 
the 28th February, 1799. The half township of land, 
granted by the General Court in the act of incorporation, 
was sold by the trustees for 5000 dollars. The building 
was erected by individuals, who subscribed the sum of 
3000 dollars for that purpose. It has had the reputation 
of a good seminary of instruction, and is still in a flou- 
rishing condition. 

The following are the names of those, who have re- 
ceived collegiate education and degrees, arranged under 
the parishes, to which they respectively belonged, with 
the years and colleges annexed, in which they received 

West parish. 

Abiel Howard 1729 

Ephraim Keith 1729 

Joseph Sneli 1735 

Nathaniel Snell 1740 

Richard Perkins 1748 

Elijah Packard 1750 

Simeon Howard 1758 

Daniel Johnson 1767 

Asa Dunbar 1767 

Silvanus Ames 1767 

Simeon Dunbar 1772 

Bezaliel Howard 1781 

Jonathan Burr 1784 

Jonas Hartwell 1787 D. 

Bezer Snell 1789 

Charles Angier 1793 

Francis Howard 1 797 B. 

Geo. W. Perkins 1801 B. 

John Reed 1803 B. 

Daniel Johnson 1806 B. 

Barzillai Hay ward 1807 B, 

John Willis 1807 B. 

John E. Howard 1815 B. 

George Copeland 1815 B, 

Caleb Reed 1817 

South parish. 

JosiahEdson 1730 

Benjamin Willis 1740 

Silvanus Conant 1740 

Oakes Shaw 1758 

23 vol 

Bezaliel Shaw 
William Shaw 
Timothy Alden 
Perez Fobes 





John Shaw 
Beza Hayward 
Jonas Whitman 
Martin Kinsley 
Zephaniah Willis 
Thomas Perkins 
James Allen 
Seth Pratt 
Nathan Hayward 
Kilborn Whitman 
Jonathan Leonard 
Benja. Whitman 
Hezekiah Hooper 

John Shaw 
Eliab Byram 
Samuel Angier 
Thomas Gannett 
Caleb Gannett 
Oakes Angier 
William Conant 
James Thomas 
Levi Whitman 
Ebenezer Dawes 
Barzillai Gannett 
Allen Pratt 
David Gurney 

James Thompson 
John Porter 
Huntington Porter 
Jonathan Porter 
Eliphalet Porter 
Thomas Crafts 
Asa Packard 
Zechariah Howard 
Hezekiah Packard 

1772 David Leonard 1792 B. 

1772 Zenas L. Leonard 1794 B. 

1772 Y. Richard Sanger 1800 

1778 Gaius Conant 1800 B. 

1778 Nathan Fobes 1803 B. 

1779 Noah Whitman 1806 B. 
1785 Cyrus Alden 1807 B. 
1785 Zedekiah Sanger 1807 B. 
1785 Ralph Sanger 1808 

1785 John A. Shaw 1811 

1786 Seth Alden 1814 B. 

1788 B. Levi W. Leonard 1815 

1789 Zebulon L. Shaw 1815 

East parish, 

1729 Ebenezer Lazell 1788 B. 

Nahum Mitchell 1789 
Hector Orr 1792 

Ezekiel Whitman 1795 B. 






1770 Y. 







Asa Mitchell 1802 

Jacob Hill 1807 B. 

Eliab Whitman 1807 B. 

Nathl. Whitman 1809 

Daniel Whitman 1809 B. 

WiUard Phillips 1810 

Welcome Young 1814 B. 
Silvanus L.Mitchell 1817 

North parish. 

1761 N. Joshua Cushman 1787 

NaphtaliShaw 1790 D. 

Daniel Howard 1797 

Issachar Snell 1797 

Lucius Cary 1798 B. 

Daniel Noyes 1813 Y. 

Jonas Perkins 1813 B. 

1770 Y 


Jonathan P. Crafts 1817 B. 



Ephraim Keith 1762 Daniel Crane 1796 B. 

Adam Edson 1775 Y. Oliver Hay ward 1804 B. 

Jael Edson 1784 Y. Jonathan Keith 1805 B. 

D. affixed to the year stands for Dartmouth College — B. for Brown 
University — Y. for Yale College — N. for Nassau or New Jersey Col- 
lege. Where no letter is affixed Harvard University is to be under- 

By comparing this list with the catalogue of Harvard, it 
will appear that one quarter of the class, who were gradu- 
ated in the year 1785, were from Bridge water. 
Ponds and Rivers. 

There are but two ponds of any considerable dimen- 
sions in the town. The largest lies on the south-west 
part of the town, adjoining Raynham, and was anciently 
called Nunketest, but afterwards and now called Nippen- 
icket, being different names given it by the Indians. The 
other lies in the easterly part of the town, adjoining Hali- 
fax, and was anciently called by the Indians Satucket ; 
but has latterly been called Robin's Pond, after an Indian 
family of that name, who came from Mattakeset (now 
Pembroke) and lived on the margin of it. Several fami- 
lies of the natives formerly settled and owned the land on 
the shores of this pond. They have generally been under 
the care and protection of guardians appointed by the 
General Court ; but they are now nearly extinct, only one 
family remaining. 

There is a river proceeding from the pond first above 
mentioned, which anciently bore the same name, Nunke- 
test, but for a long time past, and perhaps ever since the 
incorporation of the town, has been called Town River. 
It first runs in a north-easterly course through the centre 
of the west parish, and then taking a more easterly and 
southerly direction passes through the south parish. On 
this river is the principal mill seat in the west parish, and 
two of the principal water privileges in the south parish. 
There are several tributary streams, which augment 
this river in its course, as Cowesit, and West Meadow 
Brook in the west, and South Brook in the south parish, 
and other smaller brooks. 


There is another river, which takes its rise in Stough* 
ton, south of the blue hills, and passes through the north 
parish, and is there called Salisbury river, from the cir- 
cumstance of its running on the easterly side of Salisbury 
plain, so called, lying in that parish ; and thence continues 
its course into the east parish, where it unites with Beaver 
brook, and is then called Matfield river, from an Indian 
of that name, who is said to have lived on the banks of it, 
and lower down it unites with Byram's brook and is then 
called John's river, which has already been explained 
(page 151.) It thence passes into the south parish, and 
there unites with the town river. There are in the north 
parish five or six mill seats on this river and Beaver brook, 
and seven in the east parish, including those on Beaver 
and Byram's brook. This river passes the whole length 
of the town, and may well be called middle river, as it is 
the middle one of the three principal streams, which com- 
pose the great river. 

Another river, passing through Abington and the north 
west corner of Pembroke, enters the east parish on the 
easterly side, and is called poor meadow river, and unit- 
ing with the river coming from Halifax and through Rob- 
in's pond is then called Satucket river, and after receiv- 
ing a small increase from black brook unites with John's 
river, and continuing its course a short distance into the 
south parish unites also with the town river as before stated, 
and thus is formed the Great river. Hobart's works in 
Abington, and Cushing's in Pembroke (formerly called 
More's forge) stand on the poor meadow branch, and the 
extensive works at Halifax between Monponset and Rob- 
in's pond are on the other branch of the Satucket river. 
Whitman's mills in the east parish are on this river ; and 
just below the confluence of these three rivers in the south 
parish stand the new mills so called. The Great river 
after receiving the waters of the Winnetuxet from Plimp- 
ton and Namasket from Middleborough, is commonly 
called Titicut river, but from thence to the sea is called 
Taunton great river. 

There are several other small mill seats in various parts 
of the town, on the minor brooks and rivulets, which af? 


ford sufficient water however in many instances for the 
winter and spring seasons only. 

Taunton river is great in comparison only with its 
branches, but is nevertheless large enough, even so hitru 
up as the south parish of Bridgewater, as to admit of ship- 
building there. Vessels of near one hundred and fifty 
tons have been built there and carried down in time of 

Soil and Agriculture. 

Bridgewater is a very level township of land, having few 
or no hills. The only one, which may be properly so 
called, is Sprague's hill situated between the east and 
south parishes, and this is but small : but the north-west 
corner in the north parish, commonly called the " west 
shares," is perhaps the highest land in the town. The 
soil, as might be supposed, in so large an extent of terri- 
tory, is various. In some parts, and particularly in those 
adjoining the rivers and brooks, it is of a good quality and 
very productive. In other parts, as on the plains, it is 
very suitable for tillage, being of a light mould ; and 
produces good crops of corn, rye, oats or flax, with a 
moderate quantity of manure, and with little labour. In 
other parts more elevated and broken the soil is thin and 
poor, producing however at proper periods tolerable crops 
of corn and rye, and, when laid down again, yields for a 
considerable part of the season a scanty but sweet and 
nourishing feed for sheep and cows. There are large 
tracts of low and swampy lands in the town, which, while 
left unimproved, afford great quantities of wood and tim- 
ber, and when subdued, produce large crops of hay of an 
indifferent quality, but suitable for the support of young 
cattle through the winter, which enables the farmers to in- 
crease their stock. There is a very large tract of these 
lands lying in the west parish called " the Hockamock 
meadows," which produces great crops of hay of a very 
good quality, and renders that parish with its other advan- 
tages of soil, perhaps the best agricultural part of the town. 
Besides meadows of this description, there are others ly- 
ing along the margins of the rivers and brooks, yielding 
spontaneously hay of a better quality. These meadows 
constitute the most peculiar advantage it enjoys as an ag- 


ricultural town. The uplands and tillage grounds are 
kept in better heart by the increase of manure derived 
from the larger stock of cattle thus kept by the fai mer ; 
and these meadows, especially on the rivers, being fre- 
quently overflowed, are thus naturally fertilized ; and be- 
sides yield a valuable feed after mowing, and at a season 
when the high grounds are generally dry and unproduc- 

The town has always been more remarkable for raising 
grain than English grass ; not perhaps because it is more 
naturally suited to the one than the other, but because the 
soil is generally easy to till, and they have consequently 
been more naturally drawn into this mode of husbandry. 
If less grain were raised, the soil would unquestionably 
be less exhausted, and of course produce greater crops of 
grass. AH English grasses, cultivated there, as herd's grass, 
clover, red top and blue grass, are usually sown so as to 
succeed tw r o, and sometimes three, crops of grain. The 
farmers in general, not having sufficient manure to sup- 
port the land under such severe tillage and repeated crops, 
often unreasonably complain of disappointment in their 
subsequent crops of grass. This is not peculiar to Bridge- 
water, but undoubtedly happens in all easy and similar 
soils. There is probably as much corn annually produc- 
ed there as in any town in the commonwealth 5 and it is 
also a very good soil for English grass with a proper and 
suitable cultivation. It has the reputation indeed as far 
as it is known, of being a very excellent township of land ; 
and its inhabitants are distinguished by their steady and 
industrious habits. The grains usually cultivated are 
corn, rye, and oats. Flax was formerly raised there in 
great abundance, but much less latterly. Wheat and bar- 
ley are also produced in considerable quantities, and the 
attention of the inhabitants has of late been more turned 
towards their cultivation. Forty and fifty bushels of corn 
frequentiy to an acre, and sometimes sixty are produced ; 
but the average, one year with another, is thought to be 
about twenty : and from eight to ten bushels an acre, the 
average of rye ; although twice or thrice that quantity is 
often obtained. 


Orchards were there formerly large and productive; 
but have become old and decayed, and the setting and 
rearing of young trees has been too much neglected. The 
inhabitants are now however beginning to turn their at- 
tention to the reproduction of apple orchards, as well as 
to more delicate fruits, such as pears, cherries and peaches, 
which have been also very much neglected. They find 
more care and cost necessary to produce a good orchard 
now, than formerly when the land was new. 

The wood of the forest is also various ; white oak, wal- 
nut, red oak, and black or yellow oak, being most com- 
mon among the hard wood of the uplands ; and maple, 
beach, black birch, hornbeam, ash and elm, among those 
of the swamps and low lands. There is abundance of 
white pine also both on the uplands and in the swamps ; 
and hemlock and pitch pine are also to be found in vari- 
ous parts of the town. There are also cedar swamps, 
which furnish the inhabitants with fencing timber. Much 
of their cedar, however, is derived in the south and east 
part of the town from the " major's purchase," or great 
cedar swarnp in Pembroke. Great quantities of timber, 
planks, boards, shingles, wood and coals, are carried from 
this town annually to Taunton, and the several shore mar- 
kets extending from Plymouth to Weymouth, and some 
even to Boston. The price of wood in the town is from 
two to four dollars a cord. 

Manufactures and Mechanics* 

Notwithstanding Bridgewater has the reputation abroad 
of being a very good agricultural town, and might there- 
fore be supposed to be almost wholly engaged in husband- 
ry, yet it is among the first manufacturing towns in the 
state. Being large, some parts are more agricultural than 
others, and different pursuits occupy different portions of 
it. The west and north parishes are more employed on 
their farms, while in the other parishes there are more me- 
chanics and manufacturers. This is probably owing to 
there being more mill seats in the easterly and southerly 
part of the town. In the easterly part of the town indeed 
there are but a few, who depend wholly on their farms 
for subsistence. Most of those, who are not mechanics 
and manufacturers, are engaged occasionally in making 


wrought nails, or in procuring timber, planks and boards* 
for the neighbouring markets, particularly at Kingston 
and the north river, between Pembroke and Hanover, 
or in carrying wood and coals to market. There are 
also a great number of mechanics in the town employ- 
ed abroad as house-wrights and millwrights. Perhaps 
no other town furnishes so many of the latter class. It 
also abounds in iron workers of various descriptions. 
There were formerly more wrought nails made there, than 
in any other town in the commonwealth. The second 
slitting mill, erected since the revolution, and the oldest 
now standing in New-England, is in this town. Since 
the manufacturing of cut-nails commenced, the making 
of wrought nails has very much declined, but many tons 
are still manufactured there annually. The making of 
anchors, scythes, other edged tools, and small arms, is 
carried on there also to a considerable extent. 

There are now in the town three forges, two slitting 
mills, two anchor shops, four trip-hammer shops, three 
nail factories, one air furnace, two cotton and woolen fac- 
tories, two fulling mills, eleven grist mills, and eighteen 
saw mills. 

The late Hon. Hugh Orr introduced many branches of 
manufactures into the town, and was the friend and pro- 
moter of all. He was born in Scotland, January 13, 1717, 
and came over early in life and settled in the east parish, 
where he died December 1798, in the 82d year of his age. 
A particular account of his manufacturing improvements 
may be seen in the 9th vol. of the Hist. Coll. page 264. 


Bridgewater with Abington constitutes a regiment. 
There are nine companies in the town, two of which are 
light infantry and grenadiers. There is besides a com- 
pany of cavalry and part of a company of artillery. The 
men enrolled, rank and file, in the several parishes are as 
follows. West 1 1 6~South with Titicut 145— East 192 
—North 126. 

Bridgewater, Feb. 12, 1818. 


Biographical Notice of Rev. Peter Whitney, 
A. M. and S. H. S. 

1 HE Rev. Peter Whitney was born at Petersham, Sep- 
tember 6, 1744. His father was the Rev. Aaron Whit- 
ney of that place.* He was educated at Harvard College, 
and took his first degree in 1762, and on the 4th of No- 
vember, 1767, was ordained as the pastor of the Church 
in Northborough. He continued in the ministry to the 
period of his decease, February 29, 1816. 

Few men gave in life a fairer exemplification of the vir- 
tues and graces of a Christian minister, as these are por- 
trayed by the apostle, than the subject of this biographi- 
cal sketch. His disposition was mild and benevolent ; he 
possessed urbanity of manners, and was " given to hospi- 
tality." He was the friend of the poor and distressed, 
and " ready to every good work." As a Theologian he 
was catholic. Disapproving an exclusive spirit among 
the disciples of the same Master, in his ministerial and 
christian intercourse he readily extended his charity to all, 
who by their lives evinced that they loved " the Lord 
Jesus Christ in sincerity and truth." His method of 
preaching was evangelical, and his sermons partook of 
the mild and charitable spirit of the gospel. He was at- 
tentive to the various duties of his office, and unwearied 
in their performance ; and, wherever his agency was di- 
rected, he manifested a disposition to diffuse the kindly 
influences of our religion. 

Industrious in his habits, Mr. Whitney found time to 
labour for the publick beyond the strict line of his pro- 
fession. Having previously printed a number of occa- 
sional sermonsf, in 1793 he published "a History of the 

* Rev Aaron Whitney was the first minister of Petersham, where he was or- 
dame, Dec 1738, and continued in the ministry till Sept. 8, 1779, when he died 
in the 66ih war of his age 

+ Two Sei in ins on the dark aspect of affairs, July 2, 1774. 

X Sermon, b«:pt 12, 1776, at a Lecture appointed for publishing the Declarer 

tion of Independence 
A Sermon occasioned by the death of Genera! Washington, Feb. 22, 1800. 
A Sermon at tne ordination <<f his son at Quincy, Feb. i, 1800. 

24 VOL. VII. 


County of Worcester.'" — Correct in its dates, and authen- 
tic in its facts, its utility is acknowledged by all who be- 
come acquainted with its merits. It is a book to which 
recourse is frequently had; and it should be found in the 
library of every gentleman who desires to make himself 
acquainted with the first settlement and subsequent growth 
of the county. This publication brought the author into 
the notice of our literary institutions, and in consequence 
he was elected a member of the Historical Society of 
Massachusetts. With much care Mr. Whitney had col- 
lected materials to amend and enlarge his History, and 
had nearly put them into form for a second edition: we 
hope that it will be presented to the publick for the benefit 
of his family. 

Mr. Whitney had the happiness' to be connected with 
a people truly christian and generous, who ever manifest, 
ed towards him their attachment, sympathy and benefi- 
cence. In the former part of his ministry his dwelling, 
with his library and a great part of his manuscripts and 
household furniture were consumed by fire. On this 
occasion, they very generously administered to his re- 
lief; and at no subsequent period did they cease from 
their friendly and benevolent attention to him and his 

Mr. Whitney passed his long ministry in perfect peace 
and harmony both with the church and society. At his 
death he lett but one male who was a member of the 
church at his ordination ; and but one couple, who at 
that period were married. 

Having filled up the measure of his life, having been 
active and useful unto the end, encircled with domestic 
endearments, possessed of the affection and esteem of the 
people of his charge, and respected by numerous and val- 
uable friends and acquaintances, Mr. Whitney, without 
suffering the pain of disease or the decrepitude of age, 
was gathered to his fathers in peace. 

A Funeral Discourse occasioned by the death of Mrs. Sumner, the wife of the 
Rev. Joseph Sumner, D D Feb. 16, 1810. 

Aiso Charges, and the Rij^iit Hand o* Fellowship at several ordinations : and 
"An Account of a singular Apple-tree, &c" in the first volume of the Memoirs 
of the American Academv, 


Account of the Books and Manuscripts, 

CHUSETTS Historical Society. 

£ OR this rare collection the publick are indebted, orig- 
inally, to the Rev. Thomas Prince, of Boston. That 
well known chronologist was indefatigably engaged, for 
more than fifty years, in collecting books, pamphlets, 
and manuscripts, relating to New England. By the la- 
bels in some of his bocks it appears, that he commenced 
this collection as early as the year 1703, when he was a 
student at Harvard College. While in Europe, from 
1709 to 1717, he assiduously pursued this object. In 
England and on the continent he found books and tracts 
relative to America, which could be found no where 
else. From his collections he compiled "A chronologi- 
cal History of New England in the form of Annals.' It 
was his intention, that it should contain " a summary and 
exact account of the most material transactions and oc- 
currences relating to this country, in the order of time 
wherein they happened, from the discovery by Capt. 
Gosnold in 1602, to the arrival of Governor Beicher in 
1730." He published a small volume of this work in 
1736 ; but, enlarging his plan beyond what was stated in 
the proposals, and becoming tedious by the minuteness 
and extent of his introductory chronology of the world, 
he did not receive sufficient encouragement for a second 
volume. This, indeed, was attempted in successive 
numbers, three only of which were ever published. The 
volume brought the Annals to 1630 ; the three succeed- 
ing numbers brought them to 1633. These three num- 
bers, containing an accurate account of three of the first 
years of New England, subsequent to the settlement of 
Massachusetts, having become very scarce, are reprinted 
in this volume of the Collections of the Historical 

From 1758, the year of Mr. Prince's death, to this 
time, a period of sixty years, no person has entered into 


his labours. His inestimable collection of books and 
manuscripts he bequeathed to the Church and Society in 
Boston, of which he was pastor. Many of the books, 
from an inscription within, appear to be given " To the 
New England Library ;" others, " To the South Church 
and Society in Boston." It seems to have been his 
purpose to establish a distinct library under the first of 
thes'e titles ; all the books, however, were ultimately 
given to the Old South Churcl) and Society, in whose 
care they have remained ever since Mr. Prince's death. 
The historical part of the collection was eminently enti- 
tled to the name of " The New England Library." 
What printed books and tracts it contained, we learn 
.from two catalogues ; the one entitled " New English 
Books and Tracts collected by Thomas Prince of Bos- 
ton, N. E. ;" the other, " New English Tracts belonging 
to Thomas Prince of Boston." Both catalogues are in 
Mr. Prince's hand writing ; and they are, in every re- 
spect, worthy of that diligent and exact historian and an- 
tiquary. The titles of the books are arranged, according 
to their sizes, in chronological order, with the place where 
and the time when printed; and, it is believed, they fur- 
nish a more full and accurate account of the publications, 
in Europe and America, relating to New England, than 
has ever appeared. These catalogues were found, some 
years since, at the house of the late Moses Gill, Esq. in 
Princeton, by the Secretary of the Historical Society ; 
and, at his instance, they have been presented by Moses 
Gill, Esq. a nephew of the late lieutenant governour Gill, 
to the Historical Society. 

The books and manuscripts, collected by Mr. Prince, 
were placed by his direction in an apartment in the 
steeple of the Old South church in Boston. This church 
was used by the British troops for a riding school in the 
revolutionary war, and many of the books and manuscripts 
were destroyed, or scattered and lost. It was from the 
reliques, which escaped this depredation, that the very 
valuable selection was made for the use of the Historical 


No considerable use appears to have been made of the 
collection since Mr. Prince's death. Individual members 
of the Historical Society had occasional access to it during 
the ministry of the late Rev. Dr. Eckley, whose obliging 
attentions are gratefully remembered. Since the settle- 
ment of his successor, the same indulgence has been 
kindly given, whenever requested-; and the proposal for 
the deposit uniformly favoured. 

A motion to make application for this privilege was 
made to the Historical Society, at a meeting, 22 Decem- 
ber, 1813 ; when it was voted, "That Rev. Abie! Holmes, 
D. D. Aaron Dexter, M. D. and Alden Bradford, E q. 
be a committee to apply to the Trustees of u.e New Eng- 
land Library, for the deposit of the same in the Society's 
room ; and, if they shall consent, to agree to the conditions 
of the deposit, give a receipt for the books, and, in general, 
to act for this Society on the subject." 

The committee, in executing their commission, stated 
to the Proprietors of the New Ev gland Library, " That 
many of the books in said Library, on account of the 
subjects on which they treat, and the style in which they 
are written, are not adapted to engage the perusal, nor 
even the attention, of but few readers, and yet, if open to 
the examination of those, who have leisure and inclination 
for historical researches, may throw great light on the 
early history of our country; that the Massachusetts 
Historical Society was founded for the purpose of pre- 
serving books, manuscripts and records, containing his- 
torical facts, biographical anecdotes, and other things, 
conducing to mark the genius, delineate the manners, and 
trace the progress of society in the United States ; that 
this Society was incorporated by the Legislature of the 
Commonwealth in 1794, and has since been presented 
with a spacious, safe, and comet dent apartment for the 
deposit of its books and manuscripts, and for the meetings 
of the Society, in the Crescent at Franklin Piace, in the 
town of Boston ; that a large and valuable collection ( f 
books and manuscripts, illustrative of the aboriginal, nat- 
ural, civil, and ecclesiastical history oi ihe country ! as 
been made, principally by donation, and deposited in the 


said apartment; that the Society, in 1792, commenced a 
publication of Historical Collections,, which has already 
extended to the 12th volume ; that, beside giving original 
matter, this publication, by multiplying copies of rare and 
valuable records, has effectually secured them from those 
various accidents, which might otherwise obliterate or 
destroy them ; that, were the Society permitted to have 
access to the New England Library, their future volumes 
might be enriched by the materials to be derived from it, 
and the choicest historical portions of said Library be thus 
preserved ; and that the great and original design of the 
Founder would be thus respected and accomplished, to 
the perpetual honour of his memory, and to the great ben- 
efit of the community." 

To this statement the committee subjoined a respectful 
request and proposal, " That a selection might be made, 
from the said Library, of such books as are peculiarly 
adapted to the purposes of the Historical Society, to be 
deposited in the Society's room, on such conditions, and 
under such regulations, as shall be satisfactory to the 
Trustees or Proprietors of said Library ; that, should this 
request be complied with, the books shall be placed in 
separate cases, and be always kept distinct from those of 
the Historical Society ; and that all persons, who, by the 
will of the founder, have a right to the use of said Libra- 
ry, shall still have a right to the use of it, under such reg- 
ulations as shall be mutually agreed on." 

The complete success of this application appears in the 
following record : 

" At a meeting of the Old South Church and Society, 
" held in their meeting house on the first day of Decem- 
" ber, A. D. 1814, — Voted, that our beloved Pastor, the 
" Rev. Joshua Huntington, with such a committee as the 
t; Old South Church and Society may appoint, make a 
" selection of such historical Tracts, Manuscripts, and 
" Treatises, relating to the History of our country, from 
" the New England Library belonging to the Old South 
" Church and Society, now under his care, as they may 
" think proper, and for the benefit of said Church and 
<4 Society, and the Publick ; and the same, when so se- 

" lected, to list, index, or number, on two separate lists, 
11 which said lists shall contain and be headed with this 
" Vote, and all the Regulations respecting said subject, 
"passed at this meeting; and one of said lists he shall 
" deposit in said New England Library, the other of said 
" lists, after the same has been signed by the said Histori- 
" cal Society) their officers or agents, shall be by him de- 
" livered over to the Clerk of the Old South Church and 
" Society, to be by said Clerk kept among the records of 
" said Church and Society. And said Tracts, Manu- 
" scripts, and Treatises, so as aforesaid by said Hunting- 
" ton selected, shall be by him 'delivered over to said 
" Historical Society, to be by them carefully kept in their 
" room, in Boston, and under their care, for the use of the 
"Old South Church and Society, said Historical Society, 
" and the Publick, upon the terms and conditions follow- 
" ing, viz. 

"J. Said Tracts, Manuscripts, and Treatises, shall 
"always be kept by said Historical Society safely, in 
" apartments by themselves, in their room in Boston, and 
" a fair record of the disposition and situation of the same 
" so kept by said Historical Society, that the said Old 
" South Church and Society may always know where, 
"and in what situation, the same are, and may always 
" have access to said record. And over the place, where 
" the said Tracts, Manuscripts, and Treatises are or shall 
" be kept, the said Historical Society shall always keep 
" inscribed, in fair legible letters, the following Inscrip- 
tion : The Donation of the Rev. Mr. Prince 
"to the Old South Church and Society. 

" II. The Pastor, or Pastors, of the Old South Church 
" and Society shall, at ail times hereafter, have a right, 
" and liberty, to inspect or use, or take away for inspec- 
" tion or use, any of said Tracts, Manuscripts, or Trea- 
" tises, leaving a receipt for the same with said Historical 
" Society, to return the same, after the purpose for which 
" the same were taken away has been answered. And 
" any member of the said Old South Church and Society 
" shall have like right and liberty, under like conditions, 


" and for like purposes, producing to said Historical So- 
" ciety a written order therefor, signed by the Pastor or 
" Pastors of the said Old South Church and Society. 

" III. The Old South Church and Society shall, at 
"any time hereafter, have a right to receive and take 
" back from said Historical Society said Tracts, Maivu- 
" scripts, and Treatises, whenever by their vote, at any 
" meeting of said Church and Society, they shall so vote 
" and determine." 

The committee proceeded, in consultation with the 
pastor of the Old South Church and Society, to designate 
such books and tracts, as were thought to be most condu- 
cive to the design of the deposit ; and, in conclusion, 
were presented by the pastor and the committee of said 
Church and Society, with a list of such as they were wil- 
ling to have deposited. The selection comprises 261 
bound volumes, many of which pertain to the early his- 
tory of New England ; also a large number of MSS. of 
great value, among which is the inestimable MS. Journal 
of Governour Winthrop, from 1644 to 1649, hitherto 
unpublished ; and many pamphlets, illustrative of every 
period of our history. Winthrop's Journal, a particular 
account of which was given in a former volume, was 
found well preserved ; the most valuable of the other 
MSS. the committee arranged in chronological order, and 
procured to be bound in boards, so as effectually to se- 
cure their preservation. Many detached parcels of these 
MSS. had the name I. Mather, written on them by Mr. 
Prince ; these, making collectively seven folio volumes, 
are lettered on the back, Mather. Other parcels had the 
name Hinckley, written by the same hand, — a collection, 
probably, of Governour Hinckley of Plymouth ; these, 
making thee folio volumes, are lettered Hinckley. 
The whole, thus bound, together with the Winthrop 
MS. and a volume relating to the Narraganset lands, 
compose 12 folio volumes of MSS. In this Collection 
are contained many original letters of the principal mag- 
istrates and ministers, from the first settlement of Massa- 
chusetts to the revolution of William and Mary ; some. 


to a later period, and many official state papers of the 
British and Provincial governments. A considerable 
number of MSS. and very many pamphlets remain un- 

The Committee have placed all the bound books and 
MSS in ten moveable cases, open in front, and deposited 
them, by themselves, in the room of the Historical So- 
ciety, with the Inscription required. On reporting their 
doings to the Historical Society, at their meeting in Oc- 
tober, 1817, it was voted, " That the thanks of the Soci- 
ety be given to the Oid South Church and Society, for 
their generosity in making this deposit, and for the facil- 
ities, which their Committee, especially their respected 
pastor, afforded, in effecting this important object ; with 
the assurance, that the conditions of the deposit shall be 
faithfully observed. " 

[Trom the original in the Old South Collection of MSS. deposited in 
the Library of the Historical Society. Hinckley, Vol. //.] 

Letter from William Penn, Founder of Penn- 

Respected Friend, 

Duty and Decency of my Station as a Governour 
as well as mine own Inclination oblige me to begin and 
observe a kind and friendly Correspondence with Persons 
in the like Capacity, under the same imperial authority. 
This single consideration is enducement enough to this 
Salute, and I have no reason to doubt its acceptance be- 
cause such an entercourse is recommended both by the 
Laws of Christianity and those of Civil Policy ; which 
said, Give me leave to wish thee and y e People under thy 
Conduct all true Felicity, and to assure Thee that with 
God's Assistance I shall herein endeavour to acquit and 
behave myself worthy of y e Title and Character of 
Thy real Friend 

and Loving Neighbour 

Wm, PENN. 
Philadelphia, y e 2 d of y e *f 1683. 
25 vol. vii. 



[At the bottom of the Letter] 
I take the freedom to present thee with a Book. 
The Letter is superscribed 

" For my well respected Friend 
the Governour 

of Plymouth Colony 

New England." 

From the "Mirror of- the Times, and General Advertiser" a news- 
paper, printed at Wilmington in the State of Delaware, 16th July, 

£The following Letter from William Penn to Richai'd Turner is again published, 
on account of the very incorrect copy in our last.]] 

Letter of William Penn to Richard Turner. 
Dear Friend. 

iVlY true love in the Lord salutes thee and dear friends 
that love Lords precious truths in those parts. Thine I 
have, and for my business here, know, that after many- 
writings, watchings, soliciting^, and disputes in Council, 
this day my country was confirmed to me under the 
great seal of England, with large powers and privileges, 
by the name of Pennsylvania : a name the King would 
give it, in honour to my father. I chose New Wales, 
being as this a pretty healthy country ; but Penn 
being Welch for a head, as Penmanmore in Wales, Pen- 
rith in Cumberland, and Penn in Buckinghamshire, the 
highest land in England, called this Pennsylvania, which 
is the high or head wood land ; for I proposed, when the 
Secretary a Welchman, refused to have it called New 
Wales, Sylvania, and they added Penn to it : and though 
I much opposed it, and went to the King to have it 
struck out and altered ; he said it was passed, and he 
would take it upon him — nor could twenty guineas move 
the under Secretary to vary the name ; for I feared, lest 
it should be looked upon as a vanity in me, and not as a 
respect to my father, who he often mentioned with praise. 
Thou mayest communicate my grant to Friends, and ex- 
pect my proposals ; it is a clear and just thing ; and my 
God that has given it me, through many dificulties, will, 
I believe, bless and make it the seed of a nation, I shall 


have a tender care to the government, that it be well laid 

at first. No more now, but dear love in the truth. 

1st Month 5th. 1681., W. PENN. 

Letter of Anthony Wood to Rev. Dr. In- 
crease Mather. 

Rev. Sir, Amherst, fN. HJ Nov. 20, 1817. 

1 HE following is a copy from an original letter of An- 
thony Wood, author of Athenae et Fasti Oxoniensis to 
Rev. Dr. Increase Mather of Boston. I have transcribed 
it from the original for the Historical Society. 

Very respectfully, J. FARMER. 

" Sir, 

Your kind and civil letter I have received for which 
I doe by these returne you thanks. As for the age of 
Sam. Newman (65) it agrees with my manuscript, but 
the county, you say wherein he was borne (Yorkshire) 
doth not. For my Sam. Newman whom I take to be 
him of Rehoboth and author of the Concordance, was 
borne in Oxfordshire. 

Now I have full satisfaction of your brother Sam. I 
shall God willing mention him in his place, and when I 
see Mr. Danson, which is twice or more in an yeare (for 
I am well acquainted with him) I shall enquire of him. 

The method that I use if speaking of writers is this — 
(1) The towne or parish, or at least the county where they 
were borne. (2) The College or Hall wherein educated, 
and sometimes the school. (3) The names of the bene- 
fices or employments in church and state that they have 
successively enjoyed. (4) The titles of books, pam- 
phlets, sermons, with their texts, that they have written 
and published, the time when and where printed and in 
what vol.* (5) The day or month, or at least yeare of 
their death and the place of buriall. 

Now if you can tell me as much as you can, according 
to this method concerning Will. Bartlett and his son 
John, Mr. John Rowe-— Mr. Tim. Taylor, Mr. Will. 

* PrQbabl) 7 whether 12mo. 8vo. or 4to. &c. 


•Ben— Mr. Thorn. Vincent if he be dead and Mr. Thank- 
full Owen youl doe me and the publick good service. 
As for Phil. Nye and Theoph. Gale I think I have 
enough of them. 

I have been perusing the matriculation books for Will, 
and John Bartlett and Will. Ben-- and cannot find them 
in Exeter Coll. and Queens Coll. therefore quere 

whether you have not mistaken their colleges* 

You mention not Mr. Sam. Lee, sometime of Wad- 
ham Coll. If he be dead, I would willingly know the time 
when he died, and where buried. Of the same college was 
also Mr. Tho. Nye a learned nonconformist, who hath 
also been dead several yeares ; and how to find him out 
I cannot tell. If you know of any active and understand- 
ing person who will undertake to solve such queries that 
I shall send to him, I will recompence him for his services. 

I thank you for your kind proffer of N. E. books, be. 
cause there is no doubt but that I may find something to 
my purpose among them. If the authors names be not put 
to them you would do well to write them at the bottom of 
their respective titles — So with thanks for your civilities, 

I remaine, Your most obliged servant, 


From my lodging neare 
Merton Coll. in Oxford. 
12 June, 1690. 

Why do you not give me an account of yourself that I 
may bring you in when I speak of your Fathers. In the last 
terme Catalogue, 1 saw the title of a book lately by you 

Superscribed thus-^- 
" For Mr. Increase Mather 

at Mr. Whiteings house 
in Copt hill court 

Throgmorton Street." 

In transcribing the above I have regarded the ancient or- 
thography, but where the words are contracted by abbre- 
viation, or expressed by characters, I have in general 
written them at length. 

The abbreviations are Sr. y e . y l . w n . rec d . w h . y r . &c. 
Only one kind of character is used, to wit, ( — ) which 
represents and. 

L .in, 1 r 6t0r 'r a l S0Cie ' y 1,as lon S been desirou » »f reprinting the cou- 

Published VoT ""I I'"' C0B, P ri " u * n,uet > sl * P»S««. ^re ever 
published, Ihey are become ver> scarce, having oulj the frail lorn 
of occasional pamphlets, and the last is seldom to be found even by 

t^TJT.T'T 17 ;, U ?Cemed better t0 &* tbe " e « topiewioo 
as nearly like the old one, as possible, in our Collections, and .he 
pages are therefore preserved for the consistency of citations id for- 
mer and later authors. These numbers came out in 1 764. Jii> ] 






Dcut. xxxii. 7, &c. Remember the Days of old, consider the Years of many 
Generations: ask thy Father, and He will shew thee; thy Elders, and they 
will tell thee: When the most High divided to the Nations their Inherit- 
ance, when he separated the Sons of Adam, he set the Bounds of the People : 

He found Him in a desart Land, in the waste howling Wilderness ; he led him 
about, he instructed him, he kept him as the Apple of his eye : — As an Eagle 
stirreth up her Nest, fluttereth over her young, spreadeth abroad her Wings, 
taketh them, beureth them on her Wings ; So the Lord alone did lead him' 
and there was no strange God with him. 



(Price Six Pence Lawful Money each Number.) 


HAVING brought our Annals of New-England down to the Set- 
tlement of the Massachusetts Colony, in the 1st Volumn ; and having 
lately received a most autheutick and valuable Journal of Events re- 
lating to said Colony, — From the Time when their 1st Gov Winthrop, 
Dep. Gov Dudley, Eleven Assistants, with their Charter, Four Minis- 
ters & about 1500 people were waiting at the Isle of Wight & other 
Places in the South and West of England, to sail for this desired 
Land; viz. from Monday March 29. 1030, to Jan. 11. 1648, 9: 
Wherein are many Remarkables not to be found any where else; and 
whereb) alone we are enabled to correct many Mistakes, and ascertain 
the Dates of many Articles in ©♦hers;- all wrote with the said Gov 
Winthrop's own hand, who deceased in the very house I dwell in the 
26th of March after: I may now proceed with a further Enlargement 
of Intelligence, and with a greater Certainty and Exactness. 

And for my Readers greater Satisfaction I shall also go on, as I did 
before, to give them, not my own Expressions, but those of the Authors 
who lived in the Times they wrote of; excepting now and then a Word 
or Note of mine for Explanation Sake, distinguished from theirs by 
being inclosed in such Marks as [These]. So that we may as it were 
hear those eminent Persons, Gov Bradford, Gov Winslow, Gov W T in* 
throp, Mr. Secretary Morton of Plymouth ; Gov Bradstreet, Mr. Sec- 
retary Nowell, &c, in the Massachusetts Colony Records; the Rev. 
Mr. Hubbard, and Others, telling us the remarkable Events of the 
Times they livVl iu. 

But as I was unhapily obliged to close the former Volumn abruptly 
in September 1630, about 2 Months after our entering the 2d Section 
of the lid Part ; I rrust refer to That, and begin the lid Volumn with 
September 23, in Continuation of the 


Containing Articles from the Beginning of the Settlement of the 
Massachusetts or 2d Colony, to the Settlement of the 7th and last, by 
the Combination of 41 Persons into a Form of Government at Piscat- 
aqua, on Oct. 22. 1640, afterwards call'd the Province of New- Hamp- 

N. B. See the Marks explained at the End of this Cover 

Annals of New-England. Part II. Sec. 2. 

K. of France. K. of Great Britain. K of Spain. 
1630 Lewis XIII. . || Charles I. \ Philip IV. 

SECT. II. Continued. 

Sept.nnHE 3d Court of Assistants at Charleston. Pre- 
128. JL sent, the Governour, Deputy Governour, 
Capt. Endicot, Mr. Ludlow, Nowell, Coddington, Brad- 
street, Rossiter, Pynchon. Ordered that no Person per- 
mit any Indian to use any Peece [or Gun] on any Occa- 
sion, under 1.10 for the first Offence ; for the second, to 
be Fined and Imprisoned at the Discretion of the Court ; 
— that no Person give, sell, truck or send any Indian 
Corn to any English out of this Jurisdiction, nor to any 
Indian, without Licence from the Governour and Assist- 
ants : — *That 1.50 be levied out of die several Pianta-. 
tions, for Mr. Patrick and Mr. Underhill ; [L suppose 
for some Military Purpose] viz. 

1. Charlestown to pay Z.7 

2. Boston llf 

3. Dorchester 7 

4. Roxbury 5 

5. Waterton IX 

6. Meadford, to pay 1.3 

7. Salem 3 

8. VVessaguscus, after 

call'd Weymouth 2 

9. Natasket 1 

(Mcr) 50 

# English and Indian Corn being 10s. a Strike, and Bever at 
65. a Pound; we made Laws to restrain selling Corn to the Indians; 
and to leave the Price of Bever at Liberty, which was presently sold 
for 10s. and 20s. a pound. (</.) 

f [By this it seems as if the much greater part of the People at 
Charlestown were now removed to Boston, and the Rev. Mr. Wilson 
with them.] 

Sept 30. Thursday, About 2 in the Morning, Mr, Isaac 
Johnson dies : He was a holy Man and Wise, and died in 
sweet Peace ; leaving Part of his Substance to the Colo- 
ny, (w) This Gentleman was a prime Man among us, 
having the best Estate of any ; zealous for Religion, one 



K. oi tf ranee. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 

1630 Lewis XIII. || Charles I, J. Philip IV. 

of the Five Undertakers ,* and the greatest Furtherer of 
this Plantation : He made a most godly End ; dying wil- 
lingly ; professing his Life better spent in promoting this 
Plantation, than it could have been any other Way : He 
left to us a great Loss, (d) The first Magistrate that died 
in the Massachusetts : (s d) [And Capt. Johnson says] 
The Beginning of this Work seemed very dolorous ; first 
for the Death of that worthy personage, Isaac Johnson Esq; 
whom the Lord had endued with many precious Gifts; 
insomuch as he was had in high Esteem among all the 
People of God, and as a chief Pillar to support this new 
erected Building. He very much rejoiced at his Death, that 
the Lord had been pleased to keep his Eyes open so long, as 
to see one Church of Christ gathered before his Death : At 
whose Departure, their were not only many weeping Eyes, 
but some fainting Hearts, fearing the Fall of the present 
Work. (j.J [And the late chief Justice Samuel Sewall, 
Esq. infbrm'd me ; That this Mr. Johnson was the princi- 
pal Cause of settling the Town of Boston, and so of its be- 
coming the Metropolis, and had removed hither ; had chose 
for his Lot the great Square lying between Cornhill on the 
S E, Treemount- Street on the N W, Queen-Street on the 
N E, and School-Street on the S W ; and on his Death- 
Bed desiring to be Buried at the upper End of his Lot, in 
Faith of his rising in it, He was accordingly Buried there ; 
which gave Occasion for the Jirst Burying Place of this 
Town to be laid out round about his Grave.] 

* The five Undertakers were Goveruour Wintiirop, Dep. Govero- 
our Dudley, Sir Richard Saltonstall, isaac Johnson, Esq. and Mr. 
ReviJ (d) 

[Oct.] ' The Jirst Execution in Plymouth Colony; 

* which is a Matter of great sadness to us,, is of one John 

* Billington ; for Way-laying and Shooting John Newco- 
c men, a young Man, (b r) in the Shoulder, (A) whereof he 

* died : The said Billington was one of the profanest among 
4 us : He came from London, and I know not by what 
'Friends shuffled into our Company. We used all due 



K. of France. K. of Great Britain* K. of Spain. 

1630 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. j Philip IV. 

* Means about his Trial : was found guilty both by Grand 
4 and Petty Jury ; and we took the Advice of Mr. Win- 

* throp, and others, the ablest Gentlemen in the Massa- 
' chusetts-Bay, who all concurred with us that he ought 
4 to Die, and the Land be purged from Blood, (b r.)* 

* [N~. B. This is the Order wherein Governour Winthrop sets this 
Article, who was consulted about it . though Mr. Hubbard says, — 
about September ; aiid Gov. Bradford — in the latter part of the 

Mr. Phillips the Minister of Watertown, and others, 
have their Houses burnt, (w) 

Oct. 19. The first General Court of the Massachusetts 
Colony — and this at Boston : Present the Governor, Dep. 
Governor, Sir Richard Saltonstall, Mr. Ludlow, Capt. 
Endicot, Mr, Nowell, Pynchon, Bradstreet, (Mcr) [N. B. 
For the Form of Government in the Massachusetts under 
Dep. Governor Endicot, subordinate to the Governor 
and Company in England before they arrived with the 
Charter ; See April 20. 1628, and April 30. 1629 ; But 
since their Arrival Here ; the ( \ st) Form of their Gov- 
ernment was that of Governor, Dep. Governor, and As- 
sistants ; the Patentees with their Heirs, Assigns and 
Associates being Freemen, &c. But now in this General 
Court, they agree on a (2d) Form as follows—] Pro- 
posed as the best Course -For the Freemen to have 
the Power of chusing Assistants, when they are to be 
chosen : and the Assistants, from among themselves 
to chuse the Governor, & Dep. Governor, who with 
the Assistants to have the Power of making Laws, and 
chusing Officers to execute the same : This was fully as- 
sented to by the General Vote of the People. (Mcr) 

And now the Mcr gives the first List of Persons desiring 
to be made Freemen, to the Number of 108, as follows. 


4 ANNALS Of NEW-ENGLAND. Part. II. Sec. 2. 

K. of France. 
1630 Lewis XIII. 

K. of Great Britain. 
Charles I. 

K. of Spain. 
+ Philip IV. 

.Mr. Samuel Maverick, 

Mr. Edward Johnson, 

Mr. Edward Gibbins [or Gibbons, 
after, Major General] 

Mr. William Jeffries 

Mr. Samuel Sharp, 

Mr. Thomas Graves, [after, a 
Rear Admiral in England,] 

Mr. Roger Conant, 

Mr. Nathaniel Turner, 

Mr. Samuel Freeman, 

Mr. William Gierke, 

Mr. Abraham Palmer, 

Mr. William Pelham, 

J\Ir. William Biackstoue, [for- 
merly a Minister ; after, went 
to Providence. 

Mr. Richard Brown, 

Mr. George Ludlow, 

James Perm, (after — Ruling El- 
der of the 1st Church in Bos- 

Henry Woolcot, 

Thomas Stoughton, 

Roger Williams, [a Minister, who 
went (i) to Plymouth (2) to 
Salem (3) to Providence] 

Capt. Walter Norton, 

James Pembertou, 

Mr. John Dillingham, 

John Johnson, 

Creorge Alcock, 

Thomas Lamb, 

Mr. Charles Gott, 

Mr. George Phillips, [Minister of 
Watertown ] 

Mr. John Wilson, [Minister of 

Mr. John Maverick } Ministers 

And \ of 

Mr. John Wareham, ) Dorchester 
Mr. Samuel Skelton [Minister of 

Mr. William Colbron [after, 

Ruling Elder of the 1st Church 

in Boston] 
Mr. William Aspinwall [after, 
Secretary of Rh. Island Colony .} 
Edward Converse, 
Richard Church, 
Richard Silvester, 
William Balstone, 
John Phillips, 
Nathaniel Bowman, 
Daniel Abbot, 
Mr. Samuel Pool, &c. (Mcr) 

[But manv of them seem uot to 
be made Freemen till May 18. 
Ib31 ; which see. But Capt. 
Johnson says, that] at the Court 
in October many of the 1st Plan- 
ters came and were made free ; 
yet afterward none were admit- 
ted to this Fellowship, but such 
as were at fiist join'd in Fellow- 
ship with one of the Churches of 
Christ ; their chiefest Aim being 
bent to promote this Work alto- 
gether; [and that] the Number 
of Freemen this Year was auout 
1 l0 (J- ) [But he mistakes in 
calling this their 2d Court on the 
S. Side of the River.] 

Oct. 23. Mr. Rossiter, one of the Assistants Dies : (w) 
a godly Man, and of a good Estate ; which still weakens 

us : 


K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 

1630 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. j Philip IV. 

us : so that now there are left, of the 5 Undertakers, but 
3, viz. Gov. Winthrop, D. Gov. Dudley, and Sir R. Sal- 
tonstall ; and 7 other Assistants, (d) [viz. Capt. Endicot, 
Mr. Ludlow, Nowell, Pvnchon, Coddington, Bradstrcet 
& T. Sharp : See Oct. 20. 1629, March 23, Aug. 23, 
& Sept. 7. 1630 ] 

Oct. 25. Mr. Colborn, who was chosen Deacon by 
the Congregation a Week before, [is now] invested by 
Imposition of Hands of the Minister [i. e. Mr. Wilson] 
and Eider [i. e. Mr. Nowell] (w) 

The Governor in Consideration of the Inconveniences 
which had grown in England by Drinking one to another, 
restrain'd it at his own Table, and wished others to do 
the like : so as it grows by little and little to [be] dis- 
used, (w ) 

Oct. 29. ' The Handmaid arrives at Plymouth ; hav- 
* ing been 12 Weeks at Sea, and spent ail her Masts : 
'Of 28 Cows, lost 10: has about 60 Passengers, who 
' come all well.' (w) 

The first Recorded as Baptized in Boston Church, are 
said to be Baptized in said Church in this Month, and 
are only 3, viz. Joy and Recompence, Daughters of 
Brother John Milles : and Pitic, Daughter of our Broth- 
er William Baulstone. {bcr) 

Oct. e. The Gov. D. Gov. and Mr. [Samuel] Mave- 
rick join in sending out our Pinace to the Narragansets, 
to trade for Corn to supply our Wants. After doubling 
Cape Cod, she put into the next Harbour she found ; and 
there meeting with Indians who shewing their Willing- 
ness to truck, she made her Voyage there, and bro't us 
an 100 Bushels of Corn, which helped us something. 
From the Coast where they traded, they saw a very large 
Island 4 leagues to the East, which the Indians com- 
mended as a fruitful Place, full of good Vines, and free 
from sharp Frosts ; having one only Entrance into it by 
a Navigable River ; inhabited by a few Indians, which 
for a Trifle wou'd leave the Island, if the English would 
set them upon the Main, (d) [This is, no doubt, the Island 
of Aquethneck, after called Rhode -Island.] About 


K. ol France. K. of GraiJ Britain. K. of Spam. 

3630 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. | Philip IV. 

About November, the Gov. and Dep. Gov. with most 
of the Assistants, remove their Families to Boston, (h) 

Nov. 9. The 4th Court of Assistants, but the 1st at 
Boston : Present, Gov. D. Gov. Mr. Ludlow, Capt. En- 
dicot, Mr. Coddington, Pynchon, Bradstreet : Ordered 
that every Englishman who kills a Wolf wiihin this Pa- 
tent, shall have 1 Penny for every Beast and Horse, and 
1 Farthing for every weaned Swine and Goat, in every 
Plantation, to be levied by the Constables of said Planta- 
tions : And whoever will first give in his Name to the 
Gov. that he will undertake to set up a Ferry between 
Boston and Charlestown, and begin the same at such 
Time as the Gov. shall appoint ; shall have 1 Penny for 
every Person, and 1 Penny for every 100 Pound Weight 
of Goods he shall so transport. (Mcr) 

Nov. 10. Firmin of Waterton has his Wigwam 
burnt, (w) Divers have their Hay-Stacks burnt, by 
burning the Grass, (w) 

Nov. 11. The Master fof the Handmaid] comes to 
Boston, with Capt. Standish, and 2 Gentlemen Passen- 
gers who come to Plant Here ; but having no Testimo- 
nials, we wou'd not receive them, (w) 

Nov. 30. The 5th & last Court of Assistants this 
Year, but the 2d at Boston. Present, Gov. D. Gov. Sir 
R. Saltonstall, Mr. Ludlow, NowelL Pynchon, Codding- 
ton, Bradstreet : 1 of the Assistants fined 51. for whip- 
ping 2 Persons without the Presence of another Assist- 
ant, contrary to an Act of Court formerly made : Order- 
ed that a Man be whipt for shooting at Fowl on the Sab- 
bath Day ; and that 601. be collected for the Maintenance 
of Mr. Wilson and Mr. Phillips ; viz. out of 

Boston Z.20 I Charlestown Z.10 I Meadford Z.3 
Waterton 20 Roxbury 6 | Winnesemet 1 


Of the People who came over with us, from the Time 
of their setting Sail from England in April [this Year] to 
December, there Died by Estimation 200 at the least : So 



K. of France. K. of Great Britain. K. of Spain. 

1630 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. | Philip IV. 

■ i ■- , 

low hath the Lord brought us. Yet they who survived 
were not discouraged, but bearing God's Corrections with 
Humility, and trusting in his Mercies ; and considering 
how after a lower Ebb he had raised up our Neighbours 
at Plymouth, we began again, in December, to consult 
about a fit place to build a Town upon, [d) 

Dec. 6. The Gov. and most of the Assistants and others 
meet at Roxbury, and agree to build a Town fortified upon 
the Neck between That and Boston : And a Committee is 
appointed to consider of all Things requisite, &c. (w) 

Dec. 16. The Committee meet at Roxbury : And upon 
further Consideration for [3] Reasons it is concluded we 
should not have a Town in the Place aforesaid ; (1.) Be- 
cause Men would be forc'd to keep 2 Families ; (2) There 
is no running Water ; and if there are any Springs, they 
won't suffice the Town ; (3) The most of the People 
have built already, and wou'd not be able to build again i 
So we agree to meet at Waterton, this Day sennet, and 
in the mean Time other Places should be viewed, (w) 

Capt. Neale and 3 other Gentlemen come to us [at 
Boston] : He came in the Bark Warwick this Summer to 
Pascatoway, sent as Governor there for Sir Ferdinand 
Gorge and others, (w) 

Dec. 21. We meet again at Waterton : And Here, 
upon View of a Place a Mile beneath the Town, all agree 
it a fit Place for a fortified Town ; and we take Time 
to consider farther about it. 

Dec. 24. Till this Time there was (for the most Part) 
fair open Weather, with gentle Frosts in the Night : But 
this Day the Wind comes N W very sharp and some 
Snow ; but so Cold that some have their Fingers froze 
and in Danger to be lost, {w) 

Dec. 26. [Lord's-Day] The Rivers are froze up : and 
they of Charleston could not come to the Sermon at 
Boston till the Afternoon at High- Water, {w) 

Many of the Cowes and Goats are forced to be still 
Abroad for want of Houses, (w) 


2 VOL. VII. 

8 ANNALS Of NEW-ENGLAND. Part. II. Sec. 2. 

K. of France. K. of Great- Britain. K. of Spain. 

1 ° 30 Lewis XIII. [I Charles I. j Philip IV. 

Dec. 28. After many Consultations at Boston, Roxbu- 
ry and Watertown, by Gov Winthrop [D. Gov Dudley] 
and Assistants, about a fit Place to build a Town for the 
Seat of Government, they this Day agree on a Place on 
the W [rather N W Side of Charles-River, about 3 
Miles W from Charlestown : And all, except Mr. Endi- 
cot and [T] Sharp,*, oblige themselves to build Houses 
there the following Spring, and remove their Ordnance 
and Munition thither : and first call the Place Newtown, 
but after— [viz. in 1638] Cambridge, ( 

* [The former living a t Salem and] the latter purposing to return 
by the next Ship to England, (d) 

Dec. 22. Richard Garret of Boston, with 1 of his 
Daughters a young Maid, and 4 others, against the Ad- 
vice of their Friends, went towards Plymouth in a Shal- 
lop : and about the Gurnet's Nose, the Wind blew so 
much at N W, as they were put to Sea, and the Boat 
took in much Water, which froze so hard as they cou'd 
not free her : so that they gave themselves for Lost ; and 
committing themselves to God, dispos'd themselves to 
die. But one of their Company espying Land near Cape- 
Cod, they made a shift to hoist up Part of their Sail, and by 
God's speci.-l Providence were carried thro' the Rocks to 
the Shoar : where some got on Land ; but some had their 
Leggs frozen in the Ice, so as they were forced to be cut 
out. Being now on Shoar they kindle a Fire ; but having 
no Hatchet, they can get but little Wood, and are fore'd 
to lie in the open Air all Night, being extreamly cold. 
In the Morning 2 of their Company go towards Plymouth. 
(Supposing it within 7 or 8 Miles, where as it is near 50 
from them) [and not an English House nearer] By the 
Way they meet 2 Indian Squaws, who telling their Hus- 
bands they had met 2 Englishmen that had" been Ship- 
wrackt, make after them and bring them back to their 
Wigwam, and entertain them kindly : and one of them 
[viz. of the Indians] next Day goes with them to Ply- 
mouth : and the other [Indian] goes to find out their Boat 



K. of France. K. of Great Britain. K. of Spain. 

1630 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. j Philip IV. 

and the Rest of their Company which are 7 Mi*es off: 
and having found thera, helps them what he can, returns to 
his Wigwam, fetches a Hatchet, builds them a Wigwam, 
covers it, gets them Wood : (for they were so weak and 
frozen, as they cou'd not stir) and Garret dies about 2 
Days after his Landing ; and the Ground so frozen as 
they could not dig his grave, the Indian, with his Hatchet, 
hews a Hole about half a Yard deep, [puts the] Corps 
in it, and lays over it a great Heap of Wood to keep it 
from the Wolves. By this Time the Gov of Plymouth 
sends 3 Men to them with Provisions ; who launch'd 
their Boat, (which the Wind had driven up to high 
Water Mark) and with a fair Wind get to Plymouth ; 
where another of their Company dies, his flesh being 
mortified with the Frost : and the 2 who went towards 
Plymouth died also ; one of them being not able to get 
thither, and the other had his foot so frozen as he died 
of it after. The girl escaped best : and one Harvvood, a 
godly Man of the Congregation of Boston, lies long under 
the Surgeon's Hand, (w) 

Appendix to 1630. 
I. Articles of Uncertain Dates. 

HALF our Cowes aad almost all our Mares and Goats sent us 
out of England died at Sea ; and those intended to be sent us 
out of Ireland, were not sent at all : All which together with the 
Loss of our 6 Months Building, occasioned by our intended Removal 
to a Town to be fortified, Aveaken our Estates; especially the Es- 
tates of the Undertakers, who were 3 or 4 thousand Pounds [Ster- 
ling] engaged in the joint Stock, which is now not above so many 
Hundreds: Yet many of us labour to bear it as comfortably as we 
cou'd ; remembring the End of our comiDg hither ; and knowing the 
Power of God, who can support and raise us again, and useth to 
bring his Servants low that the Meek may be made glorious by 
Deliverance, (d) 



K. of France, 
1630 Lewis XIII. 

K. of Great-Britain. 
Charles I. 

K. of Spain. 
| Philip IV. 

It goes harder with this poor People in their Beginnings, because 
of the Scarcity of all Sorts of Grain this Year in England : Every 
Bushel of Wheat Meal standing them in 14 Shillings [SterL] and eve- 
ry Bushel of Peas 10 Shillings; and not easy to be procured nei- 
ther, (h) [And] coming into this Country, we found some English at 
Salem, and some few at Charlestcwn, who were very destitute : And 
Planting Time being past ; shortly after, Provision was not to be had 
for Money. And the unsubdued Wilderness yielding little Food, 
many were in great Straits for want of Provision for themselves and 
their little Ones. W T e quickly built Boats, and some went a Fishing. 
Bread was with many a very scarce Thing, and Flesh of all Kinds 
as scarce : And Oh the hunger that many suffered, and saw no Hope 
in an Eye of Reason to be supplied, but with Fish, Clams and Mus- 
cles. But God caused his People to be contented with mean Things, 
and to trust in him. (V) 

II. A List of Ships which arrived in New-England 
this Year. 



whence j 

when 1 

when 1 


set sail | 

set sail ] 

arriv'd | 



ltf30 1 

"TelFo - 





Feb. (d) 

May e. 





March 20 

May 30 




f at the 

April 8 

June 12 





June 13 

V Salem 



f Isle of 
) Wight 


June 1 8 




July 2 , 



May Flowr 

S. Hampton 



I July 1 



Wm & Fran. 



£ July 3 






I July 5 









1 ditto 

July 6 




May e. 

Aug. 20 



Another (d) 

June (d) 



1 Aug. 6 

Oct. 29 



Another set < 

>ut by a priva! 

e Merchant 

. (d) 

Thesa 17 Ships arrived all safe in New-England, for the Increase 
#f the Plantation here this Year 1 630. (d) 


K. of France. K- of Great-Britain. K. of -Spam. 

1630 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. \ Philip IV. 

III. Accounts of the. 13 Magistrates who came this 
Year with the Charter, as far as I have met with. 

1. John Winthrop, Esq; Gov. His Ancestor was Adam Win- 
throp : a worthy Gentleman [in England;] who had a Son of the 
game Name, a discreet, learned Gentleman, eminent for Skill in the 
Law, not without Remark for his Love to the Gospel under the Reign 
of K. Henry VIII ^ and [another son] a memorable Favourer of the 
Reform'd Religion in the Days of Q,. Mary, into whose Hands the 
famous Martyr Philpot committed his Papers, which afterwards made 
no inconsiderable Part of our Martyr Books. This Mr. Adam Win- 
throp had a Son of the same Name, Endowments and Imployments 
with his Father. Aud this 3d Mr. Adam Winthrop was Father to 
this renowned John Winthrop, who is the Founder of a Colony, which 
on many Accounts like him that founded it, may challenge the 1st 
Place among the Glories of America. Born at the Mansion House of 
his Ancestors at Groton in Suffolk on July 1 % 1 587 : [had] an agreable 
Education : But the Accomplishments of a Lawyer were those where- 
with Heaven made his chief Opportunities to be serviceable. Being 
at the Age of 1 8 made a Justice of the Peace, his Vertues began to 
fall under a more general Observation [was] not only exemplary for 
his Conformity to the Laws of Christianity in his Conversation, but al- 
so discover'd a more than ordinary Measure of those Qualities which 
adorn an Officer of human Society. His -Justice was impartial : His 
Wisdom excellently temper'd Things according to the Art of Govern- 
ing: His Courage made him dare U> do Right : All which Vertues he 
rendered the more illustrious, by emblazoning them with the constant 
Liberality and Hospitality of a Gentleman. This made him the Ter- 
ror of the Wicked, the Delight of the Sober, and the Hope of those 
who had any hopeful Design in Hand for the Good of the Nation & 
the Interest of Religion. Accordingly when the noble Design of car- 
rying a Colony of chosen People into an American Wilderness, was 
by some eminent Persons undertaken ; this eminent Person was, by 
by the Consent of all, chosen for the Moses, who must be the Leader 
of so great an Undertaking : Wherefore having sold a fair Estate of 
6 or 7 Hundred [Sterling] a Year, He [now] transmitted Him- 
self with the Effects of it into New-England ; (cm) [in the 43d Year 



1 ■-■- - 

K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 

1630 LevvisXIII. || Charles I. j. Philip IV. 

of his Age : Is the 1st Governour of the Massachusetts Colony ; one 
of the 5 Undertakers; the 1st Member who join'd in forming the 
Congregational Church of Charlestown and Boston, and the Principal 
•Cause of fixing on Boston for the Metropolis ] 

2. Thomas Dudley, Esq. D Gov. Born at Northampton in 1574 
[rather 1576] the only Son of Capt. Roger Dudley; who being 
slain in the Wars left this our Thomas ; who in the Family of the 
E of Northampton [learn'd] the Points of good Behaviour, and fitted 
himself to do many Benefits to the World : Next became a Clerk 
to Judge Nichols (who being his Kinsman by the Mother, took the 
more special Notice of Him) [impiov'd the] Advantage to attain such 
skill in the Law, as was of great Advantage in the future Changes of 
his Life : and the Judge wou'd have prefer'd him to higher Employ- 
ments, whereto his prompt Wit not a little recommended Him, if he 
had not been by Death prevented. But before he cou'd do much at 
the Pen, for which he was very well accomplished, He was called to 
the Sword : For being a young Gentleman well known for Ingenuity, 
Courage and Conduct ; when Soldiers were to be rais'd by Order of 
Q, Elizabeth for the Service of K Henry IV [of France against the 
Spaniards on the Borders of the Netherlands in 1597] none of the 
[Youths] about Northampton were willing to enter the Service till a 
Commission was given to young Dudley to be their Captain ; and then 
presently 4 Score listed under him. At the Head of these he went 
over ; was at the Siege of Amiens; and thus came to be furnished for 
the Field as well as the Bench : But [the French and Spaniards mak- 
ing Peace in June 1, 1598,] W9 feturn'd to England, settled [near] 
Northampton; married a Gentlewoman, whose Extract and Estate 
were considerable, and the Scituation of his [Dwelling] help'd him to 
enjoy the Ministry of Mr. Dod, Cleaver, Winston, and Hildersham, 
excellent and renowned Men : which Puritan Ministry so seasoned his 
Heart Avith Religion, that he was a devout Christian, and a Follower 
of the Ministers that most effectually Preached Real Christianity all 
his Days, "the Spirit of Real Christianity in him now also disposed 
him to sober Nonconformity, and from this Time, (tho 1 none more hat- 
ed the Fanaticisms and Enthusiasms of wild Opinionists) He be- 
came a judicious Dissenter from the unscriptural ceremonies retained 
in the Church of England. Not long after this, the Lords Say and 



K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 

1630 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. | Philip IV. 

Compton, and other Persons of -Quality, made such Observations on 
bim as to commend him to the service of the E of Lincoln, theu a 
young Man and newly come to the Possession of his Earldom : [whose] 
Grandfather had left his Affairs under vast Intanglements, out of 
which his Father was never able to extricate himself, which caus'd [the 
young Earl] to apply to Mr. Dudley for Assistance ; who prov'd so 
able, careful & faithful a Steward, that in a little While the Debts of 
near 20 Thousand Pounds were happily [discharged.] By this Means 
also a Match was procur'd between the young Earl and the L Say's 
Daughter, who prov'd a most virtuous Lady and a great Blessing to 
the whole Family. In this [Business] Mr. Dudley continued about 
9 or 10 years: but then growing desirous of a more private Life, re- 
tir'd to Boston [in England] where the Ministry and Acquaintance of 
Mr. Cotton [were] no little Satisfaction to him. But the Earl cou'd 
be no more without Mr. Dudley, than Pharaoh without his Joseph, 
and prevailed with him to resume his former Employment ; till the 
Storm of Persecution on the Nonconformists caused many Men of great 
Worth to transport themselves to New-England. Mr. Dudley was 
not the least of the worthy Men [who] bore a Pari in this Transporta- 
tion, in Hopes that in an American Wilderness they might peaceably 
enjoy the pure Worship of Christ. And when the Undertakers for 
[this] Plantation came to know him, they soon saw That in him, that 
caus d them to chuse him their Dep Gov ; in which Capacity he [now] 
arrived (cm) [here, in the 54th Year of his Age : was one of the 5 Un- 
dertakers ; the 2d Member in forming the Congregational Church of 
Charlestown and Boston ; and a principal Founder of the Town of 
Newtown, after called Cambridge ; being zealous to have it made the 
Metropolis, and is one of the 1st who builds and settles there in the 
Spring ensuing] 

3. Sir Richard Saltonstall. [was the Son or Grandson to Sir Rich- 
ard Saltonstall ; who Mundy in his Chronicle mentions as L. Mayor 
of London in 1597, and Son to Gilbert Saltonstall of Hallifaxin York- 
shire. He was the 1st Associate to the 6 Original Patentees mention- 
ed in K Charles I. his Charter of the Massachusetts, of March 4. 
1 623,9, and the 4th Assistant made therein : now comes over their 1 st 
Assistant, a worthy Puritan, one of the 3 Undertakers; and the 1st 
Founder of the Town, and His likely of the Congregational Church, 
of Watertown.] 

A. Isaac 


K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 

630 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. | Philip IV. 

4. Isaac Johnson, Esq: — [He had married the Lady Arabella, 
of the House of the Earls of Lincoln ; was the 2d Associate to the 6 
Original Patentees mention'd in said Charter, and the 5th Assistant 
made therein : who now comes over their 2d Assistant and one of the 
5 Undertakers ; was the 3d Member, who join'd in forming the Con- 
gregational Church of Gharlestown and Boston; and the principal 
Founder of the Town of Boston. And for the Rest, see July 25, Aug. 
e. Sept. 7, acd Sept 30. 1630. 

5. Increase No well, Esq: [His Father or Grandfather was Brother 
to the famous Alexander Novell Dean of St. Paul's in the Reign 
of Q, Eliz, and Prolocutor of her 1st Convocation : He was the 7th 
Associate mention'd in said Charter, and the 8th Assistant made 
therein : And Capt Endicot being the 3d Assistant, Mr. Nowell, as 
their 4th now comes over : one of the owners of the Jewel ; a zealous 
Puritan ; the 5th who joins in forming the Congregational Church of 
Charlestown and Boston; and the principal Person who continues at 

6. William Vassal, Esq: — [The 18th JVssociate mentiou'd in said 
Charter, and the 1 7th Assistant made therein : comes over as their 
5th Assistant : But this last summer returned.] 

7. William Pynchon, Esq: [a Gentleman of Learning and Relig- 
ion! The 19th Associate mention'd in said Charter, and the 13th 
Assistant made therein: as their 6th Assistant now comes over: 
is the principal Founder of the Town of Roxbury, and the 1st 
Member who joins in forming the Congregational Church there ] 

8. Edward Rossiter, Esq; [comes over as their 7th Assistant; 1st 
chosen Oct. 20. 1 629 ; and 

1 0. Roger Ludlow, Esq; as the 9th Assistant, 1 st chosen Feb. 1 0. 
1 629,30 : Both pious Gentlemen of good Families in the West of Eng- 
land ; who are the principal Founders of the Town of Dorchester ; 
and the 1st who join'd in forming the Congregational Church, even at 
Plymouth in England, a little before they came away, and bro't their 
Pastor, Teacher, and whole Church with them. See at the Beginning 
of this Year. 

9. Thomas Sharp, Esq; [comes over as the 8th Assistant: 1st 
chosen Oct 20. 1 629 ; and Is the 6th Member who joins in forming 
the Cougregational Church of Charlestown and Boston.] 

1 1. John Revel!, Esq; [comes over as the 10th Assistant : 1st cho- 
sen Oct. 20. 1629.30; and was one of the 5 Undertakers: but re- 
turned this last Summer with Mr. William Vassal.] 


Annals of new-England. Part II. Sec. 2. 15 

K. of France. K. of Great Britain. K. of Spain. 
1630 Lewis XIII. | Charles I. \ Philip IV. 

12. William Coddington, Esq; [was on March 18. 1629,30, chosen 
at Southampton the 1 1th Assistant ; in this Capacity now comes over ; 
and is one who joins to the Congregational Church of Charlestown 
and Boston.] 

1 3. Simon Bradstreet, Esq; Son of a Minister in Lincolnshire ; and 
Born at Horpling, March 603. His Father (Son of a Suffolk Gen- 
tleman of a fine Estate) was one of the 1st Fellows in Emanuel Col- 
lege, under Dr< Charderton ; after highly esteemed by Mr. Cotton & 
Dr. Preston ; and was always a Nonconformist at Home, as well as 
when a Preacher at Middleborough [in Zealand.] Our Bradstreet was 
bro't up at the Grammar School, till he was about 14 Years of Age, 
[when] the Death of his Father put a Stop for the present to the De- 
signs of his further Education. But 2 or 3 Years after, was taken 
into the religious Family of the E of Lincoln (the best Family of any 
Nobleman then in England) where he spent about 8 Years under the 
Direction of Mr. Dudley, sustaining successively diverse Offices. Dr. 
Preston, who had been my Lord's Tutor, then mov'd my Lord, that 
Mr. Bradstreet might have their Permission to come to Emanuel Col- 
lege, in the Capacity of Governor to the L Rich, Son of the E of 
Warwick ^ which they granting, he went with the Doctor ; who pro- 
vided a Chamber for him, with Advice that he should apply to Study 
till my Lord's Arrival. But my L Rich not coming, Mr. Bradstreet 
after a Year return'd to the E of Lincoln's ; and Mr. Dudley then re- 
moving to Boston, his Place of Steward was confer'd on Mr. Brad- 
street. Afterwards he with much ado obtain'd the Earl's Leave to 
answer the Desires of the aged and pious Countess of Warwick, that 
he would accept the Stewardship of her noble Family ; which, as the 
former, he discharged with an exemplary Discretion and Fidelity, 
[and] Here he married [Mrs. Ann] the Daughter of Mr. Dudley, (cm) 
[By which Means, he became one of the Massachusetts Company, and 
on March 18. 1 629,30 chosen at Southampton their 1 2th Assistant 5 
in this Capacity comes over, about the 27th Year of his Age ; and is 
the 7tb Member who joins in forming the said Congregational Church 
of Charlestown and Boston.] 

[For John Endicot, Esq: Assistant being Here before; of the 18 
Assistants, there were 12 this last Summer Here together, besides the 
Gov and D. Gov.] 


vol. vn« 

16 annals or n£w-£nglani). Fart II. Sec. 2. 

K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 

1630 Lewi,, XIII. || Charles I. | Philip IV. 

An Account of the Ministers now come over, I refer to the Appen- 
dix of the Year ensuing, when we shall have more to join them, and 
conclude this Year with, 

IV. The most material Events in England and Other 
Places which concerned this People. 

April 1 2. Dr. Laud, Bp of London, made Chancellor of Oxford, (s.) 

May 29. Saturday, Born at St. James's to K Charles I, [by his 
Q, a Papist] a 2d son [the 1st being Dead:] Lord's-Day, June 27, 
Christened by the Name of Charles, [by Bp Laud :] his Godfathers 
being the French K Lewis [a Papist] the Prince Palatine [a Protestant] 
and Godmother, the Q, Mother of France (hs) [a Papist* He k after- 
wards K Charles II.] 

[ # Papists join'd with Protestants— -2 Papists to 1 Protestant — and 
•why not one of the Protestant Kings and Queens of Sweden or Den- 
mark ?] 

The- Pope having made anti Bishops over all the Seas in Ireland, 
makes Richard Smith (titulary Bp of Chalcedon) Bp over all the Ro- 
mish Catholicks in Eng; who is now very Buisy in his Employment; 
and the Inso'ency of the Regulars daily increases in England. (Fl.) 

Dr. Leighton a Scotchman, for Publishing a Book, entitled, an Ap- 
peal to Parliament, or a Plea against Prelacy, sentene'd (s) in the 
Star-Chamber to be whipt, have his Forehead branded, his Nose slit, 
and his Ears cut off, (Fl) which is soon after inflicted, (pn) 

Oct. 3. O S, [ 1 3 N S] Born [at the Hague] to Frederick the [Protest- 
ant] Elector Palatine, by his Lady Elizabeth [only] Daughter to K 
James I, the Princess Sophia : [in the time of their Banishment from 
the Palatinate by the Popish Emperor] afterwards married, viz. in 
3 658, to Ernest Augustus [the Protestant] Duke of Hanover: by whom 
in 1 660, she becomes the Mother of K George I. (Anderson) 

Dec. 5. O S, Being the Lord's-Day, Peace between England and 
Spain proclaim'd at London ; and at Madrid Dec. 1 5 ; (lis) [I suppose 
JN S, the same Day with the other, And Pointer and Salmon no 
doubt mistake in writing — Nov. 27.] 


ANtf ais of new-england. Part II. Sec. 2. 17 

K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 

1630 Lewis XIII. R Charles I. || Philip IV. 

The War which was renew'd between the Dutch & Spaniards ia 
1622, yet continues. 

The War having raged in Germany between the Emperor Ferdinand 
the II a Papist and the Protestant Princes, ever since 1618 ; wherein 
the Emperor had reduced Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia, conquer'd 
the Palatinate, banished the Protestant Elector from his Dominions, 
and over-run the lower Saxony ; beat the Kof Denmark, and forc'd him 
to a disadvantageous Peace; grievously oppressed the Protestants, and 
in the fairest Way to subdue them intirely : and the Protestant Princes 
having no Hope from Eng, and implor'd the Help of the pious & he- 
roic Gustavus K of Sweden ; He this Year on June 24. N S, with an 
Army lands in Pomerania, bends down his Knees on the Shoar, offers 
Thanks to the most High for the prosperous Beginning of his Expedi- 
tion, implores Him to succeed his future Undertakings for the Help of 
his People : and then rising up, Jle quick like Lightning, carries all 
before Him, and begins their Deliverance. 

JS". B. See the most accurate and concise Account of this German 
War in Alsted : who thus begins this glorious Enterprize. — July 24. 
' Rex Sueciae iustructus numerosis Copiis appellit in Pomerania, 
' Nominis sui Fama non mediocrem Timorem Hostibus injicit : Inde 
* Fulgure violentior omnia celerrime pervadit :' Which I have partly 
construed in the Words above. 

163 1. 

£ N. B. The Principal Stage of our Annals is from 
This Time forward, at Boston.] 

Jan. A House at Dorchester burnt down, (to) 

XX. Jan. 3. Dies [at Boston] the Daughter of Mr. 
Sharp [I suppose Thomas Sharp Esq ; one of the Assist- 
ants] £ godly Virgin, making a comfortable End after a 
long Sickness. The Plantation here [i. e. I suppose at 
Boston] received not the like Loss of any Woman since 
we came hither : and therefore she well deserves to be 
remembred in this Place. And among those who died 
£at Boston] about the end of Jan, was the Daughter of 
John Ruggles, a Girl of Eleven Years old ; who in the 
Time of her Sickness, express'd to the Minister and 



K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 

1631 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip IV. 

those about her, so much Faith and Assurance of Salvation, 
as is rarely found in any of that Age ; which I tho't not 
unworthy here to commit to Memory : and if any tax 
me with wasting Paper with Recording these small Mat- 
ters, such may consider, that small Things in the Begin- 
ning of Politick Bodies, are as remarkable as greater in 
Bodies full grown, (d) 

As the winter came on, Provisions are very scarce [in 
the Massachusetts-Bay] and People necessitated to feed 
on Clams and Musles, and Ground Nuts & Acorns ; and 
these got with much Difficulty in the Winter-Season. 
Upon which People grow much tired and discouraged ; 
especially when they hear that the Gov himself has his last 
Batch of Bread in the Oven. And many are the Fears of 
the People that Mr. Pierce, who was sent to Ireland for 
Provision, is either Cast-away or taken by the Pirates. 
Upon this a Day of Fasting and Prayer to God for Relief 
is appointed [to be on the 6th of Feb.'} But God, who de- 
lights to appear in the greatest Straits, works marvellously 
at this Time : (ctr) For on 

Feb. 5. (wj The very Day before the appointed Fast, in 
comes (ctr J the Ship Lyon, Mr. William Pierce Master, 
now arriving at Natasket/t^ laden with Provisions. Up- 
on which joyful Occasion the Day is ehang'd, and ordered 
to be kept [on the 22d] as a Day of Thanksgiving, (ctr) 
Feb. 8. The Gov goes aboard the Lyon riding at Long- 
Island : [next Day] the Ship comes to an Anchor before 
Boston [to the great Joy of the People] where she rides 
very well, notwithstanding the great Drifts of Ice. (wj 
And the Provisions are by the Gov distributed to the 
People proportionable to their Necessities, (ctr J 

The Lyon [had] set Sail from Bristol Dec. 1, brought 
about 20 Passengers, and had a very stormy Passage : yet 
thro' God's Mercy all the People come safe j except one 
(wj of the Sailors, who not far from our Shoar, in a Tem- 
pest having help'd to take in the Sprit-sail, as he was com- 
ing down fell into the Sea, where after long Swimming, 


ANNALS 0? NEW-ENGLAND. Part II. Sec. 2. 19 

K. of France. K. of Great Britain. K. of Spain. 

1631 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip IV. 

was drowned, to the great Dolour of those in the Ship, 
who beheld so lamentable a Spectacle, without being able 
to help him ; the Sea was so high, and the Ship drove so 
fast before the Wind, tho' her Sails were taken down, fdj 

By this Ship fdj [we hear that] the Ambrose [having 
been] masted at Charleston, [returning to Eng] spent all 
her Masts near Newfoundland, and had perished if Mr. 
Pierce in the Lyon her Consort had not towed her home 
to Bristol. Of the other Ships which returned fwj last 
Summer (d) 3, viz. the Charles, the Success & the Whale 
were fwj with 2 English Men of War (d) set upon fwj 
by 14 Dunkirks fdj near Plymouth in England : and af- 
ter a long Fight, having lost fwj 13 or 14 Men out of our 
3 Ships (d) and being much torn, especially the Charles 
fwj a stout Ship of 300 Tons, so torn that she had not 
much of her left whole above Water ; (d) they got into 
Plymouth. Of those who went back in the Ships [last] 
Summer for Fear of Death or Famine, many Dy'd by the 
Way, and after they were landed, and others fell very sick 
and languishing, fwj 

Feb. 10. The Frost breaks up in [Boston Harbour] : and 
it has been observ'd ever since this Bay was planted by 
English, viz. 7 Years, that the Frost hath broke up every 
Year at this Day. fwj 

The Poorer Sort of People who by long lying in Tents 
fwj and small Huts fjj are much afflicted with the Scur- 
vy, and many Die, especially at Boston and Charleston. 
And it has been always observ'd here, that such as fell 
into Discontent, and linger'd after their former Condi- 
tions in England, fell into the Scurvy & Died. Of the 
old Planters and such as came the Year before, there were 
but 2 which have the Scurvy in all the Country. At Plym- 
outh not any have it, no not of those who came this 
[last] Year, whereof there were above 60 : whereas at their 
1st Planting there, near half their People died of it. fwj 
Of which Mortality, it may be said of us almost as of the 


20 annals of new-england. Part. II. Sec. 2. 

K. of France. K. of Great- Britain. K. of Spain. 

1631 Lewi8XIII.|| Charles I. || Philip IV. 

^Egyptians, there is not an House wherein there was not 
one Dead, and in some Houses many. The natural 
Causes seem to be ; the Want of warm Lodging & good 
Diet, to which English [People] are habituated at Home ; 
and the sudden Increase of Heat they endured who 
landed here in the Summer ; the Salt Meats at Sea having 
prepared their Bodies thereto : For those only these 2 last 
Years Died of Fevers, who landed in June and July ; as 
those of Plymouth who [formerly] landed in Winter, 
died of the Scurvy ; as did our Poorer Sort, whose 
Houseing and Bedding kept them not sufficiently warm, 
nor their Diet sufficiently in Heart, fdj But when this 
Ship came, which bro't Store of Juice of Lemmons ; ma- 
ny recover speedily, fwj 

Feb. 18. * fwj Among others who died about this 
Time, was Mr. Robert Welden fdj a hopeful young 
Gentleman, and an experienc'd Soldier, fwj whom in 
the Time of his Sickness we had chosen to be Captain of 
100 Foot : but before He [cou'd] take his Place, He 
Dies fdj at Charleston of a Consumption, and is buried 
at Boston with a Military Funeral fwj 3 Voliies &c,fdj 

* D Gov Dudley's printed Letter says Feb, 16; but I chuse to 
keep to Gov Winthrop's Mss Journal. 

A Shallop of Mr. Glover's cast-away on the Rocks 
about Nehant ; but the Men are saved, fwj 

The Provisions came this [last] Year at excessive 
Rates, in Regard of the Dearness of Corn in Eng ; so as 
every Bushel of W r heat Meal stands us in 14s. Sterl. 
Peas lis ; &c. fwj besides the Adventure fdj Tunnage 
Z.6 11*. fwj which is 3 or 4s. a Strike : An higher Price 
than I ever tasted Bread before, fdj 

Feb. 22. We hold a Day of Thanksgiving for this Ship's 
Arrival, by Order from the Gov & Council, directed to 
all the Plantations fwj throughout the [Massachusetts] 
Colony, d. 

March 4. First Court of Assistant this Year at Boston : 
Present, Gov, D. Gov, Sir R. Saltonstall, Mr. Ludlow, 



K. of France, K. oi l* real-Britain. K. of Spain. 

1C31 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. |j Philip IV. 

Capt. Endicot, Mr. Pynchon, Nowell, [TJ Sharp, Cod- 
dington, Bradstreet. (\.) Ordered that 6 Persons be sent 
to Eng in the Ship Lyon, now returning thither, as Per- 
sons unmeet to inhabit here ; also that Sir Christopher 
Gardiner * & another be sent as Prisoners in her. (2.) A 
Man fined 1.5 for taking upon him to cure the Scurvy, 
by a Water of no Value, which he sold at a very dear 
Rate ; to be imprisoned till he pay his Fine, or give Se- 
curity for it, or else be whipt ; and shall be liable to any 
Man's Action of whom he has receiv'd Money for the 
said Water. (McrJ 

* Sir Christopher Gardiner; [who it seems came over the last 
Year] a great Traveller, receiv'd his 1st Honour of Knighthood at 
Jerusalem, being made Knight of the Sepulcher there, [who] came in- 
to these Parts under Pretence of forsaking the World and to live a 
private Life in a godly Course ; not unwilling to put himself on any 
mean Employments and take any Pains for his Living, and offers him- 
self to join to the Churches in sundry Places; [had] bro't over with 
him a Servant or two & a comely young Woman, whom he call'd his 
Cousin, but (is) suspected to be his Concubine; [first sojourn'd] in the 
Massachusetts, (br) 

March 8. From fair Day-light till 8 a m, fly over ail the 
Towns in our Plantations, so many Flocks of Doves ; each 
Flock containing many Thousands ; and some so many 
that they obscure the Light ; that it passeth Credit, if but 

the Truth should be written, they are all Turtles ; 

somewhat bigger than those of Europe ; and fly from N 
E to S W. (dj 

March 8. At a Court at Watertown : Present; Gov, D. 
Gov, Sir R. Saltonstali, Mr. Ludlow, Nowell, Pynchon, 
Coddington, Bradstreet. fi.J Sagamore John and [his 
Subject] Peter complaining of 2 Wigwams burnt, occa- 
sioned by a Servant of Sir, R. Saltonstali ; Ordered that 
Sir Richard satisfy the Indians ; which he did by 7 Yards 
of Cloth ; and that his Servant pay him for it at the End 
of his Time 50,?. [Sterl.] * : (2 J In Regard that the 
Number of Assistants is but few, and some of them are 
going for Eng ; Order'd, that when the Number of As- 


K. of France. K. of Great -Britain. K. of Spain. 

1631 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. |] Philip IV. 

sistants resident within this Jurisdiction shall be fewer 
than 9 ; it shall be lawful for the major Part of them 
to keep a Court ; and whatever Orders or Acts they 
make, shall be as legal & authentical, as if there were the 
full Number of 7 or more. (McrJ 

* [Said] Wigwams were not inhabited, but stood in a Place con- 
venient for their Shelter when they should travel that Way. By ex- 
amination we found that some English Fowlers having retir'd into that 
which belong'd to the Subject [of the Sagamore] and leaving a Fire 
therein carelessly, which they had kindled to warm them, were the 
Gause of Burning thereof. For that which was the Sagamore's [own] 
we could find no certain Proof how it was fired : Yet least he should 
think us not sedulous enough to find it out, and so should depart dis- 
contentedly from us; we gave both Him and his Subject Satisfaction 
for them both, (d) 

March 15. Dies at Salem, Mrs. Skelton the Wife of 
the Minister there : a godly, helpful Woman, liv'd de- 
sired, dies lamented, and well deserves to be honourably 
remembred. (d) 

The Ship Lyon now waits but for Wind, which when 
it blows [fair] there are ready to go aboard for Eng ; Sir 
R. Saltonstall, Mr [T] Sharp, Mr. Coddington and many 
others : the most of which purpose, if God will, to re- 
turn to us again. In the mean Time we are left a Peo. 
pie, poor and contemptible ; yet such as trust in God, 
and are contented with our Condition ; being well assur- 
ed, that he will not fail us nor forsake us. {d) 

March 16. * About Noon, the Chimney of Mr. [T] 
Sharp's House in Boston takes Fire ; and taking the 
Thatch, burns it down : and the Wind being N W, 
drives the Fire to Mr. Colbron's House, [some] Rods 
off, burns that down also, fwj Which Houses, as Good 
and as well furnished as the most in the Plantation, are 
in 2 Hours burned to the Ground, with much of their 
Houshold Stuff, Apparel, and other Things, as also some 
Goods of others who sojourned with them : God so pleas- 
ing to exercise us with this Kind of Correction : For 



K. of France. K. of Great- Britain. K. of Spain. 
1631 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip IV. 

Prevention whereof, in our new Town intended to 
be built this Summer; we have ordered that no Man 
There shall build his Chimney with Wood, nor cover 
his House with Thatch ; which was readily assented to ; 
for that diverse other Houses have been burned since 
our arrival, (d) 

[*In D. Gov Dudley's printed Letter tis March 17: but I keep 
to Gov Winthrop's Mss] 

March 22. Court of Assistant at Boston : Present Gov, 
D. Gov, Mr. Ludlow, Coddington, Nowel, Sir R. Salton- 
stall, Mr. Pynchon, [T] Sharp, Bradstreet. Order'd (1.) 
That Artificers be left at Liberty to agree for Wages : 
[See Aug. 23. 1630] (2.) That every Town within this Pa- 
tent, before April 5, take Care that every Person in them 
(excepting Magistrates and Ministers) as well Servants as 
others be furnish'd with sufficient Arms, allowable by the 
Captains or other Officers ; those who are able, to buy them; 
the Town to provide for those who are unable, and to 
receive Satisfaction from them when they are able: (3.) 
That all who have Cards, Dice or Tables in their Houses, 
shall make away with them before the next Court. (Mcr) 

March 23. Chickatabot [the chief Sachim of the Massa- 
chusetts] comes with his Sannups and Squaws [i. e. marri- 
ed Men and their Wives] to Boston, Presents the Gov 
with a Hogshead of Indian Corn. After they had all 
Dined, had each a Cup of Sack & Beer, and his Men 
Tobacco ; He sent away all his Men and Women : (tho' 
the Gov wou'd have stay'd them in Regard of the Rain 
& Thunder) Himself and 1 Squaw and 1 Sannup stay all 
Night: and [He] being in English Cloaths, the Gov 
sets Him at his Table ; where he behaves himself as so- 
berly &c. as an Englishman. Next Day, after Dinner, 
they return Home ; the Gov giving him Cheese and 
Pease, a Mug and some other Things, (w) 

March 25. One of Watertown having lost a Calf; about 
10 at Night hearing the Howling of Wolves, raises his 
Neighbours out of their Beds, that by discharging their 


4 VOL. VII. 


K. of France, K. of Great-Britain* K< of Spain. 
1631 Lewis XII I. || Charles I. II Philip IV. 

Muskets, they might put the Wolves to Flight and save 
his Calf: the Wind serving to carry the Report of the 
Muskets to Roxbury, the Inhabitants There take ah 
Alarm, beat up their Drum, arm themselves, and send in 
Post to us to Boston : [But] in the Morning, the Calf is 
found safe, our Danger past, &c. (d) 

March 28. D. Gov. Dudley seals his Letter at Boston 
in the Massachusetts-Bay to the Countess of Lincoln ; 
wherein he writes as follows. 

Having some Leisure to discourse of the Motives for other Mens 
coming to this Place, or their abstaining from it ; after my brief Man- 
ner, I say this ; That if any come hither to Plant for Worldly Ends 
that can live well at Home, he commits an Error of which he will 
soon repent him. But if for Spiritual, he may find here what may 
well content him ; viz. Materials to build, Fewel to burn, Ground 
to plant, Seas and Rivers to fish in, a pure air to breath in, 
good Water to drink till Wine or Beer can be made; which 
with the Cows, Hoggs and Goats bro't hither already, may suffice 
for Food. For Cloaths and Bedding, they must bring them with 
them, till Time and Industry produce them Here. In a Word, we 
yet enjoy little to be envied, but endure much to be pittied, in the 
Sickness and Mortality of our People. If any godly Men out of Re- 
ligious Ends will come over to help us in the good Work we are 
about ; I think they cannot dispose of themselves, nor their Estates 
more to God's Glory, and the Furtherance of their own reckoning : 
But they must not be of the poorer Sort yet for divers Years. — And 
for profane and debauched Persons ; their Oversight in coming hither, 
is wondred at, where they shall find nothing to content them. If 
there be any endued with Grace, and furnished with Means to feed 
themselves and their's for 18 Months, and to build and Plant; let 
them come into our Macedonia and help us, and not spend themselves 
and their Estates in a less profitable Employment : For others, I con- 
ceive they are not yet fitted for this Business, (d) 

March 29. Sir R. Saltonstall, and his 2 Daughters, and 
1 of his younger Sons, (his 2 Elder still remaining in the 
Country) come down to Boston, stay this Night with 
the Governour : (w) and 



K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1631 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip IV. 

March 30. This Morning, at 7, They, with Mr. Pierce 
and others in 2 Shallops, depart [for] the Ship at Salem. 
Mr. [T.] Sharp goes away at the same Time in another 
Shallop. At 10, Mr. Coddington, Mr. Wilson, and di- 
vers of the Congregation meet at the Governou'rs, and 
there Mr. Wilson praying and exhorting the Congregation 
to Love, recommends to them [in their Necessity] the 
Exercise of Prophesy [i. e. Exhorting to Christian Du- 
ties] in his Absence, and designed those whom he thought 
most fit for it, viz. the Gov, Mr. Dudley, and Mr. Noweli 
the Elder ; [who were men of eminent Piety and Learn- 
ing.] Then he desires the Gov. to commend Himself 
& the Rest to God in Prayer : which being done, they 
accompany him to the Boat ; and so they go over to 
Charlestown, to go by Land to the Ship : which sets 
Sail from Salem April 1, * and arrives at London (all 
safe) April 29. (w) 

* Mr. Hubbard therefore mistakes, in placing their going from Bos- 
ton, on April 1 : as also in placing after this, the Account of Capt. 
Pierce's carrying the Ambrose into Bristol, and the Fight at Sea, 
mention'd under Feb. 5. last 

April 4. Wahgumacut a Sagamore up the River Con- 
aatacut, which lies W of Narraganset, comes to the Gov 
at Boston, with John Sagamore & Jack Straw an Indian 
who had liv'd in England [with] Sir Walter Raleigh and 
divers of their Sannups, and brings a Letter to the Gov 
from Mr. Endicot to this Effect ; that the said Wahgum is 
very desirous to have some English to plant in his Coun- 
try, and offers to find them Corn, and give them yearly 
80 Skins of Bever ; [says] the Country is very fruitful,and 
wishes there may be 2 Men sent with him to see the Coun- 
try. The Gov entertains them at Dinner ; but would send 
none with him : discovers after, that the said Sagamore is 
a very treacherous Man, and at War with the Pekash [or 
Pequots, under] a far greater Sagamore. His Country is 
not above 5 Days Journey from us by Land, fwj 

April 12. Court of Assistants at Boston : Present the 
Gov, D. Gov, Mr. Ludlow, Noweli, Pynchon, Bradstreet. 
Order'd (1.) That a Watch of 4 be kept every Night 


26 annals of new-england. Part IT. Sec. 2. 

K of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1631 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip IV. 

at Dorchester, and another of 4 at Watertown, to begin at 
Sun-set : (2.) That whoever shoots off any Peece after 
the Watch is set, shall forfeit 40s ; or if the Court judge 
him unable, then to be whipt : (3.) That every Man 
who finds a Musket, shall before the 18th of this Month, 
and so always after have ready 1 Pound of Powder, 20 
Bullets, and 2 Fathom of Match, under Penalty of 10$. for 
every Fault: (4.) That every Captain shall train his 
Company every Saturday: (5.) That none shall travel 
single between their Plantations and Plymouth ; nor with- 
out some Arms, tho' 2 or 3 together. fMcrJ (6.) Upon 
Information that they of Salem had calPd Mr. [Roger] 
Williams to the Office of a Teacher ; a Letter is written 
from the Court to Mr. Endicot to this Effect ; That 
whereas Mr. Williams had refused to join with the Con- 
gregation at Boston, because they would not make a pub- 
lick Declaration of their Repentance for having Com- 
munion with the Churches of England while they lived 
There, and besides had declared his Opinion that the 
Magistrate might not punish the Breach of the Sabbath, 
nor any other Offence as it was a Breach of the first Table ; 
therefore they, [i. e, the Court] marvelled they would 
chuse him without advising with the Counsel ; and with- 
all advising him that they would forbare to proceed till 
they had confer'd about it. (w) 

April 13. Chickatabot comes to the Gov, and desires to 
buy some English Cloaths for Himself: the Gov tells him 
that English Sagamores did not use to truck ; but calls his 
Taylor and gives him Order to make him a Suit of Cloths : 
whereupon he gives the Gov 2 large Skins of Coat Bever : 
and after He and his Men had dined, they depart, and 
said they would come for his Suit 3 Days after, fwj 

April 15. Chickatabot comes to the Gov again ; [who] 
puts him into a good new Suit from Head to Foot : and 
after, sets Meat before him ; but he would not eat, till 
the Gov had given Thanks ; and after Meat, desired him 
to do the like, and so departed, fxvj 


ANNALS OF NEW-ENGLAND. Part. II. Sec. 2. 27 

K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1631 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip IV. 

April 21. The House of Jo Page of Waterton burnt : 
by carrying a few Coals from one House to another, a 
Coal fell by the Way and kindled the Leaves, (w) 

May 3. Court of Assistants at Boston : Present Gov, 
D. Gov, Mr. Ludlow, Capt. Endicot, Mr. Nowell, Pyn- 
chon, Bradstreet. [A Man] fined 10/. and He and his 
Wife, enjoin'd to depart this Patent before Oct. 20, un- 
der Pain of Confiscation of Goods ; for Contempt of Au- 
thority and confronting Officers. (Mcr.) 

8 Sir Christopher [Gardiner having been] accused to 

* have 2 Wives in Eng, was sent for ; but had Intelli- 
8 gence and escaped, and travePd up and down among 
c the Indians ( w) especially in Plymouth Colony (br) 
8 about a Month : But by Means of the Gov of Plymouth, 

* is taken by the Indians about Namasket, and bro't to 

* Plymouth : (w) [When] the Indians came to Gov 
8 [Bradford] and told where he was, and asked if they 
8 might kill him ; he told them No, by no Means, but 
' watch their Opportunity and take him : And so [after 
8 a vigorous Fray] they did, and bro't him to Gov Brad- 

* ford.] In his Lodging those who made his Bed, found 
'a little Note-book which by Accident had slipt out 
8 of his Pocket, or some private Place ; in which was a 
8 Memorial what Day he was reconciled to the Pope and 
8 Church of Rome, and in what University he took his 
8 Scapula, and such and such Degrees. It being bro't 

* to Gov [Bradford ;] he keeps it, and sends Him and the 
8 Notes to Gov [Winthrop] (br) [being] bro't by Capt. 
8 Underhill, and his Lieut, on May 4. to Boston, (w) 
8 Gov Winthrop takes it very thankfully, (br) and 
8 May 5. 1631, writes to Gov [Bradford] the following 
8 Letter, (br) 

1 Sir, It hath pleased God to bring Sir Christopher Gardiner safe to 
' us, with those that came with him. And howsoever I never intended 
' any hard Measure to him, but to respect and use him according to his 
' Quality ; yet I let him know your Care of him, and that he shall speed 
' the better for your Mediation. It was a special Providence of God to 
' bring those Notes of his to our Hands. I desire you will please to speak 


28 annals of new-england. Part. II. Sec. 2. 

K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1631 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip IV. 

' to all who are privy to them, not to discover them to any one ; for 
c that may frustrate any further use to be made of them. The good 
'* Lord our God, who hath always ordered Things for the Good of his 

* poor Churches here, direct us in this aright, and dispose it to a good 

* Issue. I am sorry we put you to so much Trouble about this Gen- 

* tleman ; especially at this Time of great Employment : But I knew 

■ not how to avoid it. I must again intreat you to let me know what 
' Charge and Trouble any of your People have been at about him ; 

* that it may be recompenced. So with the true Affection of a Friend ; 

■ desiring all Happiness to yourself & yours, and to all my worthy 

* Friends with you, whom I love in the Lord ; I commend you to his 
' Grace and good Providence, and rest 

Your most assured Friend, 

John Winthrop, (br) 

But after Sir Christopher gets to Eng, he shows his 
Malice ; but God prevents him. (br) [See next Year] 

May 16. An Alarm to all our Towns in the Night, by 
a Peece shot off; (but where, cou'd not be known) and 
the Indians having sent us Word the Day before, that 
the Mohawks are coming down against them and us. 

May 18. Wednesday, [and not 17, as by a Mistake in 
Gov Winthrop] General Court at Boston : Present Mr. 
Winthrop Gov, Mr. Dudley D. Gov, Mr. Ludlow, Capt. 
Endicot, Mr. Nowell, Pynchon, Bradstreet, Assistants. 
John Winthrop, Esq; chosen Gov for this Year by 
the general Consent of the Court, and Thomas Dudley, 
Esq; D. Gov.* (1.) For Explanation of an Order of last 
General Court of Oct. 19, now ordered with full Consent 
of all the Company present ; that once every Year at least 
a General Court be holden, at which it shall be lawful for 
the Commons to propound any Person or Persons whom 
they shall desire to be chosen Assistants. (2.) The like 
Course to beheld, when the said Commons shall see Cause 
for any Defect or Misbehaviour to remove any one or more 
of the Assistants : And (3. ) To the End the Body of the 
Commons may be preserv'd of honest and good Men ; 
Qrdcr'tf and agreed that for the Time to come, no Man 



K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1631 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip IV. 

be admitted to the Freedom of this Body Politick, but 
such as are Members of some of the Churches within 
the Limits of the same. (4.) Thomas Williams having 
undertaken to set up a Ferry between Winnesemet and 
Charleston ; he is to have 3d. a Person, and from Winne. 
semet to Boston 4d. (5.) Chickatabot and Sagamore John 
promise the Court to make Satisfaction for whatever 
Wrong any of their Men shall do, to any of the English, 
to their Cattle or any otherwise. (6.) 116 take the Oath 
of Freemen, of whom are 

1 Mr. John Maverick, 

2 Mr. John Warham, 

3 Mr. William Blackstone, 

4 Mr. George Philips, 
Mr. Richard Brown, 
Capt. Daniel Patrick, 
Capt John Underhill, 

5 Mr. Thomas Graves, 

6 Capt. Walter Norton, 

7 Mr. William Colbron, 

8 Mr. Roger Conant, 

9 Thomas Stoughton, 
Robert Seely, 
William Agar, 

Mr. William Clarke, 
William Noddle,t 

10 William Balstone, 

11 Mr. George Alcock, 

12 Robert Moulton, 
Mr. Edward Belchar, 

13 Roger Williams, 

Mr. Richard Saltonstall, 

14 Edward Gibbons, 

15 Mr. William Jeffry, 

16 Edward Converse, 

17 Mr. John Dillingham, 

18 Thomas Lamb, 

19 Mr. Edward Johnson, &c. 


* In the like Manner did the Choice proceed among the Assist- 
ants, (h) [And that which makes me think Mr. Bradstreet was again 
chosen Secretary, is ; that in the Mcr, the Title of Captain is always 
put before Endicot, and of Mr. prefixed to every other Assistant, but 
Defore his own name He in Excess of Modesty only puts the Letter S.] 

t Perhaps Noddle's-Island might derive its name from him. 

[N. B. Those number'd are mention'd as desiring Freedom on 
Oct. 19. 1630 : and now as taking their Oaths to the Government.] 

At Noon a House burnt down, all the People being 
present, (w) 

May 27. There comes from Virginia into Salem a 
Pinace of 18 Tuns, laden with Corn and Tobacco: was 
bound to the North ; and [happily] put in here by fowl 
Weather : she sells her Corn at 10*. [Sterl.] the Bushel. 



30 ANNAts Otf new-england. Part II. Sec. 2. 

K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1631 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip IV. 

June 14. Court at Boston : Present Gov, D. Gov, Mr. 
Ludlow, Capt. Endicot, Mr. Nowell, Mr. Pynchon, S. 
Bradstreet, Order'd (1.) That none shall travel out of this 
Patent by Sea or Land without Leave from the Gov, D. 
Gov or some Assistant, under such Penalty as the Court 
shall think meet to inflict : (2. ) Mr. John Maisters hav- 
ing undertaken to make a Passage from Charles-River to 
the new Town, 12 Feet broad, and 7 deep ; the Court 
promises him Satisfaction : (3.) Order'd, that none buy 
Corn or other Provision, or any Merchantable Commo- 
dity of any Ship or Bark that comes into this IJay, with- 
out Leave from the Gov or some Assistant : (4.) Edward 
Converse having undertaken to set up a Ferry between 
Charlestown and Boston ; he is to have 2d, for a single 
Person, and Id, a [Person] if there be 2 or more. (McrJ 

June 25. [not 14, as by Mistake in Mr. Hubbard] 
comes [to Boston] a Shallop from Piscatoway, which brings 
News of a small English Ship come thither with Provi- 
sions, and some Frenchmen to make Salt. By this Boat 
Capt. Neal Gov of Piscatoway sends a Pacquet of Letters 
to Gov [Winthrop] directed to Sir Christopher Gardiner; 
which are opened because directed to one who is our Pri- 
soner, and had declared himself an III- Wilier to our Gov- 
ernment : which when the Gov opened, he finds it came 
from Sir FeMinando Gorges : in the Packet is [another] 
Letter to Thomas Morton (sent Prisoner before to Eng) 
By both which Letters it appears, He [i. e. Sir Ferdi- 
nand] had some Design to recover his pretended Right to 
Part of the Massachusetts-Bay, and repos'd much Trust 
in Sir Christopher, (w) 

June 27. Come to Gov [Winthrop] Letters out of the 
White-Angel, lately arriv'd at Saco : [which] bro't Cows, 
Goats, Hogs, and many Provisions both for the Bay and 
Plymouth : Mr. Allerton returns [hither] in this Ship ; 
and by him we hear that the Friendship, which put out 
from Bastable [some] Weeks before the Angel was forc'd 
Home again by a Tempest, (w) 



K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1631 Lewis XIII. f) Charles I. || Philip IV. 

July 4 The Bark which Gov [Winthrop] built at Mis- 
tick, launch'd ; and call'd the Blessing of the Bay. fwj 

July 5. Court of Assistant at Boston : Present Gov, D. 
Gov, Mr. Ludlow, Mr. Nowell> Mr. Pynchon, S. Brad- 
street : (1.) Order'd there be levy'd out of the several 
Plantations, Z.30 for making the Creek from Charles- Riv- 
er to Newtown, viz. 

1 Winesemet 

Z.O 15s 1 

6 Boston 


2 Wesaguscus 


7 Dorchester 



3 Saugus 


8 Roxbury 


4 Natasket 


9 Salem 


5 Waterton 



10 Charlestown 

1 omitfpfll 




(2.) That every Assistant have Power to grant War- 
rants, Summons and Attachments : (3.) The Sagamore 
of oAgawam [after, called Ipswich] is banished from com- 
ing into any Englishman's House for a Year, under Pen- 
alty of 10 Beverskins. (Mcr) 

July 6. A small Ship of 60 Tun arrives at Natasket, 
[T] Graves Master : brings 10 Passengers from London : 
They came with a Patent for Sagadehock ; fwj but not 
liking the Place, they come hither : their Ship draws 10 
Foot, goes up to Waterton, but runs a-ground twice by 
the Way fwj and lays her bones there, fhj These were 
the Company call'd the Husbandmen, and their Ship call'd 
the Plow : fwj their Patent call'd the Plow-Patent : fhj 
the most of them prove Familists ; and fwj soon after 
fhj vanish away, fwj 

July 14. The Ship Friendship of Barstable arrives at 
Natasket ; had been at Sea eleven Weeks, and beaten back 
again by fowl Weather ; set sail from Barstable again, 
about the Middle of May ; [and] lands here 8 Heifers, 
1 Calf and 5 Sheep, (w) 

July 21. The Gov, D. Gov, and Mr. Nowell, the Elder 
of the Congregation at Boston, go to Waterton, to confer 
with Mr. Phillips the Pastor and Mr. Brown the Elder 


5 VOL. VII. 

32 annals of new-england. Part II. Sec. 2. 

K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain, 
1631 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip IV. 

of the Congregation there, about an Opinion they had 
published that the Churches of Rome were true Churches: 
the Matter is debated before many of both Congregati- 
ons, and by the Approbation of all the Assembly, except 
3, is concluded an Error, (rv) 

July 22, The White- Angel comes into the Bay, [and] 
lands there 21 Heifers, (w) 

July 26. Court at Boston : Present Gov, D. Gov, Mr. 
Ludlow, Capt. Endicot, Mr. Nowell, Mr. Pynchon, S. 
Brad street. Order'd (1.) That there be a Watch of 6, 
and an Officer kept t:\>^\-y Night at Boston ; 2 whereof to 
be of Bosron, 2 oi Charleston, and 2 of Roxbury : (2.) 
That every 1st Thursday in every Month there be a 
general Training of Capt, Underbill's Company at Boston 
and Roxbury ; and every 1st Friday in every Month, 
there be a general Training of the Remainder of them 
[who] inhabit at Charleston, Mistick and the new Town, 
at a convenient Place about the Indian W r igvvams : the 
Trainings to begin at 1 p. m : (3.) Mr. Francis Aleworth 
chosen Lieut, to Capt. Southcot ; and Capt Southcot hath 
Liberty to go for Eng, promising to return with all con- 
venient Speed. ( Mcr) 

July 26. A small Bark of Salem of about 12 Tun, 
coming towards the Bay ; 3 of Mr. Cradock's Fishermen 
being in her, 2 Tun of Stores & 3 Hogsheads of Train 
Oyi, is overset in a Gust : and being buyed up by the 
Oyl, floats up h down 48 Hours, and the Men sitting on 
her ; till a Boat coming by, espies & saves them, (xv) 

July 29. The Friendship sets sail for Christopher- 
Island, (xv) 

' July 30. The white Angel falls down for Plymouth : 
* but the Wind not serving comes to an Anchor ; and a 
' Week after runs a-ground near the Gurnet's Nose, (xv) 

Aug. 8. The Tarrentines, [i. e. Eastern Indians] to the 
Number of 100, come in 30 Canoes; and in the Night 
assault the Wigwam of the Sagamore of Agawam by Mer- 
rimack, slay 7 Men, and wound John Sagamore, and Jones 
and some others (whereof some, after, Dye) and rifle a 
Wigwam where Mr. Craddock's Men kept to catch Stur- 
geon, taking away their Nets, Biskets, &c. (xv) Aug. 

N. B. (l.)TN the 2d Section, and thence forward we set 
_Lthe chief Stage of our Annals at Boston. 

(2.) The Articles of Plymouth Colony we shall distin- 
guish by single Comma's ; and of Connecticut and New- 
Haven Colonies by double Comma's. 

(3.) The Monies in this 2d Section are yet accounted 

(4.) As we are now about Foundations, we propose to 
be larger in these 2 Years 1630, and 1631, than others. 

(6.) Our Marks of Reference are These, 
At the Top of the Page — ||, Peace ; j, War. 

b, Beginning ; m Middle ; e, End, of a Month. 
bcr, Boston Church Records, in Mss. 

bp Book of Patents, in Mss. 

btr, Boston Town Records, in Mss. 

br, Gov Bradford's History, in Mss. 

c, Capt. Clapp's Memoirs. 

Ccr, Connecticut Colony Records, in Mss. 
ctr, Charlestown Records, in Mss. 

d, D. Gov Dudley's Letter to the Countess of Lincoln. 
fl 3 Fuller's Church History of Britain. 

g, Ferdinando Gorges, Esq; History of New-England. 
h, Rev. Mr. Wm. Hubbard's History of New-Eng, in Mss. 
he, Harvard College Records, in Mss. 
her, Hingham Church Records, in Mss, 
lis, Howes Annals of England. 
j, Capt. Johnson's History of New-England. 
im, Dr. Increase Mather. 

mo, Mr. Morton Secretary of Plymouth Colony's Memorial, 
Mcr, Massachusetts Colony Records, in Mss. 
ml, Manuscript Letter. 
mss, Manuscript. 

Ncr, New-Haven Colony Records, in Mss. 
jPcr, Plymouth Colony Records, in Mss. 
pn, Pointer's Chronological Historian. 
rev, Roxbury Church Records, in Mss. 
Rr, Rhode-Island Colony Records, in Mss. 
s, Salmon's Chronological Historian. 
sd, Rev. Mr. Samuel Danforth. 
w, Gov Winthrop's Journal, in Mss. 
The other Marks are Common — as, 
E, East ; W , West ; N , North ; S , South ; N E, North East, &c. 
D, Duke ; E, Earl ; L, Lord ; P, Prince ; Q, Queen ; Gov, Governor : 
D. Gov, Deputy Governor ; &c. 






Cicero, De Oratore. 
Nescire quid antca quam natus sis acciderit, id semper est esse Puerum* 

i. e. 

Not to know what came to pass before you were Born, is always to remain a Child* 



(Price Six Pence Lawful Money each Number.) 


N. B. (1.) r|lHE Articles of Plymouth Colony are mark'd by single 
1 Comma's ; and of Connecticut and other Governments, 
by double Comma's. 

(2.) The Monies in this 2d Section, are yet accounted Sterling. 

(3.) As we are now about Foundations, we propose to be larger in 
these 10 Years, viz. from 1630, to 1640, than others. 

(4.) Our Marks of Reference are These, 

At the Top of the Page — 1|, Peace ; i, War. 

b, Beginning ; m, Middle ; e, End, of a Month. 
bcr, Boston Church Records, in Mss. 

bp, Book of Patents, in Mss. 

Mr, Boston Town Records, in Mss. 

br, Gov Bradford's History, in Mss. 

c, Capt. Clapp's Memoirs. 

cb, Continuation of Sir R. Baker. 

Ccr, Connecticut Colony Records, in Mss. 

cm, Dr. Cotton Mather. 

ctr, Charlestown Records, in Mss. 

d, D. Gov Dudley's Letter to the Countess of Lincoln. 
//, Fuller's Church History of Britain. 

g, Ferdinando Georges, Esq; History of New-England. 

h, Rev. Mr. Wm. Hubbard's History of New-England, in Mss. 

he, Harvard College Records, in Mss. 

her, Hingham Church Records, in Mss. 

hs, Howes Annals of England. 

j, Capt. Johnson's History of New-England. 

im, Dr. Increase Mather. 

Id, Bp Laud's Diary. 

It, Bp Laud's Tryal. 

mo, Mr. Morton Secretary of Plymouth Colony's Memorial, 

Mcr, Massachusetts Colony Records, in Mss. 

ml, Manuscript Letter. 

mss, Manuscript. 

JYcr, New-Haven Colony Records, in Mss. 

Fcr, Plymouth Colony Records in Mss. 

pn, Pointer's Chronological Historian. 

rcr, Roxbury Church Records, in Mss. 

Mr, Rhode-Island Colony Records, in Mss. 

s, Salmon's Chronological Historian. 

sd, Rev. Mr. Samuel Danforth, 

w, Gov Winthrop's Journal, in Mss. 

The other Marks are Common — as, 

E,East; W, West ; N, North ; S, South ; N E, North East, &c. 
D, Duke ; K, King ; L, Lord ; P, Prince ; Q, Queen ; Gov, Gov- 
ernor ; D. Gov, Deputy Governor ; Eng, England ; N. Eng, New- 
England : &c. 


K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1631 Lewis XIII. |f Charles I. || Philip IV. 

[Mr. Hubbard says] they wound John and James, two 
Sagamores that liv'd about Boston, and carry others away 
Captive, among whom is the wife of said James : and 
that The [said] Sagamore of Agawam (as was usually 
said) had treacherously kili'd some of the Tarratine Fami- 
lies ; and was therefore less pittied by the English. [But 
Mr. Hubbard has misplaced this in 1632.] 

[And Capt. Johnson says] the Indians most conversant 
among us come quaking and complaining of the Tarra- 
tines, a barbarous & cruel People ; who they said would 
eat such Men as they caught alive, tying them to a Tree, 
and gnawing their Flesh by Piece-meals off their Bones ; 
as also that they were a strong and numerous People, 
and now a coming ; which made them flee to the English, 
who are but very few in Number, and can make but 
little Resistance, being much dispersed : yet we keep 
a constant Watch, neglecting no Means for our Safety ; 
so that we are exceedingly weakened with continued La- 
bour, watching and hard Diet: but the Lord upholds in 
all : [and that] near Sawgus, in the dead of the Night 
(being on their Watch because of the Report of the In- 
dians Approach) Lieut. Walker, a Man indued with 
Faith and a couragious Spirit, coming to relieve the 
Centinel, they of a sudden hear the Sticks [break near] 
them, and withal He felt something brush hard on his 
Shouider, which was an Indian Arrow shot through his 
Coat and the Wing of his buff' Jacket. Upon this He 
discharges his Culliver toward the Place where they 
heard the Noise, which being deeply loaden breaks in 
Pieces: then they return to the Court of Guaid; com- 
ing to the Light, they perceive He has another Arrow 
shot thro' his Coat between his Legs ; stand on their 
Guard till Morning, expecting the Indians to come upon 
them every Moment : when Day-light appears, they send 
Word to other Parts, [whence divers] gather together; 
and to quit themselves of these Indians, discharge their 
great Guns ; the redoubling Eccho rattling in the Rocks 



K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1631 Lewis XIII. j| Charles I. || Philip IV. 

causes the Indians to betake themselves to Flight ; or 
rather He who put such trembling Fear in the Syrian 
Army, strikes the like in these cruel Canniballs. 

Aug. 16. Court of Assistants at Boston : Present, Gov, 
D. Gov, Mr. Ludlow, Nowell, Pynchon, S. Bradstreet : 
(1.) Four Men lined 5 Marks a Piece [a Mark is 13,?. Ad. 
Sterling] for drinking too much aboard the Friendship, 
and at Mr. Maverick's House at Winesemet : (2,) Mr. 
William Gennison chosen Ensign to Capt. Patrick. (Mcr) 
[I mention this to show that the Court of Assistants now 
chuse Military Officers.] 

4 [About this Time, as I judge] Ashley at Penobscut, 
4 for trading Powder and Shot with the Indians, contrary 
4 to his Bond [to the Plimouth Undertakers] is by some 
4 Authority seiz'd, and sent Prisoner to England ; and 
4 Penobscut [Trade] is now wholly at their disposing, (br) 

< Sept. 6. The White- Angel sails for Marble-Harbour ; 
4 (w) and so with Mr. Allerton and Hatherly to Bristol, 
4 where they arrive before Nov. 16. 1631 : Mr. Allerton 
4 being no more employed by the Plantation [of Pli- 
4 mouth.] (br.) 

Sept. 6. Court of Assistants at Boston : Present Gov, D. 
Gov, Mr. Ludlow, Nowell, Pynchon, S. Bradstreet : (Mcr) 
(I.) a young Fellow soliciting an Indian Squaw to In- 
continency, her Husband and She complaining of his 
Carnage ; (w) order that He be severely whipt [therefor] 
(ilfcr) Her Husband and She are present at the Execu- 
tion, and very well satisfied: fwj (2.) Upon this it is 
propounded, Whether Adultery either with English or 
Indian shall not be punished with Death ? refer'd to the 
next Court to be considered. (Mcr) 

Sept. 17. Mr. Shurt fwj or Shurd fhj of Pemaquid 
sends Home to Agawam, James Sagamore's Wife, who 
had been taken away [in] the Surprize at Agawam ; and 
writes that the Indians demand Fathoms of Wompam- 
peag, and Skins for her ransom, fwj 


annals of n e w-en cl AjtfD. Part II. Sec. 2. 35 

K. of France. 1C of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1631 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. | Philip IV. 

Sept. 27. Court of Assistants at Boston : Present Gov, 
D. Gov, Mr. Ludlow, Nowell, Pynchon, S. Bradstreet : 
Order that a Man for stealing 4 Baskets of Corn from 
the Indians (McrJ viz. from Chickatabut and his Men, 
who are present (wj shall return them 8 Baskets, be fined 
L. 5, and hereafter call'd Josias, and not Mr. as formerly ; 
and that 2 others (Mcr) viz. his Servants fxuj be whipt 
for being accessory to the same Offence. {McrJ 

Oct. 18. Court of Assistants at Boston : Present Gov, 
D. Gov. Mr. Ludlow, Capt. Endicot, Mr. NoweU, Pyn- 
chon, S. Bradstreet : Order (1.) That if any Man have car- 
nal Copulation with another Man's Wife, they shall both 
be punished with Death : (2.) That a Man's House at 
Marble-Harbour be pulled down, and no Englishman give 
Him House-room, or entertain Him under such Penalty 
as the Court shall think meet ; (3.) That Corn shall pass 
for Payment of all Debts at the usual Rate 'tis sold for, 
except Money or Bever be expressly named. (McrJ 

Oct. 22. Gov. [Winthrop] receives a Letter from Capt. 
Wiggin of Pascataquack, [sometimes wrote Pascataqua, 
but commonly called Pascatowa] informing of a Murther 
committed the 3d of this Month, at Richmond Isle (wj 
being a Part of a Tract of Land granted to Mr. Trelane, 
a Plimouth Merchant [in England] where he had setued a 
Place for Fishing, built a Ship there, and improved many- 
Servants for Fishing and Planting, (scj by an Indian 
Sagamore called Squidecasset, and his Company, on one 
Walter Bagnall, and one Jo P, who kept with him ; having 
kill'd them, burnt their House over them, and carried 
away their Guns, and what else they liked ; perswading 
the Gov to send 20 Men presently to take Revenge : But 
the Gov advising with some of the Council, tho't best to 
set still a while ; partly because he heard that Captain 
Neal, &c. were gone after them, partly because of the 
Frost and Snow, and want of Boats fit for that Expe- 
dition. This Bagnall was sometime Servant to one in 
the Bay, and these 3 Years had dwelt alone in the said 


VOL. Til. 


K of France. K. of Great-Britain. K, of Spain. 
1631 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip IV. 

Isle, and had got about L 400, was a wicked Fellow, and 
had much wrong'd the Indians, fwj 

Oct. 25. Gov. [Winthrop] with Capt. Underhill and 
other Officers, go a Foot to Sawgus ; [after called Lyn] 
and next Day to Salem ; where they are courteously en- 
tertained by Capt. Endicot, &c. and the 28th return'd by 
Mistick to Boston, fwj 

A plentiful Crop [in the Massachusetts.] fwj 
Oct. 30. Gov [Winthrop] having erected a Building 
of Stone at Mistick ; there comes so violent a Storm of 
Rain for 24 Hours from N E and S E, as (being laid 
with Clay instead of Lime, and not finished) two Sides 
of it are wash'd down to the Ground ; and much Harm 
done to other Houses by the Storm : [and] Mr. Pyn- 
chon's Boat coming from Sagadehock is cast away at 
Cape- Ann : but the Men and chief Goods saved, and the 
Boat recovered. (%vj 

According to the Agreement of Gov. Winthrop, D. Gov. 
Dudley and Assistants, on Dec. 28 last, to build at New- 
town ; D. Gov. Dudley, Secretary Bradstreet and other prin- 
cipal Gentlemen, in the Spring went forward with their De- 
sign, and intended to carry it on amain. The Gov has the 
Frame of his House set up where he first pitch'd his Tent : 
and Mr. Dudley had not only fram'd, but finished his 
House there, and remov'd his Family thereinto before 
Winter : But on other Considerations, which at first came 
not into their Minds ; the Gov. [about this Time as I 
guess] takes down his Frame and brings it to Boston ; 
where He intends to take up his [abode] for the future : 
which is no small Disappointment to the Rest of tlie 
Company who were minded to build [at Newtown,] and 
accompanied with some Disgust between the two chief 
Gentlemen ; but they are soon after satisfied with the 
Grounds of each others proceedings : * Mr. Dudley and 
others, being without any settled Minister, till Mr. 
Hooker comes over in 1633 ; Gov Winthrop still conti- 

ANNALS OF NEW-ENGLAND. Part. II. Sec. 2. 37 

K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1631 Lewis XIII. J Charles I. || Philip IV. 

nuing at Boston, which is like to be the Place of chiefest 
Commerce, He prepares his dwelling accordingly, (h) 

* Governor Winthrop eives this as one Reason of Removing his 
House to Boston ; viz. that the People at Boston had under all 
their Hands petition'd Hhn, that according to the Promise He made 
them when they first set down with Him, at Boston, (viz. that He 
would not remove except they went with Him) He would not leave 
them, (w) 

Nov. 2. The Ship Lyon, William Pierce Master, ar- 
rives at Natasket, [with] Gov [Winthrop's] Wife, his 
eldest Son [Mr. John Winthrop, Jum] and Wife and 
other of his Children, Mr. [John] Elliot a Minister, and 
other Friends, being about 60 persons, all in Health, 
having been ten Weeks at Sea ; and lost none of their 
Company but two Children, whereof one was the Gov- 
ernor's Daughter, about one year and half old. Nov. 3. 
The Wind being contrary, the Ship stays at Long-Island : 
But the Gov's Son comes ashore, and the Gov. goes to 
the Ship, abides all Night : Next Morning, Nov. 4. Yhe 
Wind coming fair, [the Ship] comes to an Anchor be- 
fore Boston ; the Gov. his Wife and Children come 
ashore with Mr. Pierce, in his Ship's Boat : The Ship 
gives them 7 [guns] at their Landing ; the Captains with 
their Companies in Arms, entertain them with a Guard 
and divers Vollies, and 3 Drakes : [a Sort of great Guns, 
perhaps invented by Sir Francis Drake] and divers of 
the Assistants and most of the People of the near Planta- 
tions come to welcome them> and bring and send (for 
divers Days) great Store of Provisions, as fat Hogs, 
Kids, Venison, Poultrey, Geese, Partridges, &c. so as 
the like Joy and Manifestation of Love had never been 
seen in New-England. It was a great Marvel that so 
many People, and such Store of Provisions could be 
gathered together at so few Hours warning, fwj 

[The Rev.] Mr. Elliot left his intended Wife in En- 
gland, to come next Year : frprj soon (cm) joins to the 
Church at Boston : and there exercises in the absence of 


38 annals of new-england. Part. II. Sec. 2. 

K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1631 Lewis XIII. II Charles I. |j Philip IV. 

Mr. Wilson the Pastor, who was gone back to England 
for his Wife and Family, (rcr) 

Nov. 11. We keep a Day of Thanksgiving at Boston, 


Nov. 17. Gov. [Bradford] of Plimouth comes to 
Boston, and lodges in Mr. Pierce's Ship, (w) 

Nov. 23. Mr. Pierce goes down to his Ship at Natas- 
ket : divers go Home with Him to England by Virginia ; 
as Sir R. Saltonstall's eldest Son and others; and are 6 
Weeks going to Virginia, (w) 

The Congregation at Waterton, whereof Mr. George 
Phillips is Pastor had chosen [Mr.] Richard Brown [see 
the List of Oct. 19. 1630.] for their Elder before named ; 
who persisting in his Opinion of the Truth of the Roman 
Church, and maintaining other Errors, and being a Man 
of a very violent Spirit, the Court wrote a Letter to the 
Congregation, directed to the Pastor and Brethren, to 
advise them to take into Consideration, whether Mr. 
Brown were fit to be continued their Elder, or not : to 
which He returned Answer to this Effect ; that if we 
would take the Pains to prove such Things as were ob- 
jected against Him, they would endeavour to redress 
them, (w) 

Dec. 8. The Congregation [at Waterton] being much 
divided about their Elder, both Parties repair to Gov 
Winthrop for Assistance : whereupon lie goes to Waterton 
with the D. Gov and Mr. Nowell : and the Congregation 
being assembled, the Gov tells them, that being come to 
settle Peace &x. ; they might proceed in three different 
Respects, (1.) As the Magistrates, (their Assistance being 
desired) (2.) As Members of a neighbour Congregation, 
(3.) Upon the Answer we received of our Letter, which 
did no way satisfy us : But the Pastor Mr. Phillips desires 
us to set with them as Members of a neighbour Congre- 
tion only ; whereto the Gov &c. consent : after much 
Debate they are reconciled, and agree to seek God in a 
Day of Humiliation ; and so to have a solemn uniting ; 


annals of new-bncland. Part II. Sec. 2. 39 

K. of France. K. of Great-Bruain. K. of Spain, 
1631 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip IV. 

each Party promising to reform what had been amiss &c. 
and the Pastor gives Thanks to God, and the Assembly 
brakes up. (w>) [Mr. Hubbard says, that] said Brown had 
been one of the Separation in England ; [and seems to 
intimate as if the Occasion of his Opinion was, that] 
the Reformed Churches did not use to Re-baptize those 
that renounced the Religion of Rome, and embraced that 
of the Reformation, {h) 

Articles of various Dates. 

[Capt. Johnson says— the Number of Freemen of the 
Massachusets added this Year was about 83. But in the 
Records of May, 18, I find 116 take the Oaths of Free- 
men, as then observ'd, besides two more scored out : 
and as these are all I find admitted this Year, and the first 
that are mention 'd in said Records, as taking the Oaths 
of Freemen ; I am* apt to think the 1 10 He mentions as 
made Freemen in 1630 [See p. 4. ] are included in the 
116, who take their Oaths on May 18. 1631, and that 
these 116 are the first admitted after the Arrival of the 
Gov and Company. 

[Josseline says] that Capt. John Smith Gov of Virgiiria 
[i.e. President in 1608] and Admiral of New- England, 
[i.e. made so in 1615] dies in 1631: [but where, He 
does not say. And He mistakes in placing] under 1631. 
(1.) the Arrival of Sir R. Saltonstall, and the Rev. Mr. 
Maverick and Wilson, in theMassachusets, [which was in 
May & June 1630 ;] (2.) Mr. Harlackenden a Magistrate 
and leader of their Military Forces, [which is not till 
1636. And I guess He mistakes in placing] in 1631, the 
Rev. Mr. Wilson's Brother, Dr. Wilson's Gift of a Thous- 
and Pounds to New- England ; [which seems to be some 
Time after.] 


40 annals or new-England. Part II. Sec. 2. 

K. of France. K. of Great-Biniain. K. of Spain. 
1630 Lewis XIII. (j Charles I. |] Philip IV. 

Supplement to 1630. 

Containing Accounts of the four Ministers who arrived 

in 1630. 

1. The Rev. Mr. John Maverick, > CTi , , 
i The Rev. Mr. John Warham, \ °f Dorchester. 

[Of both these Gentlemen, Capt. Clapp of the same Town, gives the 
best Account in the following Paragraph, which I insert almost intire, 
to show the pious Spirit of the Puritan Laity, as well as Ministry in 
those times in England, as well as those of them who came over hith- 
er] I was born [says he] at Salcom [about 12 Miles E of Exeter] in 
Devonshire, April 6, 1609. My Father a Man fearing God, and in 
good Esteem among God's faithful Servants : His Estate I think not 
above /.80 per annum. We were 5 Brethren (I the youngest) and 
2 Sisters. God was graciously pleased to breathe by his holy Spirit 
(I hope) in all our Hearts : Four of us Brethren liv'd at Home. My 
dear Mother being dead, I desired my dear Father I might live 
Abroad, which he consented to. So I first went to live with a worthy 
Gentleman, Mr. William Southcot, about 3 Miles from the City of 
Exeter. He was careful to keep a godly Family. There being a 
very mean Preacher in that Place, we went every Lord's Day into 
the Cjiy, where were many famous Preachers of the Word of God. 
I took such a Liking to the Rev. Mr. Warham, that I desired to live 
near Him : So with my Father's Consent, I removed into the City, 
and lived with Mr. Mossiour, as famous a Family for Religion as ever I 
knew ; He kept 7 or 8 Men, and divers Maid Servants ; And he had 
a Conference on a Question propounded once a Week in his Family. 
I never heard of New-England, till I heard of many godly persons that 
were going there, and that Mr. Warham was to go also, My Master 
asked me, Whether I would go ? I told him, Were I not engaged to 
him, I would willingly go : He answered, That should be no Hindrance ; 
I might go for him, or for myself, which I would. I then wrote to my 
Father wno liv'd about 12 Miles off, to intreathis Leave to go to New- 
England ; who was so much displeased at first, that he wrote me no An- 
»w«r : [Upon which] I went and made my Request to him : [And] now 
God sent the Rev. Mr. Maverick, who lived 40 Miles off, a Man I never 



K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K.. of Spain. 
1630 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip [V. 

saw before : He having heard of me [was so zealous to promote out- 
going to New-England, that he] came to my Father's House, and my 
Father agreed I should be with him, and come under his Care, which 
I did. [And then he adds-] It was God that did draw me out of my 
Father's Family ; that bro't me near Mr. Warham, and inclined my 
Heart to his Ministry ; that made me willing to leave my dear Fa- 
ther, and dear Brethren and Sisters, my dear Friends and Country : 
that sent Mr. Maverick That Pious Minister to me who was unknown 
to him, to seek me out, that I might come hither. [And] Blessed be 
God that brought me here ! (c) 

[In our Annals at the Beginning of March 1629,30, we gave an 
Account of the said Rev. Mr. Maverick and Warham joining with Mr. 
Ludlow and Rossiter and others, in forming a Congregational Church 
at Plymouth in Erigland, of those pious People who were there, and 
then preparing to come over hither, who then chose the said Maverick 
and Warham their officers : and Capt. Johnson tells us, [that] the 
Rev. and godly Mr. Maverick was their first Pastor, and the gracious 
Servant of Christ the Rev. Mr. Warham their Teacher. [In which 
Qualities they came over with their Church in a Ship of 400 Tuns ; 
setting sail from said Plimouth on March 20, and arriving at Nantas- 
ket on May 30, 1630 ; as observed before.] 

[And from both these Accounts we learn, that Mr. Maverick w&s 
the elder Person ; that they had both been ministers in the Church of 
England ; and had therefore been ordain'd by some Bishop or other ; 
as none other in those Days were allow'd to Preach in that Kingdom ; 
nor any separate Congregation allowed there till the Civil Wars be- 
gan in 1642. Nor would Mr. Maverick and Warham have been then 
allow'd to form a Congregational Church at Plimouth in England, 
were it not of those who had taken their Passage for New-England, 
and were just ready to sail hither.] 

3. The Rev. Mr. John Wilson [being the first Minister of this 
Metropolis, I may be larger on him : and Dr. C. Mather, says that] 
descending from eminent Ancestors, he was born at Windsor, in 
1588. The 3d Son. of Dr. William Wilson Prebend of St. Paul's, 
of Rochester and of Windsor, and Rector of Cliff; his Mother a 
Niece of Dr. Edmund Grindell, the renouned Arch-Bishop of Can- 
terbury. His Education under his Parents, which betimes ting- 
ed Him with an Aversion to Vice, and above all the very 



K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1650 Lewis XIII. |) Charles I. ft Philip IV. 

Shadow of a Lye, fitted Him [for] Eaton College [to which He went 
at 10 Years of Age] under Udal & Langley : Here he was most 
remarkably twice [sav'd] from Drowning ; but at his Book made such 
Proficiency, that while he was the least Boy in School, he was made a 
Propositor : And when the Duke of Biron, Ambassador from the 
French K, Henry IV, to Q Elizabeth, visited the School, he made a 
Latin Oration ; for which the D bestowed 3 Angels on him. After 4 
Years at Eaton, he was admitted into King's College in Cambridg in 
1602 ; [And] in that College obtained a Fellowship. He had hither- 
to been, according to his good Education, very soberly disposed ; But 
being led to the Ministry of such holy Men, as Mr. Bains, Dr. (Tho.) 
Taylor, Dr. Chaderton, he was by their Sermons enlightened and 
awakened to more solicitous Enquiries after the one Thing yet lack- 
ing in him. The serious Dispositions of his Mind were now such, that 
besides his Pursuance after the Works of Repentance in Himself, he 
took no little Pains to pursue it in others ; especially Malefactors in 
Prison, which he visited with a devout and successful industry. [Yet] 
being forestalled with Prejudices against the Puritans, he declined 
their Acquaintance : tho' his good Conversation had made him to be 
accounted one Himself; till going to a Booksellers shop to augment 
his well furnish'd Library, he light on that famous Book of Mr. Rich- 
ard Rogers, called, The Seven Treatises : which, when he read, he so 
affected, not only the Matter, but Author, that he took a Journey to 
Wethersfield, on purpose to hear a Sermon from that Boanerges. When 
he had heard the heavenly Passages which fell from the lips of that 
worthy Man, privately as well as publickly, and compared them with 
the Writings of Greenham, Dod and Dent, especially [Dent's] Path- 
way to Heaven ; he saw that they who were nick-named Puritans, 
were like to be the desirablest Companions for one that intended his 
own everlasting Happiness : And pursuant to the Advice he had from 
Dr. Ames, he associated himself with a pious Company in the Univer- 
sity, who kept their Meetings in Mr. Wilson's Chamber, for Prayer, 
Fasting, holy Conference, and the Exercises of true Devotion : But now 
perceiving many good Men to scruple the Rites imposed in the Church 
of England ; He furnish'd himself with all the Books he could find wrote 
on Conformity both Pro and Con, and ponder'd with a most conscien- 
tious Deliberation the Arguments on both Sides : was hereby so convin- 
ced of the Evil of Conformity, that for his Omission of certain uninstituted 



K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1630 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip IV. 

Ceremonies in the Worship of God, the Bishop of Lincoln then visit- 
ing the University, pronounc'd on Him the Sentence of Quindenum; 
i. e. that besides other Mortifications He must in 15 Days be expell'd, 
if lie continued in his Offence. His Father being hereof ad vis'd wrote 
to Him to conform : interceeded with the Bp that He might have a 
Quarter of a Year allow'd him, in which Time, if he could not be re- 
duc'd, he should leave his Fellowship ; [and] hereupon sent him to 
several Doctors of great Fame, to get his Objections resolv'd : But 
when much Discourse and Writing had pass'd between them, he 
was rather more confirm'd in his Principles about Church Reforma- 
tion. Wherefore his Father dispos'd him to the Inns of Court ; where 
lie fell into Acquaintance with some young Gentlemen, who associat- 
ed with him in constant Exercises of Devotion ; to which Meetings 
the repeated Sermons of Dr. Gouge were a continual Entertainment. 
[After] 3 Years at the Inns of Court, his Father discerning his Dis- 
position to be a Minister, permitted his proceeding Master of Arts in 
Cambridge. Dr. Cary Vice Chancellor, understanding his former 
Circumstances, would not admit him without Subscription, [which] 
he refused : But the Earl of Northampton Chancellor of the Univer- 
sity [writing] to the Vice Chancellor on Behalf of our Wilson, he re- 
ceived his Degree, and continued a While in Emanuel College : But 
while passing under these Changes, took up a Resolution, which he 
thus expressed before the Lord ; That if the Lord would grant him 
Liberty of Conscience, with Purity of Worship, he would be content, 
yea thankful, tho' it were at the furthermost End of the World. At 
length Preaching his first Sermon at Newport, he set his Hand to that 
Plough, from whence he never after looked back. Not long after, his 
Father lying on his Death-bed, he kneeled in his Turn before him for 
his Blessing ; and brought with him for a Share [there] in, the vertuous 
young Daughter of the Lady Mansfield (Widow of Sir John Mansfield, 
Master of the Minories and the Queen's Surveyor) whom he designed 
to marry ; whereupon the old Gentleman said, Ah John, I have ta- 
ken much Care about thee, because thou wouldst not conform : I 
wou'd fain have brot thee to some higher Preferment : I see 
thy Conscience is very scrupulous concerning such Things as- 
have been imposed in the Church: Nevertheless, I have rejoiced 
to see the Grace and Fear of God in thy Heart : and seeing thou 
hast kept a good Conscience hitherto, and walk'd according to 



44 annals of new-england. Part. II. See. 2. 

K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1630 Lewis XIII. II Charles I. || Philip IV. 

thy Light ; so do still, and go by the Rules of God's holy Word ; the 
Lord bless thee, and her whom thou hast chosen to be the Companion 
of thy Life. Among other Places he preached at Moreclake ; where 
his Nonconformity exposed him to the Rage of Persecution : But by 
the Friendship of Sir William Bird the Justice, a Kinsman of his 
Wife, and by a Mistake of the Informers, the Rage of that Storm was 
moderated. After this at Henley [in Oxfordshire] then for 3 Years 
together continued Pleaching at 4 Places by Turns, which lay 'near 
[each other] on the Edge of Suffolk, [viz.] Bumsted, Stoke, Clare and 
Candish. Here some of Sudbury happening to hear him, they invited 
him to suceeed the eminent old Mr. Jenkins : with which he cheerful- 
ly complied, and the more because of his Opportunity to be near old 
Mr. Richard Rogers, from whom afterwards When dying, he received a 
Blessing among his children. And yet he accepted not the Pastoral 
Charge of the Place, without a solemn Day of Prayer with Fasting, 
wherein the neighbouring Ministers [who were then call'd Puritan 
Ministers in the Church of England] assisted at his Election. Great 
Notice was now taken of the Success of his Labours in this famous 
Town. But if they that will live godlily must suffer Persecution, a 
peculiar Share must fall on them who are zealous and useful Instru- 
ments to make others live so : Mr. Wilson had a Share of this ; and one 
A — n [a Treacher] was the principal Author of it : Upon seeing Mr. Wil- 
son more highly valued and honoured than himself, became a malignant 
and violent Persecutor : By his Means Mr. Wilson was put into Trouble 
in the spiritual Courts ; from whence his Deliverance was at length 
obtain'd by certain powerful Mediators. Afterwards an eminent La- 
dy happening to make some Comparison between the Preaching of 
Mr. Wilson and Dr. B of B ; the angry Dr. presently applied himself 
to the Bp of London, who for a While suspended Him. And when 
that Storm was over, he with several other worthy Ministers came to 
be wholly silenc'd in another that was raised upon Complaints made 
by one Mr. Bird to Dr. Harsnet [then] Bp of Norwich against them : 
But at [length] Mr. Wilson obtain'd [of] the truly noble E of War- 
wick to sign a Letter, which the Earl bid him draw up to the 
Bp, on his behalf; by the Operation of which, his Liberty for 
the Exercise of his Ministry was again procured. At last be- 
ing persecuted in one Country, he must flee to another. The 
Plantation of a New-English Colony was begun ; and Mr. Wilson 



K. of France. K. of Great-Britain, K. of 'Spain. 

1630 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip IV. 

with some of his Neighbours embarq'd in the Fleet which came 
over hither in 1630. [about the 42d Year of his Age] where he ap- 
plied himself with all the Vigour imaginable to encourage the poor 
People under the Difficulties of a new Plantation. But he was most 
set on the main Design [thereof] which was to settle the Ordinances 
of the Gospel, and worship Christ according to his Institutions : and 
accordingly he, with the Gov, and others [who] came with him on the 
same Account, combined into a Church State witli all convenient Ex- 
pedition, (cm) [viz. In about a Month after their Arrival at Charles- 
town, as we observ'd before.] 

4. The Rev. Mr. George Philips, [Dr. C. Mather says] he was 
born at Raymond in Norfolk : [whose] Parents encouraged by his 
great proficiency at the Grammar School, to send him to the Univer- 
sity [I suppose of Cambridg, it being 40 Miles nearer, and between 
Norfolk and Oxford] where bis good Invention, strong Memory, and 
solid Judgment, with the Blessing of God upon all, attained a Degree 
of Learning that may be called eminent. The diligent Reading of 
the Fathers, while he was yet among young Men, was one of the 
Things Which gave a special Ornament to that Skill in Theology 
whereto he attained : But that which yet further fitted him to become 
a Divine, was his being made Partaker of the divine Nature, by the 
Sanctification of all his Abilities for the. Service of God, in a true Re- 
generation. Devoting himself to the Work of the Ministry, his Em- 
ployment befel him at Boxford in Essex ; whereof he found much 
Acceptance with good Men, as being a Man mighty in the Scriptures. 
[Mr. Hubbard stiles him an able and faithful Minister of the Gos- 
pel at Boxsted in Essex, near Groton in Suffolk : But Boxford being 
in Suffolk, and Boxsted in Essex, and both near Groton ; I suppose 
that Boxford in Dr. C. Mather, is a Mistake of the Printer.] But 
his Acquaintance with the Writings and Persons of some Old 
Nonconformists, had instilled into him such Principles' about Church- 
Governp?ent, as were like to make him unacceptable to some who 
then drove the World before them. Some of these Principles 
he had intimated in his publick Preaching ; whereupon some of 
his dissatisfied Hearers repair'd to old Mr. [John] Rogers of Ded- 
ham, [near Boxsted] with some Intimations of their Dissatisfaction. 
But tho' Mr. Rogers had not much studied the Controversy, yet 
had so high a Respect for Mr. Philips, that he said, He believed 
Mr. Philips would preach nothing without some good Evidence for 

. it 


K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1630 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. |] Philip IV. 

it from the Word of God ; and therefore they should be wijling to 
regard whatever Mr. Philips might, from that Word, make evident to 
them. And as for Mr. Philips, the more he was put upon the Study 
and Searching of the Truth in the Matter controverted, the more he 
was confirmed in his own Opinion of it. When the Spirit of Perse- 
cution did at length, with the extreamest Violence urge a Conformity 
to Ways and Parts of Divine Worship, conscientiously scrupled by 
such Persons as Mr. Philips ; he with many more of his Neighbours 
entertained Tho'ts of transporting themselves and their Families into 
[these then] Desarts of America, to prosecute and propagate the glo- 
rious Designs of the Gospel, and spread the Light of it in these goings 
down of the Sun. And being resolv'd accordingly to accompany the 
excellent Mr. Winthrop [then of Groton] in that Undertaking ; he 
with many other devout Christians, embarqued for New-England, where 
they arriv'd in 1630. [as before related] Here [soon] after his Land- 
ing, he lost his desirable Consort; who tho* an only Child, had chear- 
fufly left her Parents to serve the Lord Jesus with her Husband, in a 
terrible Wilderness: She died at Salem, entering into everlasting 
Peace ; and was very solemnly interr'd near the Right Honourable, 
the Lady Arabella, the Sister of the Earl of Lincoln, who also took 
New-England in her Way to Heaven, (cm.) 

[Under Article IV. p. 16. next to Dec. 5. OS.] 
[This Year Dr. I Mather tells us] Bp Laud persecutes 
Mr. [Thomas] Shepard [in England] for Preaching a Lec- 
ture, notwithstanding he is now a Conformist, not having 
searched into the Principles of the Norcon for mists till 
after this : I have by me a Manuscript of Mr. Shepard's, 
written with his own Hand ; in which are these Words ; 
Dec. 16. 1630. I was inhibited from Preaching in the 
Diocess of London by Dr. Laud Bp of that Diocess. As 
soon as I came in the Morning, about 8 of the Clock ; 
filling into a Fit of Rage, he asked me, what Degree I 
had taken in the University ? I answer'd him, I was a Ma- 
ster of Arts. He ask'd, of what College ? I answer'd, of 
Emanuel. He ask'd how long I had liv'd in his Diocess ? 
1 answer'd three Years and upwards. He ask'd, who main- 
tain'd me all this While ? charging me to deal plainly with 


ANNALS OF NEW-ENGLAND. Part. II. Sec. 2. 47 

K. of France. K. of Great -Britain. K. of Spain. 
1630 Lewis. XLTI. II Charles I. || Philip IV. 

him ; adding with all, that he had been more cheated and 
equivocated with by some of my malignant Faction than 
ever was Man by Jesuit. At the speaking of which 
Words he look'd as tho' Blood would have gush'd out 
of his Face, and did shake as if he had been haunted with 
an Ague Fit, to my Apprehension, by Reason of his ex- 
tream Malice and secret Venom : I desired him to excuse 
me : He fell then to threaten me; and withal to bitter Rail- 
ing, calling me all to naught, saying ; you prating Cox- 
comb ! Do you think all the Learning is in your Brain ? 
He pronounc'd his Sentence thus ; I charge you that you 
neither Preach, Read, Marry, Bury, or exercise any 
Ministerial Function in any Part of my Diocess; for if you 
do, and I hear of it, I'll be upon your back and follow 
you wherever you go, in any Part of the Kingdom, and 
so everlastingly disenable you. I besought him not to 
deal so, in Regard of a poor Town ; and here he stopt 
me in what I was going on to say ; a poor Town ! you 
have made a Company of seditious, factious Bedlams ; 
and what do you prate to me of a poor Town ? I pray'd 
him to suffer me to catechise in the Sabbath Days in the 
Afternoon : He replied, spare your Breath, I'll have 
no such Fellows prate in my Diocess ; get you gone, and 
now make your Complaints to whom you will ? So away 
I went ; and blessed be God that I may go to Him. 
[Thus did this Bp, a professed Disciple of the meek and 
lowly Jesus, treat one of the most pious, humble, diligent 
and faithful young Ministers in the Church of England 
in his Day.] 

Appendix to 1631. 
Account of the two Ministers who arriv'd in 1631. 

Mr. Roger Williams. [With Respect to whom Gov W r in« 
throp writing] that the Lyon arriving on Feb. 5, 1630,31. bro't 
Mr. Williams, a godly Minister, On April 12 following, that 



K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K, of Spain. 
1631 Lewis XIII. II Charles I. || Philip IV. 

the Church at Salem had called Mr. Roger Williams to the Office 
of a Teacher, &c. [the Names seem to mean the same man : But 
then the List of Persons desiring to be Freemen, placed under 
Oct. 19. 1630, comprehends all those who enter'd their Desires be- 
tween that time and May 18, 1631. By his printed Works, he appears 
to be a Gentleman of considerable Parts and Learning ; but of a 
very separating Principle and Spirit, and for the utmost Liberty in 
religious Matters. Gov Bradford writes of him thus] Mr. Roger 
Williams (a Man godly and zealous, having many precious Parts, but 
very unsettled in Judgment) came over first to the Massachusets : 
But upon some Discontent left the Place and came hither [i. e. to 
Plimouth, and I suppose in the Summer of 1631] where he was free- 
ly entertain'd, according to [our] poor Ability, and exercised his 
Gifts among [us] : And after some Time was admitted a Member of 
the Church ; and his Teaching well approved ; for the Benefit where- 
of, I still bless God, and am thankful to him even for his sharpest Ad- 
monitions and Reproofs, so far as they agreed with Truth, (br) 

2. The Rev. Mr. John Eliot. Dr. C. Mather says, He was born in 
England [I suppose about November 1604.] His Parents gave him 
a pious Education, [and] his first Times were seasoned with the Fear 
of God, the Word and Prayer : was educated at one of the Universi- 
ties : [I suppose at Cambridg] God had furnished him with a good 
Measure of Learning, which made him capable of dividing the Word 
aright. He was a most acute Gramarian ; understood very well the 
[Greek and Hebrew] Languages which God first wrote his holy Bi- 
ble in ; had a good Insight into all the liberal Arts ; but above all had 
a most eminent Skill in Theology. His first Appearance in the World 
was in the difficult but very necessary Employment of a School-Mas- 
ter, which he discharged with Fidelity : [I suppose under Mr. Hooker 
in a Sort of an Academy at Little Baddow near Chelmsford in Es- 
sex : see Account of Mr. Hooker.] He had not passed many 
[Change*] in the World before he knew the Meaning of a saving 
Turn to God in Christ by a true Repentance. He had the Privilege 
and Happiness of an early Conversion from the Ways which original 
Sin disposes all Men unto. One of the principal Instruments which 
the God of Heaven us'd,in tinging and filling the Mind of this chosen 
Vessel with good Principles was that venerable Thomas Hooker ; 
whose Name in the Churches of the Lord Jesus is as Ointment poured 



K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1631 Lewis XIII. [| Charles I. || Philip IV, 

forth, It was an Acquaintance with him that contributed more than 
a little to the accomplishing of our Elisha for that Work to which the 
most High had designed him. His liberal Education having now the" 
Addition of Religion to direct and improve it, gave such a Biassto his 
young Soul, as quickly discovered itself in very signal Instances. 
[And his being a Tutor of Youth] rather prepar'd him for the further 
Service which h;s Mind was now set upon. Wherefore having dedi-> 
cated himself to God betimes, he could not reconcile himself to any 
lesser Way of serving his Creator and Redeemer than the Ministry 
of the Gospel. [ And] He was one mighty in the Word, which ena- 
bled him to convince Gainsayers and show himself a Workman that 
needed not to be ashamed. But where, alas ! should he have Oppor- 
tunities for the exercising of it ? The Laudian, Grotian and Arminian 
Faction [then] in the Church of England, in the Prosecution of their 
grand Plot for reducing England to a moderate Sort of Popery, had 
pitch'd on this as one of their Methods for it ; [viz.] to crecple as 
fast as they could all the learned, godly, painful Ministers of the Na- 
tion, and invent certain Shiboleths for detecting and destroying such 
Men as were cordial Friends to the Reformation. 'Twas now a Time 
when there were every Day multiplied and imposed those unwarranta- 
ble Ceremonies in the Worship of God ; by which the Conscience of 
our considerate Eliot counted the second Commandment notoriously 
violated. 'Twas now also a Time when some Hundreds of those 
good People which had the nick-name of Puritans put upon them, 
transported themselves with their Families and Interests into the 
Desarts of America ; that there they might peaceably erect Congre- 
gational Churches, and therein attend and maintain all the pure Insti- 
tutions of Christ ; having the Encouragement of Royal Charters, that 
ihej should never have any Interruption in the Enjoyment of those 
pleasant and precious Things. Here was a Prospect which [soon] 
determined the devout Soul of our young Eliot to a Remove into New- 
England, while it was yet a Land not sown. He [soon] listed him- 
self among those valiant Soldiers of Christ, who cheerfully encoun- 
tred, first the Perils of the Atlantick Ocean, and then the Fatigues of 
a New-English Wilderness : that they might have an undisturbed 
Communion with him in his Appointments here. He came [hither] in 
Nov. 1631 [at 27 Years of Age] among those blessed old Planters 
which laid the Foundations of a remarkable Countrv, devoted 


SO annals or new-england. Part II. Sec. 2. 

K of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1631 Lewis XIII. (I Charles I. || Philip IV. 

to the Exercise of the Protestant Religion in its purest and highest 
Reformation, (cm) 

II. The most material Events in England. 
William Beal, Servant to Mr. Henry Gellibrand, Professor of 
Mathematicks at Gresham College, London, setting forth an Alma- 
nack for this Year, by his Master's Approbation, agreeing with the 
Kalender before Mr. Fox's, printed oftimes by publick Authority 
without the least Exception, both in Q Eliz. and K James and K 
Charles Reigns : in which Almanack the Names of Popish Saints 
were omitted, and the Names of Martyrs mention'd in the Book of 
Martys inserted, just as in Mr. Fox's Kalendar : Bp Laud taking great 
Exceptions against this Almanack, bro't Mr. Gellibrand and his Man 
into the High Commission for compiling and publishing it, prosecutes 
them with great Violence ; stands up in a great Passion and publick- 
ly informs the Court, that the Q sent for him and complain'd to him 
against this Almanack, which gave great Offence to those of her Re- 
ligion, and desir'd him to prosecute the Author of it, and suppress the 
Book, he therefore hop'd he should not pass unpunished in this Court : 
yet the Court acquiring him, the Bp stood up again in a Fury, and 
said to Mr. Gellibrand ; Sir, Remember you have made a Faction in 
this Court, for which you ought to be punished ; and know that you 
are not yet discharged hence ; I will sit in your Skirts, for I hear you 
keep Conventicles at Gresham College, after your Lectures there ; 
whereupon he gave Order for a second Prosecution against him in the 
High Commission ; which so afflicted this good Man, that it put him 
into a Fever, whereof he died. Offended with this Almanack, Bp 
Laud perus'd a Book of Dr. Pocklinton's and orders it to be printed ; 
wherein he calls Mr. Fox's Martyrs, Traiters, Murderers, Rebels and 
Heretics. (It.) 

Jan. 16. I [i. e. Bp Laud] consecrate St. Katharine Creed Church 
in London : (Id) tho' only repair'd in his Predecessor Bp Mountain's 
Time. As Bp Laud approaches the W Door, his [Attendants] cry out 
with a loud Voice ; open, open ye everlasting Doors that the King of Glo- 
ry may come in ; and presently (as by Miracle) the Doors fly open and 
the Bp enters ; falls down on his Knees ; in the Name of the Father, 
Son and Holy Ghost pronounces the Place Holy: then takes up some 
of the Dust and throws it into the Air ; and this he does in the great 
middle Isle several Times : as he approaches Eastward towards 
the Rails of the Lord's Table, he bows lowly towards it 5 or 6 

Times : 

ANNALS OF N i£ W-ENG L AND. Part II. Sec. 2. 51 

K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1631 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip IV. 

Times : when he approaches the Communion Table, he bows with his 
Nose near the Ground 6 or 7 Times : then comes to one of the Cor- 
ners of the Table, and there bows 3 Times ; then to the 2d, 3d and 4th 
Corners, bowing at each Corner 3 Times : but when he comes to the 
Side where the Bread and Wine is, he bows 7 Times : then after 
reading many Prayers by himself, and his two Chaplins on their Knees 
by him in their Surplices* Hoods and Tippets; he comes near the 
Bread cut and laid in a Napkin; gently lifts up one of the Corners of 
the Napkin, peeps into it till he sees the Bread* presently claps it 
down again, flies back a Step or two, and then bows very low 3 Times 
towards it and the Table : when he beholds the Bread, he comes near 
and opens the Napkin again, and bows as before : then lays his Hand 
on the Cup of Wine with a Cover on it : so soon as he pulls the Cup 
a little nearer to him, he lets the Cup go, flies back, and bows again 
3 Times towards it: then comes near again ; and lifting up the Cover, 
peeps into it ; and seeing the Wine, lets fall the Cover again, flies 
nimbly back and bows as before, &c. [In short] prays and acts as in 
the Roman Pontifical published by Pope Clement the 8th. Tho' he 
consecrated it more as a Burying Place than as a House of Worship, 
and tho' this Pontifical with the Ceremonies of consecrating Churches 
had been abolish'd by Acts of Parliament ; Dr. Pilkington JBp of Dur- 
ham, and Arch Bp Parker, with other Divines in Q Elizabeth's R,eign 
had condemn'd the Consecration of Churches as paganish, supersti- 
tious, childish and ridiculous ; and the Practice had discontinu'd from 
the beginning of the Reformation, till now Bp Laud revives it. (It) 
[and how extreamly pleasing to the Popish Q and all her Party !] 

Jan. 23. I [i. e. Bp Laud] consecrated St. Giles Church in the 
Fields : (Id) which had been also in Part re-built in Bp Mountain's 
Days, and had divine Service in it for 3 or 4 Years : But on a sudden 
Bp Laud interdicts and shuts it up for 2 or 3 Weeks till he conse- 
crates it now, with the same Bowings, &c. as the other, with the 
Church Yard also. (It) 

This Year, Thomas Dove, Bp of Peterborough, living in a poor 
Bishoprick, and leaving a plentiful Estate [dies] : the Nonconfor- 
mists in his Diocess complain of his Severity ; [having] silenced 
5 of them in one Morning: on the same Token that K Jame9 
is said to say, It might have serv'd for 5 Years ; (//) [and the 
learned Author of the Dispute against Kneeling at the Lord's Sup- 


52 annals of new England. Part. II. Sec. 2. 

K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1631 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip IV. 

per in 4 to, printed in 1608, says; that] Bp Dove deprived 15 Minis- 
ters in one day. 

June 7. I [i. e. Bp Laud] consecrate the Chappel at Hammer- 
smith : (Id) with the like Popish Ceremonies, as Creed Church. (It) 

[June 29. The Continuer of Baker says — ] 2 Years ago [i. e. in 
1629] the Fort Kebeck [or Quebeck] on the River of Canada in North 
America had been taken and garrisoned by Capt. Kirk ; it being a 
great Staple for Bevers and Otters ; the K of France therefore detains 
400,000 Crowns, Part of the English Queen's Portion, and a greater 
Breach likely to ensue : [But he seems to mistake in saying that] 
1630 puts an End to the Differences, the Fort delivered and the 
Money paid : [For Monsi Dennis tells us, that] on June 29, 1631, K 
Charles impowers Sir Isaac Wake his Embassador, io conclude a 
Treaty with the French K for ending all Controversies, perfecting 
mutual Reconciliation, restoring Commerce, and establishing a firmer 
Peace and Friendship between them and their Subjects. [But said 
Treaty is not finish'd till March 29. 1632.] 

Before Bp Laud came to be Chancellor of the University of Oxford 
[in April 1630] there were no Copes, Altars, nor Communion Tables 
turned and rail'd about Alter-wise in Churches or Colleges, nor any 
Bowing to or towards the Altar, nor any Crucifixes but such as were 
either defaced, or cover'd over with Dust, and quite neglected : but 
since his being Chancellor, the Tables in all, or most Churches, Col- 
leges are turned into Altars, or railed in Altar-wise, and usually bow- 
ed unto ; the old Cruci Sixes repaired, adored, and new Crucifixes set 
up where there were none before. Sworn by Sir Nathaniel Brent his 
Visitor. (It) 

June & July, (Id) Begin great Discontents to grow in the Univer- 
sity of Oxford. Many conceive that Innovations are multiplied in di- 
vine Service : offended thereat, in their Sermons brake out into what is 
interpreted bitter Invectives ; yea, their very Texts give Offence : one 
Preaching on Num. 14. 4. Let us make us a Captain, artd let us re- 
turn into Egypt : another on 1 Kings 13. 2. And he cried against the 
Altar &c. In Prosecution whereof they had tart Reflection on some 
eminent Person in the Church : Dr. Smith, Warden of Wadham, 
convented the principal Persons, viz. Mr. Thorn of Baliol College 
(Mr. Hodges of Exeter College (It) and Mr. Thomas (It) Ford of Magda- 
len Hal?, as Offenders against the King's Instructions : they suspecting 
Partiality in the Vice Chancellor, appeal'd from him to the Proctors, 

2 Men 


K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1631 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip IV. 

2 Men of eminent Integrity and Ability, Mr. Atherton Bruch and 
Mr. John Doughty; who received their Appeal, presuming the same 
justifiable by the Statutes of the University. Bp Laud did not like 
those retrograde Appeals ; but sensible that his own Strength moved 
rather by ascending than descending, procures the Cause to be heard 
before the King at Woodstock (on Aug. 23.) By whose sentence, (1.) 
the Preachers complain'd of are expell'd the University, (2.) the Proc- 
tors are deprived of their Places for accepting of their Appeal, [But] 
the Expulsion of these Preachers expels not, but increases the Differ- 
ences in Oxford : many complain that the Sword of Justice did not 
cut indifferently, but that tis more penal for some to touch than others 
to break the King's Declaration. (//) Yea, Mr. Ford returning into 
Devonshire ; some Friends intended to elect him for their Lecturer 
or Vicar in Plimouth : of which Bp Laud being inform'd ; presently, 
viz. Sept. 12, procures a Letter from [the K] to the Mayor and Cor- 
poration of Plimouth, not to chuse Mr. Ford their Lecturer or Vicar 
on any Terms under Pain of his Displeasure ; and another Letter to 
the Bp of Exeter, not to admit him to be their Lecturer or Vicar, in 
Case they should elect him. (It) 

After Aug. 2, dies Mr. Arthur Hildersham ; deriv'd by his Mother 
from the D of Clarence [2d Son of K Edward III] bred in Christ's 
College in Cambridg, Minister of Ashby de la Zouch [in Leicester- 
shire] 43 Years : a learned Writer : Tho' a Nonconformist, he loved 
all honest Men, were they of a different Judgment ; minded herein 
like Luther, who gave tor his Motto — In whomsoever I see any 
Thing of Christ, him I love. (jfY) [Leigh says] He was a learned and 
judicious Divine, quotes Scripture pertinently, and his Works are ex- 
cellent : and Mr. T Hall styles him, an Oracle and Honour of his 
Time : [Yet neither the Royal Blood in his Veins, nor his eminent 
Learning, Piety and Charity protected him from being persecuted by 
the then Bishops : For Fuller says, that] after he enter'd the Minis- 
try, he met with many Molestations ; being in 

Silenc'd by Restored by 

1. 1590. June The High Commissirs. Ditto 1591, 2. Jan. 

2. 1605. Apr. 24. Bp. Chaderton. Bp. Barlow, 1608, 9. Jan. 

3. 1611. Nov. Bp. Neiie. Dr. Ridley, 1625. June 

4. 1630. Mar. 4 f Court at Leicester. Ditto. 1631. Au. 2. 



K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1631 TpwisXIU. || Charles I. (| Philip IV. 

After Sept. Dies the Rev. Mr. Robert Bolton, B. D. ML 60. Being 
born in 1572 : In 1592 wentto Lincoln College, in Oxford ; there he be- 
came an excellent Logician and Philosopher ; and wrote out all Homer ; 
so that he could with as much Facility dispute in the Schools in Greek, 
as in Latin or English ; remov'd to Brazen-Nose College ; where in 
1602, he was made a Fellow, and M. A. and being chosen Lecturer, 
perform'd with such Exactness, that he grew very famous : was well 
studied in Metaphysicks, Mathematicks and School Divinity ; his Dis- 
putations in the University perform'd with such Acuteness of Wit, 
and profound Learning, that he was chosen by the Vice-Chancellor at 
K. James's first coming to the L T niversity, to be one of the Disputants 
before him. In the 35th Year of his Age, was ordained [i. e. about 
1 607] and 2 Years after, prefer'd to Broughton in Northamptonshire : 
applied himself wholly to his Studies and the Ministry ; aim'd at the 
Conversion of souls, and God crown'd his Labours, by making him an 
Instrument [of converting] many to Righteousness : oft refused Pre- 
ferment, that he might not be divorced from that Country where his 
Ministry found such Entertainment and Effect, &c. (S. Clark.) 

[Both the Persons and Works of these two famous Ministers were 
highly esteemed by the pious Settlers of New-England.] 

Nov. 4. Born to K Charles I. the Princess Mary, at St. James's : 
(hs) who in 1641, May 2, is married to William II. Prince of Orange ; 
and in 1650, Nov. 4, becomes the Mother of William III. afterwards 
K of England. (Anderson) 

III. The most material Events among foreign Nations. 

[The War between the Spaniards and Dutch continues, without 
any Help from the Court of England.] 

In Germany — This being a most critical Year, wherein the Settlers 
of New-Eng, as well as all Europe, were greatly concerned ; I hope 
the Reader will excuse the following Summary — W T hile Gustavus is 
with a small Army delivering the Electorate of Brandenburgh ; the 
Popish Emperor's old General, Count Tilly, with 21,000 veterane 
Troops, besieges the most noble, protestant and flourishing City of 
Magdeburgh, the fairest Ornament in Germany : And by Treachery or 
Negligence of some, in not duly watching a Gate, early on May 10, his 
Forces enter ; and by his cmef Order set the City in Flames ; spare no 
Rank, Age or Sex : rip up Women with Child, murther sucking Infants 
before the Eyes of their Mothers, violate the Virgins in the open Streets, 


annals op new-england. Part. II. Sec. 2. 55 

K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1631 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip IV. 

yea the young Girls even to Death ; to avoid which, some of them 
drown themselves, and others run into the Fire before Tilly's Eyes ; 
in 24 Hours consume this great and magnificent City, with its 16 
Churches and Chappels by Fire, leaving only the Cathedral ,and 139 
poor Cottages standing ; fill all Places with dead Bodies ; so that 
of 40,000 Citizens in the Morning, scarce 400 escape at Night; and 
the Carcasses of the Men, Women and Children thrown into the Riv- 
er to roll into the Sea ; the Popish General boasting, calls this horid 
Tragedy, The Marriage Feast of Magdeburgh, and in Triumph marches 
to Saxony, to lay waste that Protestant Electorate also. 

Hereupon Gustavus, greatly afflicted, first hastily restores the Pro- 
testant Dutchy of Mecklenburgh to its D, unjustly depriv'd thereof by 
the Emperor ; delivers the Rest of the Protestant Electorate of Bran- 
denburgh, driving the Popish Troops away before him : marches to the 
Elbe, taking many Towns and Castles by the Way ; builds a Bridge, 
passes with his little Army of about 8000 over it ; cuts off almost all 
the Foot of several Regiments Tilly sent to oppose him ; forms a 
strong Camp on the Elb, and reduces divers Garrisons round about. 
Tilly marching towards him with 26,000 Veteranes : but 7000 of his 
advanced Parties being cut off by Stratagem in divers Fights, while 
the King's main Body being much inferior keep his Camp ; Tilly 
marches back to finish the Ruin of Saxony. In this Distress the Queen 
with 8000 Men from Sweden ; and at the End of July, Marquess 
Hamilton sent by K Charles, with 6000 Foot from G. Britain, land in 
Pomerania : but the K and Hamilton disagreeing, the latter returns 
inglorious : and the K, as it seems, leaving the Britons to keep the 
Garrisons, and taking those few brave Scots and English who had fought 
under him in Poland, as with the S weeds to make up 20,000, joins 
14,000 Saxons under their Duke, hastens to save their Country: and 
approaching Leipsick their Capital, on Sept. 6. he with his Army keeps 
it a Day of Fasting and Prayer to God tor Help and Victory. Next 
Morning Tilly with 44,000 brave Men advances into the Field., 
presenting his Army in a dreadful Front full 2 Miles in Length 
to inclose the King's. Tilly's W^ord was Saint Mary ; but the King's 
was God with us. The K riding from Regiment to Regiment 
crying aloud, Come on Comrades, will you fight to Day for the Name 
of Jesus Christ ! and the Battle joins. In the beginning of which, 
the K seeing his Men hardly charged, allights from nis Horse, 



K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain, 
1631 Lewis XIII. f| Charles I. || Philip IV. 

and with bended Knees prays to God again for Victory. Tilly's 
Veterans quickly make the Saxon Wing to fly and kill ^2000 of 
them ; then fall with their main Force on the Sweeds and some brave 
Scots and English under the K ; Tilly crying out, Let us beat the 
Sweeds too, and then all Germany's our own [i. e. to oppress, to 
ravish and massacre as we please] and turning even all the Saxon 
Cannon on the Sweeds ; a most terrible Fight ensues (the Fate of the 
Protestant Religion both in Europe and America now depending) for 
5 Hours ; until Night comes on ; when that formidable Popish Army 
which for 12 Years together had triumphed over and oppress'd the 
Protestants, is broken to Pieces ; 15,000 of them slain, many Thou- 
sands of them wounded : Tilly wounded, flies 20 Miles that Night. 
Next Day the K pursuing, slays 2000 more : 6000 forsaking the Im- 
perial Sicle, list under him ; by the End of the Month recovers all 
Saxony : and as he began with Prayer, he Ends with Praise ; appoint- 
ing with the Duke a Day of publick Thanksgiving in the Army, and 
thro' that Electorate. Then goes on, reduces Franconia, Wateravia 
and the Palatinates : and in this one Year recovers the middle Parts 
of Germany from the Baltick Sea, to Ments and Spires on the Rhine : 
and wherever he comes, restores their Liberties and the Protestant 
Religion, to their unbounded Joy. 


JAN. 27. Gov Winthrop and others go by Charles- 
River, [no doubt a-foot] 8 Miles above Watertown, 
ascend the highest Hills, and view [the frozen Countries 
and distant Ranges of Mountains, for 40 or 50 Miles 
round about.] fwj 

Feb. 3. Court of Assistants at Boston : Present Gov, 
D. Gov. Mr. Ludlow, Capt. Endicot, Mr. Nowell, Pyn- 
chon, S. Bradstreet. Order that L. 60 be levied out of 
the several Plantations, towards making a Pallisado about 
the Newtown, viz. 

L Waterton, 


K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. ot 



Lewis XIIL |) 

Charles I. || Phi 

ip IV. 


Waterton, i. 8 

7. Salem, 

la io 


The Newtown, 3 

8. Boston, 



Charlston, 7 

9. Roxbury, 



Meadford, 3 

10. Dorchester, 



Sawgus & ? 6 
Marble Harbour, $ 

11. Wessaguscus, 



12, Winesemet, 

1 10 

L.60 (Mcr) 

Feb. 17. Gov Winthrop and Assistants, call before 
them at Boston, divers of Waterton ; the Pastor and Elder 
by Letter, and the others by Warrant. The Occasion 
was, That a Warrant being sent to Waterton for levying 
their [abovesaid] L.8 Rate ; the Pastor, Elder, &c. as- 
sembled the People, and deliver'd their Opinion, that it 
was not safe to pay [said Tax] for Fear of bringing them- 
selves and Posterity into bondage. The Ground of their 
Error was, they took this Government to be no other 
but that of a Mayor and Aldermen, who have not Power 
to make Laws or raise Taxes without the People : But un- 
derstanding this Government is rather in the Nature of a 
Parliament,, & that no Assistant could be chosen but by the 
Freemen ; who have likewise Power to remove the Assist- 
ants, and put in others ; and therefore at every General 
Court (which is to be held once every Year) they have free 
Liberty to propound any Thing concerning the same, 
and to declare their Grievances, without being subject 
to Question, &c. They are fully satisfied, freely confess 
they were in an Error, acknowledg their Fault, and 
make a Recantation and Submission under their Hands ; 
and their Submission is accepted, and their Offence par- 
doned, (w) 

Mar. 6. [being Tuesday, and not 5, as Gov Winthrop] 
Court of Assistants at Boston : Present Gov, D. Gov, Mr. 
Ludlow, Capt. Endicot, Mr. Nowell, Pynchon, S. Brad- 
street. (1.) Order, that Courts (which before were every 
3 Weeks, (w) shall be held every first Tuesday in every 
Month: (2.) 10 more take their Oath of Freemen, viz. 
Mr. John Eliot, Jacob Eliot, &c. fMcr) 


58 annals or new-england. Part IT. Sec. 2. 

K of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1632 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. H Philip IV. 

March 14. The Bark Warwick, arrives at Natasket, and 
the 19th at Winesemet : Having been at Pascataquack and 
Salem, to sell Corn which she brought from Virginia, (w) 

April 3. Court of Assistants at Boston : Present Gov, 
D. Gov, Mr. Ludlow, Capt. Endicot, Mr. Noweil, Pyn- 
chon, S. Bradstreet. (1.) Conant's-Island demised to Gov 
Winthrop [upon certain Terms] and the Name is changed, 
and is to be called the Governor VGarden. (2.) 4 take 
their Oaths of Freemen, viz. 

Mr. John Winthrop, Jim. John Sampeford [or Samford] 
Mr. William Aspinwall, William Hubbert, &c. ( Mcr) 

April 9. The Bark Warwick, and Mr. [S.] Maverick's 
Pinnace, go out,bound to Virginia, [no doubt for Corn.](w) 
'April 12. Gov Winthrop receives Letters from Plimouth, 
4 signifying that there had been a Broil between their Men 
' at Sowams, and theNarraganset Indians, who set upon the 
c English House there, to take Onsamequin the Sagamore 
4 of Pacanacot [since called Bristol] who fled thither with 

* all his People, for Refuge ; and that Capt. Standish being 
c gone thither to relieve the three English in the House, 
1 had sent Home in all Haste for more Men and other Pro- 
1 visions, upon Intelligence that Canonicus with a great 
1 Army were coming against them ; [intreating] that some 

* Powder may be sent with all Speed possible ; for it seems 
4 they were unfurnished : Upon this Gov Winthrop pre- 

* sently dispatches the Messenger, with so much Powder 

* as he can carry [doubtless being a Foot, there being no 

* Horses in New-England in those Days] viz. L.27 out of 

* the Gov's own Store. fwj'* 

c April 11. The Messenger returns, and brings a Letter 

* from Gov [Bradford] signifying that the Indians are re- 
hired from So wams,to fight with the Pequims [or Pequots] 
4 which is probable, because John Sagamore, and Chicka- 

* tabot are gone with, all their Men ; John with 30, and 
' Chickatabot with to Canonicus, who had sent for 

* them, (w/* 

*[To this agrees the Testimony of divers ancient Indi- 
ans, inserted in Westerly Records : From which, and other 


annals of new-England. Part II. Sec. 2. 59 

K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1632 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. II Philip IV. 

ancient Testimonies, it seems (1) That there was War 
between the Pequots and Narragansets, about 1632 : (2) 
That said War was about the Territory, between Paca- 
tuck-River on the W, and Wecapaug- Brook on the E; 
about 10 Miles wide, and 15 or 20 long Northerly from the 
Sea: (3) That Canonicus and Miantenomy chief Sachims 
of Narraganset, had conquered it many Years before the 
English had any War with the Pequots : (4) That those 

2 Sachims maintained the War of 1632, the former being 
Uncle to the latter : And that Ninegrad was another Uncle 
to Miantenomy, but had no Hand in the War : (5) That 
the War began in 1632, and ended in 1635, or about 2 
Years before the War between the Pequots and the En- 
glish : (6) That Sossoa or Sochso, originally a Pequot, but 
a Renegado to the Narragansets, was a great Captain in this 
War, and fought valerously for them ; and in 1635, Canon- 
icus and Miantenomy, pretend to give said Tract to him ; 
but he never holds Possession : For (7) the Pequots 
are now too hard for the Narragansets ; and either recover 
or obtain said Tract and hold it, to the War between the 
Pequots and the English, in 1637 ] 

A Ware erected by Watertown-men, on Charles River, 

3 Miles above the Town, where they take great Store of 
Shad, (w) 

May 1. A Dutch Ship brings from Virginia 2000 Bush- 
els of Corn, which sells at 4s 6d [Sterling] a Bushel, (w) 
[no doubt a joyful Import, tho' it carried their Money 

' An Indian brings [to Gov Winthrop] a Letter from 

* Capt Standish, at Sowams, to this Effect ; that the Dutch- 
' men (with them, for Trading at Anyganset or Narragan- 

* set) had lately informed him, that many Pequims [or Pe- 
' quots] who are professed Enemies to the Anygansets, had 

* been there divers Days, and advised us to be watchful, &c. 

May 8. (w) [Tuesday, and not 9, as in Mcr] General 
Court at Boston : Present Gov, D. Gov, Mr. Ludlow, 
Nowell, Pynehon, S. Bradstreet. ( 1) Generally agreed ; that 

9 vol. vu. 

60 ANNALS Of NEW-ENGLAND. Fart. II. See. % 

K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1632 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. H Philip IV. 

the Gov, D. Gov, and Assistants, shall be chose by the 
whole Court of Gov, D. Gov, Assistants and Freemen ; and 
that the Gov shall always be chosen out of the Assistants 
chosen for the Year ensuing : (2) John Winthrop, Esq ; 
chosen Gov, Tho. Dudley, Esq ; D. Gov. Mr. Ludlow, 
Nowell, Pynchon, Bradstrect, Gapt. Endicot, John Hum- 
frey, Esq ; Mr. Coddington, (because these two are daily 
expected, w) and John VVinthrop, Jun. Assistants ; (3) Or- 
der there shall be two of every Plantation to confer with 
the Court about raising a publick Stock. (Mcr) 

Every Town chose Two, (w) viz. 
J . Mr. Oldham and Mr. Masters, for Wateitown. 
%i Robert Coles and John Johnson, for Roxbury. 

3. Mr. William Colbron and William Cheesbrough, for Boston. 

4. Richard Wright, and ■ •, for Sawgus. 

5. Mr. Lockwood and Mr. Spencer, for Newton. 

6. Mr. Gibbons and Mr. Palmer, for Charlston, 

7. Mr. Conant and Peter Palfrey, for Salem. 

8. William Felps and John Gallard, for Dorchester. (Mcr) 

[Here is no Mention of Wessaguscus, Meadford, Win- 
isemet, nor Marble- harbour.] All Things are carried very 
lovingly, and the People carry themselves with much Si- 
lence and Modesty, (w) [And this seems to pave the Way 
for a House of Representatives in the General Courts.] 

Gov [VVinthrop] among other Things, us'd this Speech 
to the People— That he had received Gratuities from 
divers Towns, which he receiv'd with much Comfort 
and Content : He had also received many Kindnesses 
from particular Persons, which he could not refuse, lest 
he should be accounted uncourteous, &x. But he pro- 
fessed he received them with a trembling Heart, in Re- 
gard to God's Rule, and the consciousness of his own 
Infirmity ; and therefore desired that hereafter they 
would not take it ill if he [shoti'd] refuse Presents from 
particular Persons, except the Assistants and some special 
Friends. To which no Answer is made : but he is told 
after, that many good People were much grieved at it, 
for that he never had any Allowance toward the Charge 
of his Place, fwj May 


K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1632 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip IV. 

May 24. The Fortification on the Corn Hill [I suppose 
since call'd Fort-Hill] at Boston [now] begins. The 25tb, 
Charlstown Men come and work on the Fortification : 
Roxbury the next, and Dorchester the next, fwj 

May 26. The Whale arrives [at Boston] with [the Rev] 
Mr. Wilson, Mr. [Richard] Dummer, and about 30 Pas- 
sengers, all in Health ; and of 70 Cowes lost but 2 : she 
came from Hampton April 8, Mr. Graves Master : fwj 
[and no doubt brings the joyful News of the K of 
Sweeden's wonderful Success in Germany.] 

June 5. Court of Assistants at Boston : Present Gov, 
D. Gov, Mr. Nowell, Pynchon, Ludlow, Winthrop, jun. 
S. Bradstreet: (1) The Court taking into Consideration 
the great Mercy of God to the [reformed] Churches in 
Germany, and* [especially] the Palatinate, &c. appoint 
the 13th of this Month to be kept as a Day of publick 
Thanksgiving throughout the several Plantations : and 
(2) agree there shall be a Trucking House in every Plan- 
tation, whither the Indians may resort to Trade ; to avoid 
their coming to several Houses. (Mcr.) 

June 5. Arrives [at Boston] the William and Francis, 
Mr. Thomas Master, with about 60 Passengers ;^ where- 
of Mr. [Thomas] Weld, and old Mr. [Stephen] Batch- 
elor, being aged 71, with their Families, and many other 
honest Men : also the Charles of Barstable, with Mr. 
[Timothy] Hatheriy the Merchant, about 20 Passengers, 
near 80 Cows and 6 Mares ; all safe and in Health : 
they set sail viz. the William and Francis from London, 
March 9 ; the Charles from Barstable April 10 ; and 
they met near Cape- Ann. fwj Mr. [Edward] Winslow 
[of Plimouth] comes in the William and Francis . and 
Mr. Hatheriy comes in the Charles, fwj to dwell and 
plant in the Country, fhrj 

June 12. Arrives [at Boston] the James, Mr. Grant 
Master ; her Passage near 8 Weeks from London, with 
12 Passengers ; and 61 Heifers, and lost 40. 

June 13. A Day of Thanksgiving thro' all the Plan- 
tations [of the Massachusetts] by publick Authority, for 



K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1632 lewis XIII. |) C harles I. |J Philip IV. 

the Success of the K of Sweden and Protestants in Ger- 
many against the Emperor ; and for the safe Arrival of all 
the Ships; they having not lost 1 Person, nor 1 sick 
'among them, fwj 

* The French came in a Pinnace to Penobscut, and rifle 
4 a Trucking House belonging to [New] Plimouth ; car- 

* rying thence 300 Weight of Bever & other Goods, {w) 
4 [of which Gov Bradford gives the Account following :] 
' — This Year their House at Penobscut is robbed by the 
4 French in this Manner ; while the Master of the House 
4 and Part of the Company with him, is come with our 
4 Vessel to the Westward to fetch a Supply of Goods bro't 
' over for us ; a small French Ship having a false Scot aboard 
4 [I suppose a Papist] goes into the Harbour, pretend they 
4 are newly come from Sea, know not where they are, 
4 that their Vessel is very leaky, and desire they may hale 
' her ashoar and stop her Leaks, making many French 
4 Complements St Congees : and seeing but 3 or 4 simple 
4 Men who are Servants, and by the Scotsman understand- 
4 ing the Master and Rest of the Company are gone from 
4 Home, fall a commending their Guns and Muskets 
'which lie on the Racks by the Wall side, take them 
4 down to look on them, asking if they are charged ? and 
4 when possessed of them, one presents a loaded Peece 
4 against the Servants, another a Pistol ; then bid them not 
4 to stir, but deliver their Goods : and make them help 
4 in carrying them all aboard, to the Value of LA or 500 
4 [StcrL] prime Cost; 300 Weight of Bever ; the Rest in 

* trading Goods, as Coats, Rugs, Blankets, Biskets, &c : 
c then set the Servants at Liberty, and go away with this 
4 taunting Message ; Tell your Master, when he returns, 
s that some of the Isle of Rhee Gentlemen have been here. 
' (br) [But Gov Bradford has misplaced this in 1631.]' 

June. Abraham Shurd [or Shurt] of Pemaquid, and Capt. 
Wright and others, coming to Pascataquack, being bound 
for this Bay [i. e. the Bay within Pullen-Point on the N, 
mid Point Allerton on the S] in a Shallop, with Z.200 worth 


ANNALS OF NEW-ENGLAND. Part. II. Sec. 2. 63 

K, of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1632 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip IV. 

of Commodities ; one of the Men going to light a Pipe 
of Tobacco [near the Powder] being wished by another 
to forbear, answered, That if the Devil should carry him 
away quick, he would take one Pipe, set Fire on a Barrel of 
Powder, which tore the Boat in Pieces : That Man was 
blown away [and] never seen [till he was some Time] 
after found, with his Hands and Feet torn off: The Rest 
all sav'd, but the Goods lost, (w) 

A Shallop of one Henry Way, of Dorchester, having been 
missing all the Winter, it was found that the Men in her 
being 5, were all killed secretly by the Eastern Indians : 
Another Shallop of his being sent to seek out the other, was 
cast away at Agamenticus, and 2 of the Men drowned. A 
Fishing Shallop at Isle of Shoals was overset. And one Nod- 
dle an honest Man of Salem, carrying Wood in a Canoe 
in the South River, was overturn'd and drowned, fw) 

July. [I suppose Monday the 2d] At a Training at Wa- 
tertown, a Man of John Oldham's, having a Musket which 
had been long charged with Pistol Bullets, not knowing 
it, gave Fire and Shot 3 Men ; 2 into their Bodies, and 
1 into his Head, but so far off, as the Shot enter'd the 
Skin and stayed there, and they all recovered, (w) 

July 3. Court at Boston : Present Gov, D Gov, Mr. 
Ludlow, Capt. Endicot, Mr. Pynchon, Winthrop. S. 
Bradstreet, Mr. Nowell : (1) Order, That the Capt. and 
other Officers take a special Care to search all Peeces 
bro't into the Field, for being charged with Shot or Bul- 
lets ; and that no Person whatever, shall at any Time 
charge any Peece of Service with Bullets or Shot, other 
than for Defence of their Houses, or at Command 
from the Capt, upon such Penaly as the Court shall think 
meet to inflict : (2.) A Man fined 40s. [Sterling] and 
bound to his good Behaviour to the next Court, for his 
Misdemeanour and Drunkenness aboard the Virginia 
Ship : (3) 7 take their Oaths of Freemen, viz. 
Mr. Nathaniel Turner, Mr. Samuel Sharp, 
John Ruggles, Mr. John Wilson, 

Mr. William Dennison, &c. {Mcr) The 


K of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1632 Lewis XIII. II Charles I. 11 Philip IV. 

The Congregation [i. e. the Church] at Boston, wrote to 
the Elders and Brethren of the Churches of Plimouth, 
Salem, &c. for their Advice in 3 Questions ; (1) Wheth- 
er one Person might be a civil Magistrate and a ruling El- 
der at the same Time ? (2) If not, then which should he 
lav down ? (3) Whether there might be divers Pastors in 
the same Church ? The 1st was agreed by all negatively ; 
the 2d and 3d doubtful, fwj 

After many Days of [Prayer] by those of Boston and 
Roxbury for [the Rev] Mr. Weld, and the Advice of those 
of Plimouth being taken, &c, at length he resolves to set 
down with those of Roxbury. (w) * 

* [By which I perceive, he is the first Minister and Pastor of the 
People of Roxbury : but when the Church is formed, I have not yet 
discover'd. Only in Roxbury Church Records, i find the first 17 
Members are all Males, and distin^uish'd from those ^which follow in 
this Order : (1) Mr. William Pynchon, (2) Mr. Tho. Weld, (3) Wm. 
Dennison, (4) Tho. Lamb, (5) Sam. Wakeman, (6) Wm. Parke, &c. 
Which 17 seem to be the first constituting Members; and about this 
Time, viz. in July 163:2, to form the Church, & invest the said Rev. 
Mr. Weld in the Pastoral Office over them. After which are added 
the Names of 17 Women, and 13 Men, as joining to said Church, be- 
fore the ISame of Mr. Eliot is inserted : who till Nov. continues his 
Relation to the Church in Boston (See Nov.) And Roxbury Church 
Records tells us, that) the People at Roxbury [had] joined to the 
Church at Dorchester, till God should give them an Opportunity to be 
a Church themselves : And Mr. George Alcock, who came in 1630, 
and liv'd in a godly Sort, was by Dorchester Church chosen a Dea- 
con, especially to regard the Brethren of Roxbury ; and after he joins 
to Roxbury Church, is ordained their Deacon, (rcr) 

Aug. 3, [not 5, as Mr. S. Danforth, and Mr. Hubbard] 
The Sachim (who isjoin'd with Canonicus the great Sachim 
of Narraganset) called Mecumeh, after Miantonomeh, 
comes to Boston, with his Squaw, and about 12 Sanups. 
Aug. 5, [Lord's day] Being present at the Sermon, 3 of his 
Sanups go in the mean Time, and brake into a Neighbour's 
House, &.c. Complaint being made thereof to Gov. [Win- 

throp] ; 


PAGE 1. under Sept. 28.-Read~(l} that no Person permit 
(2) that no Person give 
(3) that 1.50 be levied 
[after called Weymouth.] 
4. Line 25. Read— Roger Williams a Minister; who goes (1) to Sa- 
lem, (2) to Plimouth, (3) to Salem again, (4) to Providence. 

6. Under Nov. 9— Read (1) that every Englishman 

(2) whoever will hrst give 
Under Nov. 30.-Read (1) one of the Assistants 

(2) order'd that a Man 

(3) that L 60 be collected 

16. Under Article IV-insert 

April 11. Sixteen Popish Priests are released out of the Clink 
[Prison in Southwark] by one Warrant under the King's own Sign 
Manual, at the Instance of our dearest Consort the Queen, as the 
K in his Warrant writes ; and July 26, by the like Warrant and 
Instance 6 Priests and Jesuits more releas'd out of the same Prison : 
But no Instance known of his releasing 1 Puritan out of Prison all his 
Reign. (Prynn) 
Nov. (Id) Dr. Leighton 

Dec. 3. James Nowell writes from London — Sir Thomas Went- 
worth was made Vicount with a great deal of high Ceremony, on a 
Sunday at White-Hall. [So little Regard had k Charles tor the 
Lord's Day.] 

17. Line 12. Read-on June 24 NS, in the 36th Year of his Age, with 
an Army of about 12,000 Foot and 3,000 Horse, some say but 1 1 ,000 
in all, lands 

Line 20. Read-June 24, Rex Suecise. 

Line 23. Read— Words above. In 12 Days reduces the Isles ot 
Rugen, Usedom and Wollin : in 8 Days more takes many Cities, 
defeats many Enemies : and in 8 Months, taking 80 Castles, small 
Forts, Towns and Cities, reduces the Provinces of Newmark and 
Pomerania. (See Alsted, Cluverius, and S. Clark) 

31. Next to the Article of July 6-insert this Article — 

* [About this Time, as I judge from Gov. Bradford's History, the 

* Plimouth Undertakers send Mr. Edward Winslow to England, to 

* discharge Mr. Allerton from being their Agent, for acting contrary 

* to their Instructions.' 

Under July 14-For Natasket ;-read Boston ; 

Read— 5 Sheep (it') Mr. Timothy Hatherly first comes in her. (br) 

32. Under July 30-Read-falls down (w) with Mr. Allerton and 
Hatherly (br) 

Under Aug. 8.-For Jones-Read-James 
56. Line 19, — Read Palatinate: 
:"»8. Under April 12,— Read' — Ousamcquin 






Qeut. i. 6, 7, 8, 19, 20, 21. The Lord our God spake unto us, saying— Take 
your Journey and go to the Mount of the Amorites, and to all the Places nigh 
thereto, in the Plain, in the Hills, in the Vale, in the South, and hy the Sea- 
side to the Land of the Canaanites, and unto Lebanon, unto the great River, the 
Jtiver Euphrates : Behold, I have set the Land before you : Go in and possess 
the Land. — And we went through all that great and terrible Wilderness, which 
you saw by the Way of the Mountain of the Amorites, as the Lord our God 
commanded us. — And — ye are come to the Mountain of the Amorites, which 
the Lord our God doth give us: Behold the Lord thy God hath set the 
Land before Thee: Go up and possess it, as the Lord God of thy Fathers 
hath said unto Thee : Fear not, neither be discouraged ! 



(Price Six Pence Lawful Money each Number.) 
10 VOL. VII. 


No. 1. p. 13. 1 last but 7, &c. — r — who, as Mundy in his Chronicle 
records, was L Mayor of Lon- 
don in 1597, who was Son 
1 last but 4, — r — Patentees 

1 last but 1, &c. — r — Undertakers ; the 1st Founder 
of the Town, and 1st Member 
of the Congregational Church 

No. 2. p. 59, 1 last but 2— r— May 8. (w) [Tuesday : rather 9, Wed. 


No. 3. p. 83. 1 last but 10 — r — pursue Him : 
p. 84. 1 8 — r — Preparation made 
p. 86. 1 9 — r — Provision. 

15 — r — have Meal, Water and Salt 

16 — for (cc) — r — (c) 

22, 23 — r — [after, called Ipswich] 

Further Explanations of Lett ens. 

Cc, Connecticut Colony. 
ih, James Howell's Letters. 
Mb, Massachusetts Bay. 
Me, Massachusetts Colony. 
JST. E. New England. 
Pc, Plymouth Colony. 
Me, Rhode-Island Colony. 
sc, Joshua Scottow, Esq; in Mss. 

Wanting yet Accounts of these ancient Towns, viz. 
f Newtown, Woburn, "J 

i Ch^ford, SSSSt. [ * the Massachusetts. 
IJBillerica, J 

I New-XwD, Stemford, ] in C » nn e cticut . 

Bristol in Plymouth Patent : 

The Rev. Ministers, or other Gentlemen of those Towns, are 
earnestly intreated, to enquire of their Records, /irave-Stones, and 
ancient People ; and send the Remarkables of their History, from the 
Beginning, in a Chronological Order, to the Compiler of these Annals, 
with all convenient Expedition. 

JV. B 9 See the Articles at the End of this Cover 

annajls of new-england. Part II, Sec. 2. 65 

K. of France. K. of Cheat-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1632 Lewis XIII. II Charles I. || Philip IV. 

throp] ; after Evening Exercise, he tells the Sachim of it ; 
and with some Difficulty causes him to make one of his 
Sanups to beat them, and then sends them out of Town : 
but brings the Sachim and the Rest of [his] Company to 
his House, and makes much of him (as he had done 
before) which he seems to be well pleased with ; but 
this Evening he departeth. (wj 

At a Court not long before, two of Chickatabut's Men 
were convented and convicted for assaulting some English 
at Dorchester in their Houses, &c. were put in the Bil- 
boes ; and Chickatabut requir'd to beat them, which he 
did. (w) 

The Congregation of Boston and Charlestown begin the 
Meeting House at Boston : for which and Mr. Wilson's 
House, they had made a voluntary Contribution of about 
U20. (w) 

Aug. 7. Court at Boston : Present [same as June 5.] 
(1) On further Consideration of Justice to be done upon 
the Murther of Walter Bagnal, and on reading a Letter 
from those of Plimouth in Answer to a Letter sent to them 
about it ; order that a Boat be sent sufficiently mann'd 
with Commission to deal with the Plantation to the East- 
ward, and to join with such of them as shall be willing 
thereto, for Examination of the Murder of said Bagnal, 
and for apprehending such as shall be found guilty there- 
of, and to bring the Prisoners into the Bay : refer'd to 
the Gov to take Order therein : (2) Mr. William Pynchon 
chosen Treasurer for the Year ensuing, and till a new be 
chosen : (3) four take their Oath of Freemen, viz. 

Samuel Wakeman, &c. fMcrJ 

Aug. 14. This Summer is very wet and cold, (except 
now and then a hot Day or two) which causes great Store 
of Musketoes and Rattlesnakes. The Corn in dry sandy 
Ground is much better than other Years, but in the 
fatter Grounds much worse ; and in Boston, &c, much 
shorn down close by the Ground with Worms, (wj The 
Summer proving short and wet ; our Crops of Indian Corn 


66 annals of new-England. Part II. Sec. 2. 

K. of France. K. of Great-Britain, K. of Spain. 
1632 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip IV. 

(for we have no other) are very small, and great Want 
threatens us. (ctrj 

Mr. Oldham has a small House at Watertown /hade all 
of Clapboard, burnt down, fwj 

The Braintree Company (which had begun to set down 
at Mount- Wollaston) by Order of Court removes to New- 
town : These are Mr. Hooker's Company, fwj 

Aug. 20. Gov [WinthropJ's Wife defiver'd of a Son, 
who is (on Aug. 26. bcr) baptiz'dby the name of William : 
the Gov himself holds the child to Baptism, as others in 
the Congregation did use. fwj 

Aug. 30. Notice being given of 10 Sagamores and many 
Indians assembling at Muddy River, Gov [Winthrop] 
sends Capt. Underhill with 20 Musketeers to discover &c : 
but at Roxbury they hear they are broke up. fwj 

Sept. 4. Court at Boston : Present Gov, D. Gov, Mr. 
Ludlow, Capt.Endicot, Mr.Treasurer [Pynchon] Novvell, 
Winthrop, [jun.] S. Bradstreet ; (I) Sagamore John, &c, 
promise the next Year, and for ever after, to fence their 
Corn against all Kind of Cattle : (2) Order a Man to be 
severely whipt for Cursing, Swearing, justifying the same 
and glorying in it ; [and (3) another] Man to be whipt and 
branded with a hot Iron on one of his Cheeks for selling 
(McrJ a Peece, a Pistol with Powder and shot to James 
Sagamore, fwj 

By the Mediation of the Rev. Mr. Maverick, Warham 
and Wilson; Gov Winthrop and D.Gov Dudley [are now 
happily reconciled.] Notwithstanding the Heat of Con- 
tention which had been between them ; yet they usually 
met about their Affairs, and that without any Appear- 
ance of any Breach or Discontent : and ever after keep 
Peace and good Correspondence together in Love and 
Friendship, fwj 

One Jenkins late [of] Dorchester, [since] remov'd to 
Cape Porpus, went with an Indian up into the Countrey 
with Store of Goods to truck : and being asleep in a 



K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 

1632 Lewis XIII. II Charles I. H Philip IV. 

Wigwam of one of Passaconomy's Men, was kill'd in the 
Night by an Indian dwelling near the Mohok Country. (w) 
In Autumn 1632, the Indians, who had all this Time 
held good Correspondency with the English, begin to 
quarrel with us [in the Massachusetts] about their Bounds 
of Land, [tho'] we purchas'd all we have of them : But 
the Lord [soon] puts an End to this Quarrel, by smit- 
ing the Indians with a sore Disease, even the Small Pox ; 
of which great Numbers of them Die (/) [at the End of 

1633 ; which see.] 

There is much Suspicion that the Indians have some 
Plot against the English, both for that many NarragansetS 
&c, gather together, who with [others] of these Parts 
pretend to make War with the Nipnets, and divers inso- 
lent Speeches are used by some of them, and they do 
not frequent our Houses as they were wont ; and one of 
their Powaws tells us that there is a Conspiracy to cut us 
off: Upon this a Camp is pitched at Boston; in the 
Night to exercise the Soldiers, apprehending Need might 
be : and Capt. Underhill, to try how they would behave 
themselves, causes an Alarm to be given upon their 
Quarters; which discovers the Weakness of our People, 
who know not how to behave themselves : [not being 
us'd to Military Discipline :] all the rest of the Plantations 
take the Alarm and answer it : but it raises many Fears 
and Distractions among the common Sort : and we keep 
Watch both Day and Night, (w) 

Sept. 14. The Rumours still increasing, the three 
next Sagamores are sent for, who come presently to the 
Gov (w) [at Boston] 

Sept. 16. Being Lord's-Day Evening, Mr. Peirce in 
the Ship Lyon arrives [at] Boston : brings 123 Passen- 
gers, whereof 50 Children all in Health, and lost not one 
by the Way save the Carpenter who fell overboard as he 
was calking a Port : had been 12 Weeks aboard, and 8 
from the Land's End. (wj 



K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1633 Lewis XIII. (] . Charles I. 1) Philip IV. 

Sept. 22. The Bastable Ship [which had arriv'd on 
June 5.] goes out at Pullen- Point to Marble Harbour, (w) 

Sept. 27. A Day of Thanksgiving at Boston for the 
good News of the prosperous Success of the K of Swe- 
den, &c, and for the safe Arrival of the last Ship, and all 
the Passengers, (w) 

Oct. 3. [ratherTuesday,Oct. 2 ; see March 6. last] Court 
at Boston : Present [same as Sept. 4.] ( 1 ) Mr. Bachelor [of 
Lynn] is required to forbare exercising his Gifts, as a 
Pastor or Teacher publickly in our Patent, unless it be to 
those he bro't with him, for Contempt of Authority, and 
till some Scandals be removed : * (2) It is tho't by ge- 
neral Consent, that Boston is the fittest Place for Publick 
Meetings of any in the Bay : (3) Order, there be a House 
of Correction, and a House for the Beadle built at Boston, 
with Speed : (4) that a Man forTheft on the Indians at Dam- 
aril's-Cove, for Drunkenness and Fornication, be fined 1.5. 
[Sterling] to the Court; Z. 10. to Henry Way and John 
Holman ; severely whipt, branded on the Hand with a 
hot Iron, and banish'd out of this Patent, with Penalty 
that if he be ever found within [it] he shall be put to 
Death : [5] that no Person shall take any Tobacco pub- 
lickly, and that every one shall pay a Penny [Sterling] for 
every Time of taking Tobacco in any Place : (6) one takes 
his Oath of Freeman, viz. Mr. Samuel Maverick. [Mcr\ 

* [The R Mr. Bachelor arriving with the R Mr. Welde, and 
about 60 Passengers on June 5, last ; and Capt. Johnson telling us, 
that the Church at Lynn was gather'd next after the Church at 
Roxbury, and that Mr. Bachelor was the 1st Feeder of the Flock 
at Lynn ; and this Court Record representing Mr. Bachelor as hav- 
ing exercis'd his Gifts as Pastor or Teacher before Oct. 2; — All 
make me think that the People he bro't with him set down at Lynn, 
and about Aug, form'd into a Church and entertain'd him as their 
Minister, to whom he seems to have been long before in a Ministerial 
Relation in England, being 71 Years old.] 

[Oc* 10. From July 30. 1630, to this Day, 151 Mem- 
bers had join'd in full Communion with the Church 


annals of new-encland. Part II. Sec. 2. 69 


K. of France. 
Lewis XIII. 

K. of Great-Britain, 
Charles I. 

K. of Spain. 
Philip IV. 

which began at Charlestown, and mostly remov'd to Bos- 
ton ; some of the chief of whom were these — in Order — ] 

1 John Winthrop, Gov. 
% Thomas Dudley, D. Gov.; 
[and after Gov.] 

3 Isaac Johnson, [Assist.] 

4 John Wilson, [Pastor] 

£5 Increase Nowell, [Assist, and 
Ruling Elder] 

6 Thomas Sharp, [Assist.] 

7 Simon Bradstreet, [Assist: 

and after Gov,] 

8 William Gager, [Surgeon and 

first Deacon] 

9 William Colborn, [after Rul- 

ing Elder] ^ 

10 William Aspinwall, [after 1st 
Sec. of Re] 

$18 Robert Hale 

31 James Penn, [after Ruling El.] 

38 William Balston 

44 William Cheesbrough 

48 Henry Bright, [suppose a Min- 
ister who went back] 

52 Thomas Hutchinson 

J53 George Hutchinson 

57 John Underhill, [] 

60 Edmund Belcher 

62 Edward Rainsford, [after 

Ruling Elder of the S. Ch.] 
J66 Edward Converse 
77 Edward Bendal 
%79 Richard Sprague 
92 William Coddington,[ Assist. 

and after 1st Gov. of Re] 
101 Thomas Fayrweather 
£102 Ralph Sprague 
110 John Eliot, [Minister] 

113 Edward Gibbons, [after Ma- 
jor Gen.] 

114 Jacob Eliot, [after Elder] 

115 John Sampford [or Sanford, 
after Sec. and Treas. of Re] 

121 John Winthrop, jun. [after 
Assist. : and 1st Gov. of Cc] 

129 John Ruggles 

132 Thomas Oliver, [after Rul- 
ing Elder] 

135 John Willis 

145 Giles Firman, jun. [or Fir* 
min, after Minister in England] 

J149 Thomas James, [Minister] 

151 William Pierce, [Capt. of the 
Lyon, and Ancestor of the 
R Mr. James Pierce, of Camb. 
and Exeter in ,Eng.] (bcr) 

Oct. 11. [Thursday] 18 Men and 15 Women, of whom 
are Mr.Increase Nowell and Mr.Thomas James,with those 
marked thus J in the List above, and others, all of the 
Church 1st [form'd] at Charlestown; [but since Aug. 1630] 
chiefly remov'd to Boston ; in Regard of the Difficulties 
of Passage [over the Ferry] in the Winter, and having Op- 
portunity of a Pastor [viz.] Mr. James, who came over 
at this Time ; (w) desiring a Dismission from the said 
Church at Boston,in order to form a newChurch atCharles- 
town ; the whole Church this Day solemnly seek to God 


70 ANNALS Of NEW-ENGLAND. Part. II. Sec. 2. 

*— ^— — —— p— —— — ii ■—— ■— »— ^— 

K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1632 Lewis XIII. [| Charles I. || Philip IV. 

for Direction in this Matter : and the Lord's-Day follow- 
ing [i. e. Oct. 14.] the said 33 Petitioners are accordingly- 
dismissed, (her) [And I conclude that Lord's- Day the 21 
of this Month is the 1st Day of their Worshipping in 
Publick as a distinct and new Congregation atCharlestown, 
and that the Rev. Mr. Thomas James then preaches to 
them constantly. See Nov. 2.] 

Between this and Sept. 8. 1633, there are admitted into 
the Church at Boston 13 more of whom are John Pember- 
ton, John Oliver, Giles Firman [or Firmin] Senior, (bcr) 

Oct. 18. Capt. Camock and Mr. Vesy a Merchant come 
from Piscataqua in Mr. Neal's Pinace, and bring 16 Hog- 
sheads of Corn to the [Wind-]Mili at Boston; they go 
away in November— (w) 

Oct. 25. [Thursday] Gov [ Winthrop] with Mr. Wilson 
Pastor of Boston, and the 2 Captains, &c, go aboard the 
Lyon ; and thence Mr. Peirce carries them in his Shallop 
to Wessagusgus : next Morning Mr. Peirce returns to his 
Ship ; and the Gov and his Company go a Foot to Plim- 
outh, and come thither within the Evening. The Gov 
of Plimouth, Mr. William Bradford (a very discreet and 
grave Man) with Mr. Brewster the [Ruling-] Elder, and 
some others come forth and meet us without the Town, 
and conduct us to the Gov's House, where we are toge- 
ther entertained ; and feasted every Day at several Houses. 
— On Lord's- Day is a Sacrament, which we partake in: 
and in the Afternoon Mr. Roger Williams (according to 
their Custom) proposes a Question, to which the Pastor 
Mr. Smith speaks briefly : then Mr. Williams prophesies 
[or explains] and after, the Gov of Plimouth [who had 
studied the Hebrew Language and Antiquities] speaks to 
the Question; after him the Elder [a Man of Learning] then 
2 or 3 more of the Congregation ; then the Elder [agreable 
to Acts xiii. 14, 15, &c.Jdesires Gov [Winthrop] and Mr. 
Wilson to speak to it, which they do : when this is ended, 
the Deacon Mr. Fuller puts the Congregation in Mind 
of their Duty of Contribution; whereupon the Gov 


ANNALS OF NEW-ENGLAND. Part. II. Sec. 2. 71 

K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1632 Lewis XIII. [) Charles I. || Philip IV. 

and all the Rest go down to the Deacon's Seat, and put it 
in the Bag;, and then return, fwj * 

* [N. B. This religious Exercise in Publick, they had 
(under the Conduct of Mr. Robinson at Leyden) ground- 
ed on the primitive Practice of the Church of Corinth, 
as described and regulated by the Apostle Paul in 1 Cor. 
xiLand xiv : But growing in Knowledge, and I suppose 
in the Apprehension that such a Practice was peculiarly 
accommodate to the age of Inspiration (1 Cor. xiv. 30) 
which they never pretended to ; they, after, gradually 
lay it down,] 

Oct. 27. Mr. Pierce sets sail for Virginia, fwj 

Oct. 31. Being Wednesday, about 5 in the Morning 
Gov Winthrop and Company, come out of Plimoth : the 
Gov of Piimouth with the Pastor, &e. accompany us near 
half a Mile out of Town in the dark : Lt. Holmes with 
others come with us to the Great Swamp about 10 Miles : 
when we come to the Great River, [I suppose, after, call'd 
North-River, between Pembrook and Hannover] we are 
carried over by one Ludham, as we had been when we 
[went]: So we come this Evening to Wessaguscus; where 
we are comfortably entertained as before, with Store of 
Turkies, Geese, Ducks, &c. and next Day come safe to 
Boston, fwj 

About this Time, Mr. Dudley's House at Newtown and 
all his Family are preserv'd from being destroy'd by 
Gunpowder, by a marvelous Deliverance : the Hearth of 
the Hall Chimney burning all Night on a principal Beam, 
and Store of Gunpowder being near, and not discern'd 
till they rise in the Morning, and then it begins to flame 
out. (w) 

Nov. 2. [Friday] Mr. Increase Nowell, Mr. Thomas 
James and other Church-Members at Charlestown, who 
had been dismissed from the Church at Boston, now] em- 
body into a [new] distinct Congregational] Church, enter 
into Covenant ; and [the said] Mr. James is elected and 
ordain'd [their] Pastor, (ml.) 

11 vol. vix. * Their 


K of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1632 Lewis XIII. [] Charles I. [] Philip IV. 

* [Their Church Covenant is in these Terms — ] ' In the Name of 

* our Lord God, and in Obedience to his holy Will and divine Ordi- 

* nance ; we whose Names are here written, being by his most wise 

■ and good Providence, bro't together, and desirous to unite ourselves 
' into one Congregation or Church under our Lord Jesus Christ our 

■ Head, in such Sort as becometh all those whom He hath redeemed 
' and sanctified unto Himself; Do here, solemnly and religiously, as 

* in his most holy Presence, promise and bind ourselves, to walk in all 
' our Ways according to the Rules of the Gospel, and in all sincere 
' Conformity to his holy Ordinances, and in mutual Love and Respect 

* to each other, so near as God shall give us Grace.' 

Increase No well [and 18 more] (ml) 

Mr. John Eliot a Member of Boston Congregation, and 
one whom the Congregation intended presently to call to 
the Office of Teacher, was call'd to be a Teacher to the 
Church at Roxbury : and tho' Boston laboured all they 
could, both with the Congregation of Roxbury, and with 
Mr. Eliot himself, aliedging their Want of Him and the 
Covenant between Him and them ; yet He could not be 
diverted from accepting the Call of Roxbury : so Nov. 5 r 
He was dismiss'd to [them] fwj || 

|| [The Roxbury Church Records say] — By that Time the Church 
at Boston was intended to call Him to Office, his Friends were come 
over [tis likely among those 123 who arriv'd on Sept. 16] and settled 
at Roxbury, to whom he was foreingaged that if he were not call'd to 
Office before they came, He was to join with them : whereupon the 
Church at Roxbury call'd Him to be Teacher in the End of the Sum- 
mer [1632] and soon after was ordain'd to that Office in the Church: 
his intended Wife also coming witli the Rest of his Friends, they were 
soon after their coming married, viz. in Oct. 1632. (rcr) [But he is 
not ordain'd their Teacher till, Nov. 5 — -perhaps on Friday, Nov. 9.] 

Nov. 6. [Tuesday] 18 take their Oath of Freemen, viz. 

1 Mr. Thomas Weld, 5 Mr. Thomas Oliver, 

2 Mr. Thomas James, 6 John Talcot, 

3 Mr. John Coggeshal, 7 William Wadsworth, &c. 

4 Mr. Richard Dummer, (Mcr) 

Nov. 7. Court at Boston : Present [same as June 5] 
(1) Order'd that the Captains shall train their Companies 



K. of France, K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1G32 Lewis XIII. || Charles 1. || Philip IV. 

but once a Month : (2) that Sir R Saltonstall shall give 
Saggamore John, a Hogshead of Corn, for the Hurt his 
Cattle did his Corn : (3) that the Neck of Land between 
Powder-Hill and Pullen-Point, shall belong to Boston, to 
be enjoy ? d by the Inhabitants thereof for ever. (Mcr) 

Nov. 21. Gov Winthrop receives a Letter from Capt. 
Neal; that Dixy Bull and 15 more of the English who 
kept about the East are turned Pirates, had taken divers 
Boats, and rifled Pemaquid : hereupon the Gov calls a 
Council, and tis agreed to send his Bark with 20 Men to 
join with those of Piscataqua [to] take said Pirate : But 
Snow, Frost, and contrary Winds prevent them fwj 
[The first Pirates on the Coast of N. E.] 

Nov. 22. A Fast held by the Congregation of Boston : 
and Mr. Wilson formerly their Teacher is chosen Pastor, 
and [Mr. Thomas] Oliver a Ruling Elder, and are both 
ordain'd by Imposition of Hands : first by the Teacher 
and the 2 Deacons (in the Name of the Congregation) 
upon the Elder ; and then by the Elder and the Deacons 
upon the Pastor, fwj 

Dec. By Letters from Capt. Neal, Mr. Hilton, &c. [of 
Piscataqua] it is certified, that they had sent out all the 
Forces they could make against the Pirates ; viz. 4 Pinna- 
ces and Shallops, and 40 Men, who coming to Pemaquid, 
were there Wind-bound three Weeks, fwj* 

* It is further advertised by some who came from Penobscut ; that 
the Pirates lost one of their chief Men by a Musket shot from Pema- 
quid, and that there remain'd but 15, whereof 4 or 5 were detain'd 
against their Wills ; that they had been at some English Plantations 
and taken nothing but what they paid for ; had given another Pinnace 
in Exchange foe that of Mr. Maverick, and as much Bever and Otter 
as it was worth more ; had made a law against excessive Drinking ; 
that their Order was, at such Times as other Ships use to have Prayer, 
they would assemble on the Deck, and one sing a Song or speak a few 
senseless Sentences : they also send a Writing to all the Governours, 
signifying their Intent not to do Harm to any more of their Country- 
men, but to go to the Southward, and advise fhem not to send against 
theim for they were resolved to sink themselves rather than be taken : 
signed, Fortune le Garr, and no Name to it. (iv) 


74 ANNALS OF NEW-ENGLAND. Part ll. SeC. 2. 

K. of France. K. of Great-Britain* K. of Spain, 
1632 Lewis XIII. (| Charles I. || Philip IV. 

Articles of uncertain and various Dates, 
4 [In the Spring of 1632] Mr. Allerton [being in Eng- 
4 land] hires on his own Account of Mr. Sherley, The 
' White Angel again, comes late into the Country, sets up 

* a Company to run into the River of Kennebeck, to glean 

* away the Trade from the House there [I suppose at Cu- 
4 shenock above Cobbiseconte] about the Patent and Privi- 
4 lege whereof he had dash'd away so much Money : Yea, 

* being deprived of Ashley, joins with some Consorts, and 

* sets up a Trading. House beyond Penobscut, to cut oft" 
4 the Trade from thence also : But the French perceiving 
c that would be greatly to their Damage likewise, come 
4 in their beginning, before they are well settled, and dis- 

* plant them, slay two of their Men, take all the Goods to 

* a great Value, send the Rest of their Men into France : 

* And this is the End of that Project, fbrj % 

% Gov Bradford has misplaced all this in 1631. But « tho' Mr. Al- 

* lerton seems to have set up his new Trading House in the Summer 
' of 1632 ; yet it seems to be the Summer of 1633, when the French 
' take it. (See Nov. 12. 1633.)' 

4 This Year, 1632, the People of [Plimouth] begin to 
4 Igrow in their outward Estates, by the flowing, of many 
' People into the Country, especially into the Mc : By 
' which Means Cattle and Corn rise to a great Price, 
' Goods grow plentiful, and many are enriched. And 

* now their Stocks encreasing, the Increase vendible ; there 
4 is no longer holding them together. They must go to 
4 their great Lots : they can no otherwise keep their Cattle : 
4 and having Oxen grown, they must have more Land 
' for Plowing and Tillage. By this Means they scatter 
4 round the Bay [of Plimouth] quickly, and the Town 
1 wherein they liv'd till now compactly, is soon left very 

* thin, and in a short Time almost desolate. The Church 

* also comes to be divided : and those who had liv'd so long 
4 together in Christian and comfortable Fellowship, must 

* now part. 1st, Those who live on their Lots on the 
' other Side the Bay, call'd Duxberry, can no longer bring 

4 their 


K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1632 Lewis XIII. || Charles 1. || Philip IV. 

4 their Families to the publick Worship at Plimouth, 
4 growing to a competent Number, and suing to be dis- 

* miss'd, are about this Time dismiss'd,tho' very unwilling- 

4 ly, and become a Body of themselves, (br) [SothatDux- 
4 berry seems to be the 2d Town and Church in Pc : and 
6 the next Town settled after Newtown, i. e. Cambridge, 
4 in N. E. 

4 To prevent any further scattering from Plymouth, 
4 and weakening of the same; it is thought best to give 
4 out some good Farms to special Persons that would 
'promise to live at Plimouth, and likely to be helpful to 
4 the Church or Common-wealth ; and so tye the Lands 
4 to Plimouth as Farms for the same; and there they 
4 might keep their Cattle and Tillage by Servants, and 
' retain their Dwellings here: and so some Lands are 
4 granted at a Place called Green's-Harbour, where no AU 
4 lotments had been, a Place very well medowed, and fit 
4 to keep and rear Cattle good Store.' (br) [This seems 
4 to be the Beginning of Marshfield.] 

4 This Year the General Court of Pc make an extraor- 
dinary Act ; That whoever refuses the Office of Gover- 

* nor, shall pay L*2§ Sterling, unless he were chose two 
4 Years going ; and whoever refuses the Office of Coun- 
sellor or Magistrate, £.10 Sterling, [ml) 

This Year is built the 1st House for publick Worship at 
Newtown, [after called Cambridge] with a Bell upon \t.(ml) 

[And Capt. Johnson says-] 4 This Year, was the 1st 
4 Choice of Magistrates by Freemen ; whose Number was 
'now increased 53, or thereabouts.' (,/K [By which he 
means, the Choice of Magistrates in the Mc at the General 
Court on May 9, last ; But by Number of Freemen he 
means those who were added this whole Year 1632, be- 
ginning the Year with March 25, which are 53 ; where- 
as beginning the Year with Jan. 1, as is the Way of our 
Annals, their Number added this Year is but 44, as we 
have accounted already, from the Mcr.] 

This Year of sad Distresses ends with a terrible cold Win- 
ter ; with Weekly Snows, and fierce Frosts between, con- 


K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1632 Lewis XIII. [| Charles I. i| Philip IV. 

gealing Charles-River, as well from the Town towards 
the Sea, as above ; so that Men may frequently pass 
from one Island to another on the Ice. (j) 

Appendix to 1632. 
I. Account of the three Ministers who arriv'd this Year. 

1. The Rev. Mr. Stephen Bachilor. 
[From Gov. Winslow and Capt. Johnson we learn-That] He was 
an ancient Minister in England ; had been a Man of Fame in his 
Day; was 71 Years of Age when he came over; bro't a Number of 
People with him; and soon became the 1st Feeder of the Flock of 
Christ at Lynn. [And by several original Letters I have seen of his 
own Writing to the 11 Mr. Cotton of Boston, I find he was a Gentle- 
man of Learning and Ingenuity, and wrote a fine and curious Hand.] 

2. The Rev. Mr. Thomas Weld. 

[From Capt. Johnson and Dr. E. Calamy, Ave learn]~That he was 
born and educated in England ; had been minister of Terling in Es- 
sex ; but not submiting to the Ceremonies, the Place was too hot for 
him, and he was fore'd to quit it and come over to N E : that upon his 
Arrival, the Church of Roxbury being a diligent People, early prevent- 
ed their Brethren of other Churches by calling him to be their 1st 
Pastor; that he was valiant in Faith; both in the Pulpit and by his 
Pen, maintains the Truth, and clears Christ's Churches here from 
scandalous Reproaches ; and wading through the Cares and Toils of 
this Wilderness for 7 Years, he with Advice returns to his native 

3. The Rev. Mr. Thomas James. 

[From Capt. Johnson we also learn, That] he was born and educa- 
ted in England, and approved by his native Country ; had been a Min- 
ister in Lincolnshire, and especially commended by God's People 
there for his courteous Speech and Work of Christian Love ; has 
learned Skill to unfold the Mind of God in Scripture ; is valiant in 
Faith ; and arriving here, is soon welcom'd by the People of Christ in 
Charlestown, and call'd to the Office of Pastor of their 2d gathered 
Church ; where he continues some Years ; till some Seed of Prejudice 
sown by the Enemies of this Work, lie for the Love of Peace and to 
avoid Contention removes to New-Haven, (j) 



K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1632 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip IV. 

[Afterwards he seems to return to England. For when 1 liv'd at 
Combs in Suffolk, from 1711 to 1G, Mr. Thomas Denny*, a pious and 
ancient Gentleman there inform'd me that] he knew the Rev. Mr. 
Thomas James Minister of Needham, about 4 Miles oft', who [he said] 
eame from N E. [DrE Calamy says] he was a very holy good Man, 
of the Congregational Perswasion ; resign'd the Parochial Church of 
Needham August 24. 1662, because he could not in Conscience ap- 
prove of the uninstituted Ceremonies ; and had a pretty numerous 
Society after his being silenced. [And Mr. Denny told me, that] tho' 
he was much belov'd and esteemed ; yet when he died, the Clergyman 
who came in his Place would not allow him to be buried in any other 
Part of the Church Yard, but that unconsecrated Corner left for 
Rogues, Whores and Excommunicates ; tho' the Clergyman ow'd his 
Benefice to the noble Uprightness of Mr. James's heart.] 

II. The most material Events in England. 

The Annual Feast of Dedication of Churches prescrib'd at first by 
Pope Felix and Gregory, turn'd by the People into meer Bachanals, 
were by the Injunctions [even] of K Hen. VIII. as the Occasion of 
much Idleness, Excess, Riot, and pernicious to the Souls of Men, all 
restrain'd to the 1st [Lord's Day] in October ; and after, totally abol- 
ished by Statute of 5 and 6 of Edward VI : being reviv'd again with 
their Bachanalian Disorders, under the Names of Wakes or Revels, 
for the most part on Sundays ; Sir Thomas Richardson, Lord chief 
Justice of Eng, and Baron Denham, being at the Assizes in the County 
of Somerset ; many indited for Murthering Bastard Children begotten 
at Wakes and Revels, with sundry other grand Disorders occasioned 
by those Meetings ; the Justices of that County earnestly importune 
the Judges to make a severe Order for suppressing of these Wakes 
and Revels, as diverse of their Predecessors had done ; without which 
they could never keep the Country in good Order, nor prevent the 
Multitude of Bastards, Drunkenness, Quarrels, Bloodshed, Murther 
and other Disorders occasion'd by them. Whereupon those Judges 
make the ensuing Order in the Publick Assizes — 

' March 19 [1631,2] An Order made by the Judges of the 
' Assizes for suppressing all Ales and Revels : whereas divers Or- 

* ders have been made heretofore by the Judges of the Assize 
' for the suppressing of all Ales and Revels ; the same Order is 

* now confirm'd at this Assize, and again order'd by the Court, 
' in Regard of the infinite Number of Inconveniences daily 


78 ANNALS Of NEW ENGLAND. Fait. II. Sec. 2. 


K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spa 
1632 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. |j Philip IV. 

* arising bj Means of Revels ; that such Revels be henceforth utterly 

* suppressed ; and that the Justices take Course, for the speedj ap~ 
' prehending and punishing idle and lewd Persons drawing together at 
s such Places, &c. [But] Bp Laud being inform'd of this good Order, is 
very much nettled and vexed at it, complains of the Judges and it to 
his Majesty, and procures a Commission to Bp Pierce and some Di- 
vines of that County, to enquire of the Manner of publishing this Order 
ill Churches, and what was done therein, and of the Lord chief Justice 
Richardson's Carriage in this Business. (It) [Fuller wrongly places 
this in 1633.] 

March 29. Sir Isaac Wake and Sicur Bouillon, sign the Treatv 
between K Charles I and the French K Lewis XIII : The Title of 
which is ; — ' Articles settled between Sir Isaac Wake Knight and 
' Ambassador of the K of Great-Britain, commissioned by said K; and 
1 Messi. Bouillon, Counsellor to the most Christian lv in his Privy 

* Council and Council of State, and Bouthillicr his Majesty's Coun- 
1 cillorinhis said Councils and Secretary of his Orders, Commissaries 
' appointed by his said Majesty, for the Restitution of the Things taken 

* since the Treaty made between the two Crowns on the 24th of April 

* 1629.' And in this new Treaty, K Charles resigns to the French K 
all the Places the English possessed in Canada and Laccady [the lat- 
ter then including Nova Scotia] in particular, Fort Kebeck [i. e. Que- 
beck] Port Royal and Cape Breton, with the Merchandize found in 
the Fort Kebeck by the English in 1629. (Dennis) which puts an End 
to the Difference ; the Fort delivered ; and the Money [i. e. the re- 
maining Half of the Queens Portion] paid, (cb) 

[But how faithful are K Charles's Ministry to the British Interest, 
both in America and Europe ! when lie had both Canada and Laccady 
in Possession, his Navy vastly superior to that of France, who had then 
scarce any, and no other to help her; yet, without any Necessity to 
quit to the French, even Laccady a most important Branch of the 
British Empire, which even in 1613, the peaceable Reign of his Fa- 
ther, Sir Samuel Argal like a true Englishman had recovered ; one of 
the finest Provinces in the known World, for Fishery, Masts and Har- 
bours ; intercepting between our others of Newfoundland and N E, and 
lying in the Way of all our Trade from the British Colonies and West 
Indies to Great Britain : — to the continual and most dangerous Growth 
of the French Fishery, Navigation, Trade, Wealth, and Naval Power, 
and the infinite Injury of the British Interest ever after : and all this only 


ANNALS OF NEW-ENGLAND. Part. II. Sec. 2. 79 

K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1632 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip IV. 

for Half the Queens Portion, due six Years before. So that they 
properly sold this Territory to our National Enemies for what the 
French had agreed to pay m 1626. — A territory as large as Ireland, 
and of vastly greater Moment than all her Portion ten Times over. 
But the British Ministry are Bp Laud, who governs without a Rival 
in Church and State, with Lord Treasurer Weston next highest in the 
Royal Favour, who soon after dies a Papist ; under an active popish 
Queen, the French K's Sister in K Charles's Bosom, of whom he is so 
exceeding fond, as hardly to deny her any Thing ; and the more subtil 
Cardinal Richlieu prime Minister of France knew how to improve 
them all for his Master's Interest. And thus, while the French Min- 
istry are adding to their K's Dominions, the British are giving up 
their's, and chiefly busied in adding new, popish Ceremonies to the 
Worship in the Church of Eng, to the great Disturbance of the Na- 
tion, and violently persecuting her pious Ministers who faithfully op- 
pose them : In short, acting as if they could more easily part with an 
important Province than not introduce a popish Ceremony.] 

May 6. Mr. Nathaniel Bernard Lecturer at Sepulcher's in Lon- 
don, preaching at St. Mary's Church in Cambridge, against ' bringing 
' the Pelagian Errors into our Church, and the Superstitions of the 
' Church of Rome into our Worship ; as high Altars, Crucifixes, 
' Bowings to them, i. e. in plain English worshipping them ; whereby 
' they symbolize with the Church of Rome very shamefully ;' Dr. 
Cumber Vice Chancellor informs Bp Laud thereof: who [gets] him 
into the High Commission Court : [where] he is most severely sen- 
tenced, suspended his Ministry, excommunicated, fin'd a Thousand 
Pounds, condemn'd in Cost of Suit, committed to Prison, ; where he 
lies sundry Months, being most barbarously used, and almost starved 
for want of Necessaries : of which he complains to the Bp by sundry 
Petitions ; but can find no Relief, unless he will make a strange Re- 
cantation sent him by the Bp : But refusing to make it, tho' in his 
Petitons he professed his sincere Penitence for any Oversights 
and unbeseeming Expressions in his Sermon ; this godly Minister is 
a long time detain'd in Prison, miserably abus'd by the Keepers, of 
which he oft complains without Redress, and in Conclusion utterly 
ruin'd for speaking out the Truth. (It) 

May 26. I [i. e. Bp Laud] consecrate the Lord Treasurer's Chap- 
pel at Roehampton : and June 18, at Roehampton, I marry my 
Lord Treasurer Weston's eldest Son to the Lady Frances, Daugh- 

12 VOL. VII, 

80 annals or new-England. Part II. See. 2. 

K of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1632 Lewis XIII. II Charles I. [| Philip IV. 

ter to the D of Lenox : (Id) one of the Blood Royal of Scotland, and 
that with his Majesty's Consent (ih) [By Bp Lauds Diary Lord Trea- 
surer Weston dies within 2 Years after: and Rush worth tells us he 
dies a Papist.] 

June 15. [Bp Laud says] Mr. Francis Windebank, my old, most 
dear Friend, is sworn Secretary of State: which Place I obtain'd 
for him of my gracious Master K Charles. (Id) Windebank is a 
furious Papist : and is no sooner settled in his Place, but he falls to 
release and protect Priests, Jesuits, Recusants more than any of his 
Predecessors and all the Council besides ; becoming their special 
Patron, as appears by Father Joseph's Letter from Paris, Nov. 23.. 
1634, &c. (It) 

June 20. K Charles I. gives by Patent the Province of Maryland 
in N. America, to Ceecilius Baron Baltimore, and his Heirs and As- 
signs : [a zealous Papist] Bounding said Province Northerly to the 
40th Degree of N Latitude from the Equinoctial, where [said Patent 
says] New England [i. e. the S Side Line thereof] is bounded : i. e. 
according to the grand Patent of New England, dated Nov. S. 1620. 
So that then New England and Maryland joined on each other : New 
England then reaching from the 40th to the 48th Degrees of N Lati- 
tude, and from the Atlantick to the South Sea. And as the known 
Design of Maryland is for settling Papists under an hereditary Sort 
of Sovereign of their own Communion; the K gives the Name of the 
Province in Honour of his dearest Consort, as he is wont to call her* 
and in the Patent gives much higher Powers and Prerogatives to this 
Popish Lord, than as far as I find, the Crown ever bestow'd on any 
other Person.] 

Oct. 3. 1632. The R and eminently pious and learned Mr. John 
Cotton, B D, of Boston in Eng, being fore'd for his Nonconformity, to 
hide from Bp Laud's Pursivants, writes thus to his Consort 

* Dear &c. If our heavenly Father be plcas'd to make our Yoke more 

* heavy than we did so soon expect ; remember I pray thee what we have 
' heard, that our heavenly Husband the Lord Jesus, when he 1st called 

* us to Fellowship with himself, called us unto this Condition, to deny 
' ourselves, and to take up our Cross daily, to follow him. And truly, 

* tho' this Cup be brackish at xhe first; yet a Cup of God's mingling is 
■ doubtless sweet in the Bottom, to such as have learned to make 
' it their greatest Happiness to partake with Christ, as in his 
' Glory, so in the Way that leadeth to if. Where I am for 



K. of France. K. of Great- Britain. K.. of Spain. 
1632 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip IV. 

' the present, I am very fitly and welcomely accommodated, I thank 
1 God : so as I see here I might rest desired enough till my Friends at 
' Home shall direct further. They desire also to see thee here, but 
1 that I think it not safe yet, till we see how God will deal with our 

* Neighbours at Home: for if you should now travel this Way, I fear 
'you will be watched and dogged at the Heels. But I hope shortly 

* God will make Way for thy safe Coming. The Lord watch over 

* you all for Good, and reveal himself in the Guidance of all our Affairs. 

* So with my Love to thee, as myself, I rest, desirous of thy Rest and 
'Peace in him. J.C. 

(From his Original Letter in Mss) 

III. The most material Events among Foreign Nations. 

War continues between the Dutch and Spaniards. 

In Germany — the K of Sweden having Wintered at Mentz ; Tilly 
gathers a great Army, gets into Bavaria, breaks down the Bridges on 
the Danube, and strongly lines the S Side of the River to stop the K 
from passing. But in March, the K with 24 Thousand marches to 
the Danube, takes the strong City of Donawert on the N Side of the 
River at the Entrance of Bavaria : and on April 6, in a fierce Opposi- 
tion passes over ; when Tilly receiving a Musket shot in his Thigh, a 
few Days after, dies. Upon which the K reduces Bavaria and Swa- 
bia : and by the beginning of June had either subdu'd or drawn to his 
Party all the Lower and Middle Part of Germany from the Baltick 
Sea to the Alps on the Entrance of Italy, near 500 Miles together. 
But the Emperor's Forces all joining under Walstein, making an 
Army of 20 Thousand Horse and 40 Thousand Foot, besides 5 
Thousand Crabats, and breaking into Saxony; the K collects his 
Forces, forms an Army of near 50 Thousand, marches to them, finds 
them most advantagiously posted and strongly intrench'd at Lut- 
zen. Yet, Nov. 6, in the Morning, after his Chaplain praying 
with him, and other Ministers at the Heads of their Regiments ; He 
rides from one to another, making animating Speeches to them, 
To fight valiantly this Day on the Name of God and for their Re- 
ligion : The Soldiers answering with joyful Acclamations, He 
then calls out — And now my Hearts let us on bravely against our 
Enemies, and the God of Heaven prosper our Endeavours ! Then lift- 
ing up his Eyes to Heaven, cries aloud — Jesus, vouchsafe this Day to 
be my strong Helper, and give me Courage to fight for thy Glory and 
for the Honour of thy Name ! then drawing his Sword, waves it over 


K. of France. K. of Great^Britairic K. of Spain. 
1632 Lewis XIII. || Charles 1. || Philip IV. 

his Head, advances the foremost of all his Army, most -disadvanta- 
giously attacks their Trenches: and after the fiercest Conflict of 9 
Hours, kills 4 Thousand, wounds as many more, and beats them 
away. But near the End of the Battle, an Officer of the Curasseirs, 
who knew the K, comes up, cries out — This is the right Bird, and 
shoots him through the Body, of which he soon falls oft' his Horse and 
dies, in the 38th Year of his Age, to the inexpressible Loss of the 

Protestant Interest He had been engaged in successive Wars 

with the Poles, Danes, Muscovites, Poles again, &c. from the 18th 
Year of his Age, almost continually to the Day of his Death : in all 
which he came off* Conqueror : and his Enemies gave this Testimony 
of him, that He was the bravest Enemy, and the best Captain that 
ever was in Christendom. A little before, he told his Chaplain ; that 
he tho't God would ere long take him away, because the People 
did so overvalue and deifie him. A Soldier wrote the following Dis- 
tich on the field of Battle. 

Upon this Plaice the great Gustavus Dy'd, 
While Victory lay bleeding by his Side. 


[The Reasons why no more come to the Massachusetts in 1631 
and 32, seems to be these; (1) the Undertaking being so hazardous, 
over so great an Ocean, of 3 Thousand Miles, to a hideous Wilder- 
ness possess'd with barbarous Indians; many in England then op- 
press'd for their pure scriptural Religion and breathing after Liber- 
ty to enjoy the same, were willing to see how the 1st grand Trans- 
portation with the Power of Government fared, before they were free 
to venture themselves and l^ieir Families : (2) the grievous Sickness 
and Mortality, with the extream Straits of the People for want of 
Food and convenient Housing, who came in 1630, which they in Eng- 
land had Intelligence of, was very discouraging ; (3) divers discouraged 
went back to England in the Fall of 1630, and Spring of 1631, who nev- 
er return'd ; and divers discouraging Letters were also sent by others 
disparaging this Country, as very cold, sickly, rocky, barren, unfit for 
Culture, and like to keep the People miserable : (4) above all, the vio- 
lent Endeavours of Morton, Gardiner, Ratcliff and others, making 
a very powerful Interest to prejudice the Court of England against 

them } 


K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1633 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip IV. 

them, overturn their Government and destroy their Liberties ; which 
after all rendered them very precarious.] 

[Nevertheless, by the Health and Produce of the Earth in 1631, 
tho' they have yet no other Means to tare up the bushy Lands but 
their Hands and Hoes ; (j) with Vindications of the Country and Gov- 
ernment; and by the Oppressions growing in England, thro' the rising 
Power of the young Queen a very zealous and active Papist, the ex- 
tream Fondness ol the K for her, and the persecuting Spirit of Bp 
Laud under her; there come over in 1631, about 90; and in 1632, 
near 250 more. But on January 19, 1632,3, the Privy Council in 
Eng making an Order in Favour of the N E Patentees, and their con- 
tinued Liberties ; far greater Numbers are encourag'd to come in 
1 633, and every Year for 7' Years after ; not only increasing the for- 
mer Towns, Churches and Colonies ; but also swarming into others, 
in divers Parts of the Land, as we may see hereafter.] 

* Jan. 1. [Tuesday] Mr. Edward Winslow chosen Gov 

* of Pc ; Mr. Bradford having been Gov about 10 [indeed 
' near 12] Years, and now by Importunity gets off. (w) 
' Mr. William Bradford, Capt. Miles Standish, Mr. John 
'Howland, Mr. John Alden, Mr. John [Doan, The Printer 

* of Mr. Secretary Morton by Mistake printing Dove] Mr. 
'Stephen Hopkins, and Mr. William Gilson, chosen 
' Assistants, {m) ' The 1st Time of 7 Assistants chosen 
' in Pc.' (h) which Number continues as long as their 
Government subsists.] 

About the Beginning of this Month, the Pinnaces which 
went after the Pirate returns ; the Cold being so great, 
they could not pursue them : But in their Return hang- 
ed up at Richmond's Isle, Black Will an Indian, one of 
those who had there murther'd Walter Bagnal : 3 of the 
Pirates Company run from them and come Home, (w) 

Jan. 9. Mr. [Thomas] Oliver, a right godly Man, and 
[Ruling] Elder of the Church of Boston, having 3 or 4 
of his Sons all Young, cutting Wood on the Neck ; one of 
them being 15 Years old, has his Brains beat out with 
the Fall of a Tree he had fell'd : The good old Father 
hearing the News in as awful a Manner as might be, 
by another Boy his Brother, calls his Wife (being also a 



K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1633 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip IV. 

very godly Woman) and goes to Prayer, and bares it 
with much Patience and Honour, {w) 

Jan. 17. Gov Winthrop having Intelligence from the 
East, that the French had bought the Scots Plantation [i. e. 
Port- Royal] near Cape- Sable, the Fort and Ammunition 
delivered to them, and that the Cardinal [Richlieu] having 
the managing thereof, had sent some Commanders al- 
ready, and Preparations made to send many more next 
Year [i. e. next Spring] and divers Priests and Jesuits 
among them ; calls the Assistants to Boston [with] the 
Ministers, Captains and some other chief Men, to advise 
what is fit to be done for our Safety ; in Regard the French 
are like to prove ill Neighbours, being Papists. At which 
Meeting tis agreed (1) That a Plantation and Fort be 
forthwith begun at Natasket ; partly to be some Block in 
an Enemy's Way, tho' it could not barr his Entrance, 
and especially to prevent an Enemy from taking that 
Passage from us ; (2) That the Fort begun at Boston be 
finished ; (3) That a Plantation be begun at Agawam 
(being the best Place in the Land for Tillage and Cattle;) 
least an Enemy finding it, should possess and take it from 
us ; the Gov's Son being one of the Assistants is to un- 
dertake this [new Plantation] and to take no more out of 
the Bay than 12 Men, the Rest to be supplied at the 
Coming of the next Ships, (w) 

Feb. 21. Gov. [Winthrop] and 4 Assistants, with 3 Mi- 
nisters, and 18 others, go in 3 Boats to view Natasket ; the 
Wind W, fair Weather : but the Wind rises at N W so 
sharp and extream Cold, that they are kept there two 
Nights, being forced to lodge on the ground in an open 
Cottage, on a little old Straw which they pulled from the 
Thatch : Their Victuals also grow short, so that they 
are forced to eat Muscles : Yet thro' the Lord's special 
Providence, they come all safe Home the 3d Day after. 
On view of the Place it is agreed by all, that to build a 
Fort there, would be of too great Charge and of little 
Use: Whereupon the Planting of that Place isdefer'd. (w) 



K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1633 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip IV. 

' Feb. 22. The Ship William arrives at Plimouth, with 

* some Passengers and Goods for the Massachusetts : But 

* she comes to set up a Fishing at Scituate, and so to go 
6 to Trade at Hudson's River.' (w) 

By this Ship we have Intelligence from our Friends in 
England, that Sir F Gorge and Capt. Mason (upon the In- 
stigation of Sir C. Gardiner, Morton and Radcliff) had 
preferred a Petition to the Privy Council against us, 
charging us with very false Accusations : But through 
the Lord's good Providence, and the Care of our Friends 
in England, especially Mr. Emanuel Downing (who had 
married the Gov's Sister) and the good Testimony of 
Capt. Wiggen (who dwelt at Piscataqua, and had been 
divers Times among us) their malicious Practises took 
not Effect. The principal Matter they had against us 
was, the Letters of some indiscreet Persons among us, 
who had wrote against the Church Government in Eng- 
land, &c. which had been intercepted, (w) 

March 4. Court at Boston : Present [same as on Sept. 
4 last] (1) The Court Reverses the last Act against Mr. 
Bachelor, which restrained him from further gathering a 
Church within this Patent. (2) A Man ordered to be set 
in the Bilboes, disfranchised and fined L. 10 for speaking 
reproachful and seditious Words against the Government, 
&c. (3) For Maintenance of Capt. Patrick and Captain 
Underhill, for half a Year ; cessed 

1 Boston, L. 5 4 Waterton, L. 6 

2 Charlestown, 4 5 Newtown, 6 

3 Roxbury, 6 6 Medford, 3 

L. 30 

(4) A Man convicted of taking away Corn and Fish from 
diverse last Year, and This, as Clapboards, &c. [The 1st 
notorious Thief in the Massachusetts (ctr~\ is censured 
[thus] all his Estate forfeited ; out of which double Restitu- 
tion shall be made to those whom he hath wronged ; shall 
be whip'd, and bound as a Servant to any that shall retain 


86 annals of new-england. Part. II. Sec. 2. 


K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
Lewis XIII. 1 Charles I. || Philip IV. 

him for 3 Years, and after to be disposed of by the Court 
as they shall think meet. (5) 18 take their Oath of Free- 
men ; as, 

William Heath, William Brackenbury, &c. (Mcr) 

Last Summer, the Corn in the Mc, thro 1 Worms, Cold 
and wet Weather, greatly failing ; [see Aug. 14, last] 
there coming very little last Year from England ; and this 
Winter proving very sharp and long : People are gene- 
rally exceedingly pinched for Provisions, {ctr) [and Capt. 
Clap says—] Many a Time, if I could have 'fill'd my 
Belly, though with mean Victuals, it would have been 
sweet unto me. Fish was a good Help to me and others. 
Bread was so very scarce, that the Crusts of my Father's 
Table [in England] would have been sweet to me : And 
when I could have Meat, Water and Salt boil'd together, 
it was so good, as who could wish better ? (cc) But it 
pleased God to send an unexpected and early Supply to 
help us : For in the /; of March arrives, from Virginia, 
Mr. Stretton, in a Vessel with Indian Corn ; which he 
sells for 10s. [Sterling] per Bushel, (ctr.) 

March. The Gov's Son, John Winthrop, [Esq;] goes 
with 12 more, to begin a Plantation at Agawam, (after- 
wards called Ipswich), (w ) 

April 1. Court at Boston: Present- -[same as Sept 4 
last, except Winthrop, Jun.] (1) Order that no Person go 
to plant or inhabit Aggawam, without Leave of the Court, 
except those already gone, viz. 

Mr. John Winthrop, Jun. John Gage, 

Mr. Clerk, Thomas Hardy, 

Robert Coles, William Perkins, 

Thomas Howlet, Mr. Thorndike, 

John Biggs, William Sergeant. 

(2) 3 take their Oath of Freemen. (Mcr) 

April 10. Arrives at Boston Mr. Hodges, one of Mr. 
Peirce's Mates, in a Shallop from Virginia : and brings 
News, that Mr. Peirce's Ship was cast away on a Shoal 
4 Miles from Feak Isle, 10 Leagues to the N of the Mouth 


ANNALS OF NE W-E NOL AN D. Part. II. Sec. 2. 87 

K. of Frajice. K. /of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1633 Lewis XIII. II Charles f. | Philip IV. 

of Virginia^ Bay, Nov. 2, about Five in the Morning, the 
Wind S W, thro' the Negligence of one of his Mates 
who had the Watch, and kept not his Lead [a sounding] 
as he was appointed : They had a Shallop and Boat a- 
board : all who went into the Shallop came safe ashore ; 
but the Boat sunk by the Ship- Side ; and [12] drowned 
hi her, and 10 taken up alive into the Shallop : There 
were in the Ship 28 Seamen and 10 Passengers $ of these 
were drowned 7 Seamen and 5 Passengers : and all the 
Goods lost, except 1 Hogshead of Bever : Next Day the 
Ship was broken in Pieces : They were 9 Days in much 
Distress before they found any English. Tlimouth Men 
lost 900 Weight of Bever and 200 Otter Skins. Gov. 
[Winthrop] lost in Bever and Fish, near L. 100. Many- 
others lost Bever, and Mr. Humfrey Fish, (w)* 

* ' April 7. Come to our Hand [at Plymouth] Mr. Peirce's Letter 
f from Virginia, dated Dec. 25. 1632. [as follows] 

■ Dear Friends &c! The Bruit of this fatal Stroke that the Lord 
e hath bro't on me and you all, will come to your Ears before this 
' comes to your Hand, it is like : and therefore I shall not need to 
c enlarge. My whole Estate for the most Part is taken away : and 
' yours in a great Measure by this and your former Losses [He means 

* by the French and Mr. Allerton. (6r)] It is Time to look about us 
' before the Wrath of the Lord brake forth to utter Destruction. The 
4 good Lord give us all Grace to search our Hearts and try our Ways, 
** and turn to the Lord, and humble ourselves under his mighty Hand, 
' and seek Atonement, &c. Dear Friends, you may know that all 

* your Bever [the 1st Loss we sustain in this Kind (&r)] and the 
4 Books of your Accounts are swallow'd up in the Sea. But what should 
6 I more say ? Have we lost our outward Estates ; yet a happy Loss if 
' our Souls may gain : there is yet more in the Lord Jehovah than 

* ever we had in the World. that our foolish Heart9 could yet be 
s Weaned from the Things here below, which are Vanity and Vexaticn 

* of Spirit : and yet we Fools catch after Shadows that fty away and 
c are gone in a Moment &c. Thus with my continual Remembrance 
' of you in my poor Desires to "the Throne of Grace, beseeching 
' God to renew his Love and Favour ta you all in and thro* the 


13 VOL. VI*. 

88 annals of new-england. Part II. Sec. 2. 

K of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1633 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. |] Philip IV. 

* Lord Jesus Christ, both in Spiritural and Temporal good Things, as 
' maybe most to the Glory and Praise of his Name and your everlast- 

* ing Good. So I rest your afflicted Brother in Christ. 

William Peirce. 

The Winter's Frost being extracted forth of the Earth ; 
they fall to tearing up the Roots and Bushes with their 
Hoes. Even such Men as scarce ever set Hand to Labour 
before, Men of good Birth and Breeding, but coming 
thro' the Strength of Christ, readily rush thro' all Diffi- 
culties, cutting down the Woods, inclose Corn-Fields. 
The Corn they chiefly plant before they have Ploughs, is 
Indian Grain ; whose Increase is very much beyond all 
other, to the great refreshing the poor Servants of Christ 
in their low Beginnings. And here the Lord's Mercy 
appears much, in that Those who had been bro't up 
tenderly, can now contentedly feed on bare and mean 
Diet, as Pumkins, 'till Corn and Cattle Increase, fjj 

May. The William and Jane, in 6 Weeks from London, 
arrives [at Boston] with 30 Passengers, and 10 Cows, or 
more, (wj 

The Mary and Jane, (or Mary and John, (br) in 7 Weeks 
from London, arrives [at Boston] brings 196 Passengers 
(only 2 Children died) Mr. Coddington one of the Assist- 
ants with his Wife come in her. In her Return she is cast 
away on the Isle Sable : but [the] Men are saved, fwj 

By these Ships we understand, that Sir C Gardiner, T 
Morton and Philip RatclifF, who had been punished here 
for their Misdemeanours,had Petition'd the K and Council 
against us ; being set on by Sir F Gorges and Capt.Mason, 
who had begun a Plantation at Piscataqua, and aim'd at 
the General Government of N. E. for their Agent here 
Capt. Neal. The Petition was of many Sheets of Paper, 
and contained many false Accusations : ' accusing us to 
' intend Rebellion, to have cast off our Allegiance, and 
1 to be wholly separate from the Church and Laws 
4 of England ; that our Ministers and People did 
'.continually rail against the State, Church and 
' Bishops there, &c.' Upon which such of our Com- 


K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1633 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip IV. 

pany as were then in England, viz. Sir Richard Saltonstall, 
Mr. Humfry and Mr. Gradock [who was 1st Gov in Eng- 
land and RatclitT's Master] were called before a Committee 
of the Council, to whom they delivered an Answer in 
Writing. Upon reading whereof, it pleased the Lord 
our most gracious God and Protector, so to work with 
the Lords, and after with the King, when the whole Mat- 
ter was reported to him, by Sir Thomas Jermin, one of 
the Council (but not of the Committee, who yet had 
been Present at the 3 Days Hearing, and spake much 
in Commendation of the Gov, both to the Lords, and after 
to His Majesty) that He [i. e. the K] said, ' He would 
* have them severely punished, who did abuse his Gov, 
4 and the Plantation ;' that the Defendents were dismissed 
with a favourable Order* for their Encouragement ; be- 
ing assured from some of the Council, that His Majes- 
ty did not intend to impose the Ceremonies of the Church 
of England upon us, for that it was considered that it was 
the Freedom from such Things that made People come 
over to us : And it was [represented] to the Council, 
that this Country would in Time be very beneficial to 
England for Masts, Cordage, &c. if the Sound [i. e. the 
Passage to the Baltick] should be debarred, fwj 

* Mr. William Bradford of Plimouth writes thus — ' I will give 
« Hint of God's Providence in preventing the Hurt that might have 

come by Sir C Gardiner's Means and Malice complying with others. 
The Intelligence I had by a Letter from my much honoured i 
loved Friend Mr. John Winthrop, Gov of tne Massachusetts. 

" Sir, Upon a Petition exhibited by Sir Christopher Gardiner, 
« Sir Ferdinando Gorges, Capt. Mason, &c. against you and us, the 
" Cause was heard before the Lord's of the Privy Council, and after 
" reported to the King ; the Success whereof makes it evident to all, 
" that the Lord hath Care of his People here ; the Passages are admira- 
" ble and too long to write : I heartily wish an Opportunity to impart 
" them unto you, being many Sheets of Paper ; but the Conclusion was, 
a against all Mens Expectation, an Order for our Encouragement, and 

« much 

90 annals, of N£W-engxand. Part II. Sec. 2. 


K. of France. K. of Grmi-Britaino K. of Spain. 
1633 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. | Philip IV. 

" much Blame and Disgrace upon the Adversaries, which calls for 
" much Thankfulness from us all, which we purpose (the Lord willing) 
*' to express in a Day of Thanksgiving to our merciful God, (I doubt. 
" not but you will consider if it be not fit for you to join in it ;) who 
" as he hath humbled us by his late Correction, so he hath lifted us up 
" by an abundant rejoicing in our Deliverance out of so desperate a 
" Danger ; so as that which our Enemies built their Hopes upon to 
" ruin us, he hath mercifully disposed to our great Advantage, as I 
" shall further acquaint you when Occasion shall serve. 

"The Copy of the Order follows. 

" At the Court at Whitehall, the 19th of January 16S2. 

'* Sigillum Crescent, 

" Lord Privy-Seal. * Lord Cottington. 

« Earl of Dorset. « Mr. Trr. 

" Lord Vicount Falkland. " Mr. Vice-Chambr. 

" Lord Bishop of London. ** Mr. Sec Cook. 

« Mr. Sec Windebank. 

Whereas his Majesty hath lately been informed of great Distraction 
and much Disorder in the Plantation in the Parts of America called 
New-England, which if they be true, and suffered to run on, would 
tend to the great Dishonour of this Kingdom, and utter Ruin of that 
Plantation : for Prevention whereof, and for the orderly settling of 
Government, according to the Intention of those Patents which have 
been granted by his Majesty, and from his late Royal Father King 
James ; it hath pleased his Majesty that the Lords and others of his 
most honourable Piivy Council should take the same into Considera- 
tion : Their Lordships in the first Place thought fit to make a Com- 
mittee of this Board, to take Examination of the Matters informed : 
which Committee having called divers of the principal Adventurers 
in that Plantation, and heard those that are Complainants against 
them ; most of the Things informed being denied, and resting to be 
proved by Parties that must be called from that Place, which required 
a long Expence of Time, and at present their Lordships finding the 
Adventurers were upon Dispatch of Men,Victuals and Merchandize for 
that Place, all which would be at a stand if the Adventurers should have. 
Discouragement, or take Suspition that the State here had no good Opin- 
ion of that Plantation ; their Lordships not laying the Fault, or Fancies 
(if any be) of some particular Men upon the General Government, or 



K. of Frame. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1633 Lewis XIII. || Charles], |) Philip IV. 

principal Adventurers, which in due Time is further to be enquired 
into ; have thought fit in the mean Time to declare, that the Appear- 
ances were so fair, and Hopes so great, that the Country would prove 
both beneficial to this Kingdom, and profitable to the particular Ad- 
venturers, as that the Adventurers had Cause to go on cheerfully 
with their Undertakings, and rest assured, if Things were carried as 
was pretended when the Patents were granted, and accordingly as by 
the Patents it is appointed, His Majesty would not only maintain the 
Liberties and Priviledges heretofore granted, but supply any Thing 
further that might tend to the good Government, Prosperity and Com- 
fort of his People there of that Place, &c. 

William Trumball. 

[N. B. I have taken all this exactly as wrote in Gov Bradford's 
Mss : By which it seems, that by Mr. Tr'r is meant Mr. Treasurer 
Weston, and not Trevers as printed in Mr. Morton.] 

We [had] sent a Pinnace after the Pirate Bull : But 
[when] she had been forth 2 Weeks, she [now] comes 
Home, having not found Him. (w)* 

* [Capt. Clap gives this Account of said Pirate — « There arose 
c up against us one Bull, who went to the Eastward a Trading, turned 
e Pirate, took a Vessel or two, plundered some Planters thereabouts, 

* and intended to return into the Bay, and do Mischief to our Magis- 

* trates here in Dorchester and other Places : But as they were weigh- 
f ing Anchor [at Pemaquid — (see last Dec] one of Mr. Short (or 
' Shurt (w) his Men shot from the Shore and struck the priucipal Ac- 

* tor dead, and the Rest were filPd with Fear and Horror. They having 
' taken one Anthony Dicks, Master of a Vessel, endeavoured to per- 

* swade him to pilot them to Virginia, but he would not. They told 

* him, they were fill'd with such Fear and Horror, that they were afraid 
' of the very Rattlings of the Ropes : This Mr. Dicks told me with -his 

* own Mouth. These Men fled Eastward ; and Bull got into Eng- 
' land : But God destroy'd this wretched Man. Thus the Lord saved 

* us from their wicked Device against us, (c) 

May 29. General Court at Boston : Present, Gov, D Gov, 
Mr. Treasurer [Pynohon] Mr. Nowell, Coddington, Win- 
throp, jun. S. Bradstreet : Chuse John Winthrop, Senior, 
Esq; by general Erection of Hands ? Gov ; Thomas Dudley, 
Esq; D.Gov ; Roger Ludlow,Esq; John Endicot, Esq; Mr. 



K. of France. K. of Great- Britain. K. of Spain. 
1633 Lewis XIII. !1 Charles T. |J Philip IV. 

William Pynchon, Mr. Willium Coddiugton, Mr. In- 
crease Nowell, Mr. John Winthrop, Jun. Mr. Simon 
Bradstreet, Sir R. Saltonstali, and John Humfrey, Esq; 
Assistants, for the Year ensuing*, (ik/cr.) 

1 This Spring, especially all the Month of May, there 

* are such [Numbers] of a great Sort of Flies, like for 
4 Bigness to Bumble- Bees, which come out of Holes in 
4 the Ground [in Pc] replenish all the Woods, eat the 
1 green Things, and make such a constant yelling Noise, 
4 as all the Woods ring of them, and [deafens] the Hear- 
4 ers. The Indians tell us that Sickness will follow : and 
4 so it [proves] in June, July and August, They have 

* not by the English been heard or seen before or since 
4 (br) [i. e. to the Beginning of 1647, when Gov. Brad- 
4 ford ends his History : but have in like Manner at dis- 
4 tant Periods risen up since, and are known by the Name 

* of Locusts.'] 

June 2. Capt Stone arrives with a small Ship [at Bos- 
ton] with Cows and Salt, (w) 

4 Mr. John Doan, being formerly chose to the Office 
4 of a Deacon in the Church [of Plymouth] at the Re- 
4 quest of the Church and Himself, is freed from the Of- 
4 fice of Assistant in the Commonwealth. (Per) 

June 11. Court at Boston : Present, Gov, D. Gov, Mr. 
Ludlow, Mr. Treasurer [Pinchon] Mr. Nowell, Cod- 
diugton, Winthrop, jun. S. Bradstreet. (1) Appoint the 
19th of this Month to be kept as a Day of Thanksgiving 
through the several Plantations [of the Mc] (2) 8 take 
their Oath of Freemen. (Mcr) 

June 15. Mr. Graves, in the Ship Elizabeth, from 
Yarmouth, in 6 Weeks, arrives at Boston, vvith 95 Pas- 
sengers, 34 Dutch Sheep, and 2 Mares : lost not one 
Person, but above 40 Sheep, (wj 

June 19. A Day of Thanksgiving kept in all the Con- 
gregations [of the Mc] for our Deliverance from the Plots 
of our Enemies, and for the safe Arrival of our Friends, 
he. (w J 



K. of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
16S3 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip IV. 

June 24. Mr. James Sherley of London, Merchant, writes 
thence to Gov Bradford and other Partners at Plimouth in 
N. E. thus — *I pray God to bless you, that you may 
'discharge this great and heavy Burthen which now lies 

* on me for your Sakes, and I hope in the End, for the 
4 Good of you and many Thousands more : For had not 

* you and we join'd and contimfd together, N. E. might 

* yet have been scarce known ; I am perswaded not so re- 
c plenished with such honest English People as now it is : 
' The Lord increase and bless them.' {br) 

July 2. Court at Boston : Present [same as June 11. 
with Mr. Endicot] (l) Give Z.100 to the Gov, for this 
present Year, towards his publick Charges and extraordina- 
ry Expenses : (2) A Man fined 30s. for Drunkenness on 
the Sabbath. Day, at Marblehead [till now in the Records 
call'd Marble-Habour] (3) Oder that no Person sell ci- 
ther Wine or Strong Water, without Leave of the Gov or 
D Gov : And no Man shall sell or (being in a Course of 
Trading) give any Strong Water to any Indian : (4) That 
if any Corn-Fence shall be by the Inhabitants of the Town 
judg'd insufficient, and the Owner thereof foi bare mend- 
ing it more than 2 Days after Warning given ; the In- 
habitants M-hall mend said Fence, and the Corn of the 
Owner of said Fence shall be liable to pay the Charge of 
Mending: (5) That it shall be lawful for any Man to 
kill any Swine that comes into his Corn ; the Party that 
owns the Swine is to have them being killed, and allow 
Recom pence for the Damage they do. (Mcr) 

' We [at Plimouth] having had formerly Converse and 
' Familiarity with the Dutch ; they seeing us seated in a 
' barren Quarter, told us of a River call'd by them the Fresh 
'River, which they often commended to us for aline 
' Place both for Plantation and Trade, and wished us 

* to make Use of it : But our Hands being full other- 
' wise, we let it pass. But afterwards there coming a 
i Company of Indians into these Parts, who were driven 

* thence by the Pequents [or Pequots] who usurped upon 

' them ; 

94 ANNALS Of NEW-ENGLAND. Part. II. Sec. % 

K 5 . of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1633 Lewis XIIL If Charles I. |j Philip IV. 

£ them ; they often sollicited us to go thither, and we 

* should have much Trade, especially if we would keep a 

* House there. And having good Store of Commodities, 

* we began to send that Way, to discover the same, and 
' trade with the Natives. We found it to be a fine Place, 
1 and tried divers Times, not without Profit : But saw the 
1 most Certainty would be by keeping a House there, to 

* receive the Trade when it comes down out of the Inland. 

* These Indians not seeing us very forward to build there, 

* sollicited those of the Massachusets in like Sort ; for 
' their End was to be restored to their Country again ; But 
' they in the Bay being but lately come, were not lit for the 
4 same. [See April 4, 1631 : By which it seems as if 

* the Plimouth Partners had sent divers Times up Con- 
necticut- River, and traded there, before April 1631, 
4 tho' they set not up a House till now.] fbrj 

* But some of the Chief in the Mb, made a Motion to 

* join with the Partners Here [at Plimouth] to trade jointly 
' with them at that River, which we were willing to em. 
' brace, and so have built and put in equal Stock together. 

* A Time of Meeting was appointed at the Massachusetts, 
1 and some of the Chief here [at Plimouth] are appointed 
c to treat with them, and go accordingly, (brj 

* July 12. Mr. Edward Winslow, Gov of Plimouth, and 

* Mr. Bradford come into the Bay, to confer about joining 

* in a Trade to Connecticut for Bever and Hemp : There 

* was a Motion to set up a Trading-House there, to prevent 
' the Dutch who are about to build one : But in Regard 
' the Place is not fit for Plantation, there being 3 or 4 
' Thousand Warlike Indians, and the River not to be gone 

* into but by small Pinnaces, having a Bar affording but 

* 6 Foot at high Water, and for that no Vessels can get 
1 in for 7 Months in the Year by Reason of Ice, &c ; we 

* tho't not lit to meddle with it. (w) 

' The Massachusetts Gentlemen casting many Fears of 
' Danger and Loss, tell us, they have no mind to it. We 
i then Answer, we hope it will be no Offence to them if we 



K. of France. K. of Great-Britain, K. of Spain, 
1633 Lewis XIII. || Charles I. || Philip I V. 

4 go without them : They said, there is no Reason [it] 

* should A nd thus this Treaty breaks off, and we come 
'away (br) July 18. (w) And those [at Plimouth] take 
' convenient Time to make Beginning there [of Building] 
' and are the 1st English that both discovered that Place 
' and built in the same, (br) 

' But the Dutch begin now to repent : And hearing of 

* our Purpose and Preparation, endeavour to prevent us, 
' get in a little before us, make a slight Fort, and plant 
' 2 Peeces of Ordnance, threatning to stop our Passage. 
' But we having a great new Bark, and a Frame of a 
4 House [with] Boards, Nails, &c. ready, that we might 
' have a Defence against the Indians who are much of- 
' fended that we bring Home and restore the right Sachems 
' of the Place called Natawanute ; so as we are to encoun- 
ter with a double Danger in this Attempt, both the 
' Dutch and Indians : When we come up the River, the 
'Dutch demand what we ii.tend, and whither we would 
' go ? We answer, Up the River to Trade : Now our Or- 
' der was to go and seat above them. They bid us strike 
' and stay, or they would shoot us : and stood by their 
' Ordnance ready fitted. We answer, We have a Commis- 
' sion from the Gov of Plymouth to go up the River to such 
' a Place ; and if they shoot, we must obey our Order and 
' proceed ; we would not molest them, but wou'd go on : So 
' we pass along, and the Dutch threaten us hard, yet they 
c shoot not. Coming to our Place (about a Mile above 
'the Dutch) [since call'd Windsor, (w) and below the 
' South-Side Line of ihe Massachusetts Patent] we quickly 
' clap up our House, land our Provisions, leave the Com- 
' pany appointed, send the Bark Home, and afterwards 
' Palisade our House about and fortify better. The Putch 
' send Word Home to the Monhatos, what was done : 
' And in Process of Time, they send a Band of about 70 
' Men in warlike Manner, with Colours display'd, to 
' assault us : But seeing us strengthened, and that it 
' would cost Blood, they come to a Parley, and return in 

4 Peace: 
14 vol. vn. 

$6 annals of new-England. Part IT. Sec. 2. 

K of France. K. of Great-Britain. K. of Spain. 
1633 Lewis XIII. H Charles I. || Philip IV. 

* Peace : and this was our Entrance there : We did the 

* Dutch no Wrong : for we tuok not a Foot of any Land 
' they bought ; but went to the Place above them, and 
c bought that Tract of Land which belong'd to the In- 
' dians we carried with us and our Friends, with whom 

* the Dutch had nothing to do. (br) 

July 24. A Ship from Weymouth, arrives [at Boston] 
with 80 Passengers (and 12 Kine) who set down at Dor- 
chester, they were 12 Weeks coming; bting fore'd into 
the Western Islands by a Leak, where they stay 'd 3 Weeks, 
and were very courteously used by the Portugals ; but the 
Extremity of the Heat there, and the continual Rains 
bro't Sickness upon them, so as [several died.] (w) 

' June, July and Aug. It pleases God to visit us [at 
' Piimouth] with an infectious Fever, of which many fall 
4 very sick and upwards of 20 die. Men and Women, (be- 
sides Children) and of them sundry [who were] oui an- 

* cient Friends in Holland, as Thomas Blossom, with oth- 

* ers ; and in the End, Samuel Fuller, our Surgeon and 
i Physician ; who has been a great Help and Comfort to 

* us, as in his Faculty, so otherwise, being a Deacon of 
4 the Church, godly, and forward to do Good, much miss'd 

* after his Death ; ail which cause much Sadness and 

* Mourning among us: [and move] ustohumbleourselves 

* and seek the Lord by Fasting and Prayer — who was in- 
created of us : [mo) For towards Winter, it pleas'd the 
' Lord, the Sickness ceased. This Disease aiso swept away 
; many of the Indians from all the Places near [us.] (br) 

Aug. 5. (xv) Two Men Servants to John Moody ol Rox- 
bury that were ungodly, especially one who in his Passion 
would wish himself in Hell, and use desperate Words, yet 
had a good Measure of Knowledge, against the Council 
of their [Master] 'Aouid go in a Boat to the Oyster Bank, 
where they lie all Night. In the Morning early (Aug. 6. 
(7v) when the Tide is out, they gathering Oysters, leave 
their Boat [unfastened] on the Verge of the Channel, 
and quickly the Tide carries it so far into the Channel, 


Boston, May 28, 1755. 


THE New-England ANNALS wanting the Remarkables of Your 
Place, and the Composer being loth to omit them, that so the Work 

may be ascompleat as possible You are therefore earnestly desired 

to send your Communications as soon as may be, on the following 

1. When your Town was granted and settled, what its original In- 
dian Name, to what County first laid ; and if there has been any Al- 
teration, what, and when it was. 

2. What the Number of Original Shares and Settlers, and from 
whence they chiefly came, and what your present Number of Fami- 

3. When the Church was first Gathered, and what their first and 
present Number of Males. 

4. Whether you are yet divided into Precincts, how many, when, 
and what their Names, both ancient Indian and present English. 

5. Who have been your Teaching or Ruling Elders, and when call'd, 
ordain'd, removed and dyed, at what Age, and where. 

6. Whether you have a Grammar School, and when first set up. 

7. How many of your Town have taken their first Degree at College, 
whether at Cambridge- or New-Haven, how many at each, and what 
their Names. 

8. The Decease of other Gentlemen of Note among you, such as 
Counsellors, Assistants, Justices, Graduates, &c. 

9. W'hetherany have Deceas'd among you of 100 Years of Age or 
upwards, whether English or Indians, when, and what their Names. 

10. Those who have been remarkable for a great Increase of Pos- 
terity, their Names, Age, when they Died, and the Number of their 
.Offspring then of each Generation. 

11. What remarkable Works have been among you, as the building 
Meeting-Houses, Great Biidges, Forts, &c. and when. 

12. The remarkable Providences that have befallen your Town or 
the People in it, from the Beginning to the Present Time ; as Earth- 
quakes, Tempests, Inundal ions, extraordinary Floods, Droughts, Fires, 
Epidemical Sicknesses, awful Deaths, or any other strange Occur- 
rences, as far as can be recollected. 

You are desired to be as Precise as possible in the Dates, both as to 
Year, Month and Day, of all your Articles, as well as Certain in the 
Facts related ; that so the Pubiick may depend upon the Truth and 
Accuracy of these Collections. 

In doing which you will oblige the Publick, as well as 

The Composer, 
T. Prince. 


Acknowledgment of Donations. 

1 HE thanks of the Massachusetts Historical Society 
are presented for the following donations. 

A. Holmes, Corresponding Secretary. 

A General History of the Land and People of Ameri- 
ca. Halle, 1752, -3. 4to. 2 vols; Herrera's Notices of 
America. Madrid, 1740. 4to. ; Hans Egede's Complete 
History of the Danish Missions in Greenland. Hamburg, 
1740, and the Description of Greenland transl. from 
Danish to German. Copenhagen, 1 742 4to ; Philip Fer- 
min's Natural History of Surinam. Amsterd. 1765 ; Dis- 
sertation sur L' Amerique et les Americains, &x. par Dom. 
Pernety ; Hennepin on America. Bremen, 1699. 18mo. 
vellum ; Adelung's Mithridates, on Affinities of Lan- 
guage, with Remarks of Valet. 3d Part. 3 vols. 8vo. 
Berlin, 1812, 13, 16; Ebeling's American Geography, 
vol. 7th. 8vo. Hamb. 1816 ; Pernety ag. Pauw on 
America. 8vo. Presented by the late Professor Ebeling x 
of Hamburg, 

Baretti, Italian Dictionary. 4to. 2 vols, late edition. 
Leghorn. The Publisher. 

Ancient Greek MS. volume of Confessions made in 
a Greek Monastery of Mount Athos, written in the Greek 
character used in the time of Constantine X. Porphyro- 
genitus, obtained from a monk who belonged to that 
Monastery. Rev Thomas Hall, of Leghorn. 

C. Morton's Compendium Physical (MS. copy writ- 
ten by J. Gridley, Esq.) Professor Cleav eland. 

Historical Account of the Judiciary of Connecticut by 
T. Day, Esq. The Author. 

Constitution of the Massachusetts Peace Society ; 
Circular Letter from that Society to Associations, Pres- 
byteries, &c. The Mass. Peace Society* 

W. Tudor, jun.'s Discourse before the Humane So- 
ciety, 1817 ; Seaman's Friend, No. XI. ; Catalogue of 
Books in the Boston Library, No. 2 ; T. Worcester's 
New Chain of Argument against Trinitarianism ; Rev, 
15 vol. VII. 


T. M. Harris' Sermon on praying for the Jews ; Dr. 
Ware's Sermon at the Ordination of his Son Henry 
Ware, 1817 ; Circular Letter of the Mass. Peace So- 
ciety, and several other pamphlets. Mr. John Eliot. 

The Alleghany Magazine ; New York Spectator ; and 
Weekly Messenger. The Publishers. 

Rev. Martin Moore's Sermon at Natick, containing a 
History of said Town from 1651 to 1817. The Author. 

Piscataqua Evangelical Magazine, vols. II. and HI. 
Plans of Farms, in the early settlement of Massachusetts; 
Sermon of Rev. Eli Smith at the Ordination of Stephen 
Harley ; do. of Rev. Walter Harris at the Ordination of 
Stephen Chapin ; do. of Rev. Dr. Austin at Ordination 
of John Milton Whiton ; do. of Rev. 'Dr. McFarland 
at the Ordination of Nathan Lord ; First Report of New 
Hampshire Bible Society ; D. Everett's Oration ; and 
one volume of the Farmer's Cabinet. 

Mr. John Farmer. 

The Constitution of Phillips' Academy in Andovtr. 

The Trustees of the Academy. 

Historical Sketch of the English Translations of the 
Bible, by a Member of the Massachusetts Bible Society, 
1815. Dr. Holmes. 

Rev. Mr. Lowell's Discourse delivered the Sabbath 
after the Execution of Henry Phillips for the Murder of 
Gaspard Denegri ; and his Discourse delivered before 
the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge, Piety 
and Charity. The Author. 

Rev. Samuel Deane's Sermon delivered before the 
Scituate Society for the Suppression of Intemperance, 
1817. 'I he Author. 

The School of Reform, by the Seaman's Friend. 

Mrs. Hannah Crocker. 

Whipple's Geographical View of the District of Maine. 

The Author. 

Collections of the New York Historical Society, 
vol II. The Society. 

Sermons before the Maine Missionary Society by 
Rev. Kiah Bailey, Jonathan Ward, Eliphalet Gillet, 
Jonathan Scott, and Francis Brown. Rev JVm. Jenks. 


Report of the Select Committee of the Society for 
propagating the Gospel among the Indians and others in 
North America, 1816; Dr. Foster's Sermon before the 
Society ? with the Report of the Seleci Committee, 1817. 

The Society. 
Sermon of Rev. S. Palmer on the death of Col. W il- 
liam Mcintosh, 1813; do. of do. before the military- 
Company of Exempts, 18 14. 1 he Author, 

Address of the Trustees of the Massachusetts General 
Hospital. The Trustees* 

Rev. Dr. Sanders' Sermon before the Ancient and 
Honourable Artillery Company, 1817. Maj. 11, Loring, 

Rev. Dr. Worcester's Discourse before the Massachu- 
setts Society for the Suppression of Intemperance, 1817. 

Dr. McKean. 

Extracts from the minutes of the General Assembly of 
the Presbyterian Church in the United States, 1816. 

Ebenezer Hazard, Esq. 

Life of Samuel Johnson LL. D. by Robert Anderson, 
M. D. 3d edit. ; " A Year in Canada," a Poem by Ann 
Cuthbert Knight ; " Home," a Poem by do. ; tc The 
Giant's Causeway," a Poem by William H. Drummond, 
D. D. Robert Anderson, M, D. 

Address to President Adams from Citizens of Boston, 
17y8, with the signers' names. Joseph May, Esq. 

MS. copy of Blake's Annals of Dorchester. 

Mr. Elisha Clap. 

Pierce's Century Sermon at Brookline, 1817; his 
Sermon at the Dedication of the Brick Meeting House, 
Burlington (Vt.) ; and do. at the Ordination of S. Clark, 
Princeton. The Author, 

Catalogue of Williams' College. 

Dr. Porter of Plainfield. 

Rev. Dr. McKean's Sermon at the Installation of Dr. 
Richmond, Dorchester, 1817. The Author. 

Letter addressed to Cadwallader D. Coldem Esq. and 
several other pamphlets. W. S. Shaw, Esq. 

Minutes of the Doings in Congress and in several of 
the Provinces from 5 September, 1774 to 26 October, 
1774. MS. Six Volumes. Deposited by Mrs. Scott. 


About 300 volumes of books and manuscripts, and 
numerous pamphlets, relating to the early History of 
New England, selected from the u New England Libra- 
ry," the Collection of the late Rev. Thomas Prince. 

Deposited by the Old South Church and Society 
in Boston. 

For the Cabinet. 

A parcel of the Coin of Jac. I. and Cha. I. found in 

Concord, Mass. Dr. Benjamin Prescot. 

Part of a Coat of Armour, belonging to one of the 

early Settlers of New England. Rev. S. Palmer. 

Several Bullets, lost in Arnold's Expedition against 

Quebec in 1775, found in Kennebeck River in 1816. 

Profehor Cleaveland.